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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Characterization Of Neuronal Differentiation And Activity In Human-Induced Pluripotent Neural Stem Cells, Allison Biddinger Aug 2020

Characterization Of Neuronal Differentiation And Activity In Human-Induced Pluripotent Neural Stem Cells, Allison Biddinger

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


Exploration Of The Relationship Between The Fractal Dimension Of Microcalcification Clusters And The Hurst Exponent Of Background Tissue Disruption In Mammograms, Betelhem Abay Aug 2020

Exploration Of The Relationship Between The Fractal Dimension Of Microcalcification Clusters And The Hurst Exponent Of Background Tissue Disruption In Mammograms, Betelhem Abay

Honors College

Breast cancer is one of the most frequent cancers among women worldwide and holds the second place in cancer-related death. Mammography is the most commonly used screening technique, however, the dense nature of some breasts makes the analysis of mammograms challenging for radiologists. The 2D Wavelet Transform Modulus Maxima (WTMM) is one mathematical approach that is used to for the analysis of mammograms. In 2014, a team from the CompuMAINE Lab characterized differences between benign microcalcification clusters (MC) from malignant MC by calculating their fractal dimension, D, with the aid of the 2D WTMM method. In a different implementation of ...


Anti-Crispr Proteins: Applications In Genome Engineering, Jooyoung Lee Jul 2020

Anti-Crispr Proteins: Applications In Genome Engineering, Jooyoung Lee

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats and CRISPR-associated proteins (CRISPR-Cas) constitute a bacterial and archaeal adaptive immune system. The ongoing arms race between prokaryotic hosts and their invaders such as phages led to the emergence of anti-CRISPR proteins as countermeasures against the potent antiviral defense. Since the first examples of anti-CRISPRs were shown in a subset of CRISPR-Cas systems, we endeavored to uncover these naturally-occurring inhibitors that inactivate different types of CRISPR-Cas systems. In the first part of my thesis, we have identified and characterized Type II anti-CRISPR proteins that inactivate several Cas9 orthologs. We share mechanistic insights into anti-CRISPR ...


Β-Amyloid And Tau Drive Early Alzheimer's Disease Decline While Glucose Hypometabolism Drives Late Decline, Tyler C. Hammond, Xin Xing, Chris Wang, David Ma, Kwangsik Nho, Paul K. Crane, Fanny Elahi, David A. Ziegler, Gongbo Liang, Qiang Cheng, Lucille M. Yanckello, Nathan Jacobs, Ai-Ling Lin Jul 2020

Β-Amyloid And Tau Drive Early Alzheimer's Disease Decline While Glucose Hypometabolism Drives Late Decline, Tyler C. Hammond, Xin Xing, Chris Wang, David Ma, Kwangsik Nho, Paul K. Crane, Fanny Elahi, David A. Ziegler, Gongbo Liang, Qiang Cheng, Lucille M. Yanckello, Nathan Jacobs, Ai-Ling Lin

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging Faculty Publications

Clinical trials focusing on therapeutic candidates that modify β-amyloid (Aβ) have repeatedly failed to treat Alzheimer’s disease (AD), suggesting that Aβ may not be the optimal target for treating AD. The evaluation of Aβ, tau, and neurodegenerative (A/T/N) biomarkers has been proposed for classifying AD. However, it remains unclear whether disturbances in each arm of the A/T/N framework contribute equally throughout the progression of AD. Here, using the random forest machine learning method to analyze participants in the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative dataset, we show that A/T/N biomarkers show varying importance in ...


A Comparative Study Of Sleep And Diurnal Patterns In House Mouse (Mus Musculus) And Spiny Mouse (Acomys Cahirinus), Chanung Wang, Lauren E. Guerriero, Dillon M. Huffman, Asma'a A. Ajwad, Trae C. Brooks, Sridhar Sunderam, Ashley W. Seifert, Bruce F. O'Hara Jul 2020

A Comparative Study Of Sleep And Diurnal Patterns In House Mouse (Mus Musculus) And Spiny Mouse (Acomys Cahirinus), Chanung Wang, Lauren E. Guerriero, Dillon M. Huffman, Asma'a A. Ajwad, Trae C. Brooks, Sridhar Sunderam, Ashley W. Seifert, Bruce F. O'Hara

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications

Most published sleep studies use three species: human, house mouse, or Norway rat. The degree to which data from these species captures variability in mammalian sleep remains unclear. To gain insight into mammalian sleep diversity, we examined sleep architecture in the spiny basal murid rodent Acomys cahirinus. First, we used a piezoelectric system validated for Mus musculus to monitor sleep in both species. We also included wild M. musculus to control for alterations generated by laboratory-reared conditions for M. musculus. Using this comparative framework, we found that A. cahirinus, lab M. musculus, and wild M. musculus were primarily nocturnal, but ...


Secretion Of Proteins And Antibody Fragments From Transiently Transfected Endothelial Progenitor Cells, Loree Heller, Reynald Thinard, Melanie Chevalier, Sezgi Arpag, Yu Jing, Ruth Greferath, Richard Heller, Claude Nicolau Jul 2020

Secretion Of Proteins And Antibody Fragments From Transiently Transfected Endothelial Progenitor Cells, Loree Heller, Reynald Thinard, Melanie Chevalier, Sezgi Arpag, Yu Jing, Ruth Greferath, Richard Heller, Claude Nicolau

Bioelectrics Publications

In neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, neuroinflammation can lead to blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown. After intravenous or intra-arterial injection into mice, endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) home to the damaged BBB to promote neurovascular repair. Autologous EPCs transfected to express specific therapeutic proteins offer an innovative therapeutic option. Here, we demonstrate that EPC transfection by electroporation with plasmids encoding the reporter protein GFP or an anti-beta-amyloid antibody fragment (Fab) leads to secretion of each protein. We also demonstrate the secreted anti-beta-amyloid Fab protein functions in beta-amyloid aggregate solubilization.


Modulation Of Cerebellar Purkinje Cell Activity With Low Intensity Electric And Ultrasound Stimulation, Ahmet S. Asan May 2020

Modulation Of Cerebellar Purkinje Cell Activity With Low Intensity Electric And Ultrasound Stimulation, Ahmet S. Asan

Dissertations

Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques garner significant interest due to their potential to offer instantaneous and region-specific treatments to neurological disorders. The cerebellum is one of the target sites for NIBS methods due to its central role in motor and cognitive functions. Among several modulation techniques, transcranial electric stimulations (tEs), in particular, transcranial direct and alternating current stimulations (tDCs/tACs), and low intensity focused ultrasound stimulation (LIFUS) show encouraging outcomes in clinical applications. tDCs and tACs are favored due to their low cost and accessibility while LIFUS offers high spatial resolution and deeper penetration without affecting the surrounding structures. In ...


Phantoms To Placentas: Mr Methods For Oxygen Quantification, Kelsey Meinerz May 2020

Phantoms To Placentas: Mr Methods For Oxygen Quantification, Kelsey Meinerz

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Molecular oxygen (O2) is vital for efficient energy production and improper oxygenation is a hallmark of disease or metabolic dysfunction. In many pathologies, knowledge of tissue oxygen levels (pO2) could aid in diagnosis and treatment planning. The gold standard for pO2 measures in tissue are implantable probes, which are invasive, require surgery for placement, and are inaccessible to certain regions of the body. Methods for determining pO2 both non-invasively and quantitatively are lacking. The slight paramagnetic nature of O2 provides opportunities to non-invasively characterize pO2 in tissue via magnetic resonance (MR) techniques. As such, O2 can be treated as a ...


Investigatin Actin-Myosin Mechanics To Model Heart Disease Using Fluorescence Microscopy And Optical Trapping, Justin Edward Reynolds May 2020

Investigatin Actin-Myosin Mechanics To Model Heart Disease Using Fluorescence Microscopy And Optical Trapping, Justin Edward Reynolds

Honors Theses

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a hereditary disease in which the myocardium becomes hypertrophied, making it more difficult for the heart to pump blood. HCM is commonly caused by a mutation in the β-cardiac myosin II heavy chain. Myosin is a motor protein that facilitates muscle contraction by converting chemical energy from ATP hydrolysis into mechanical work and concomitantly moving along actin filaments. Optical tweezers have been used previously to analyze single myosin biophysical properties; however, myosin does not work as a single unit within the heart. Multiple myosin interacts to displace actin filaments and do not have the same properties ...


Design Of A 3d Printed Bioreactor For Bone Cancer Research, Brooklyn K. Vanderwolde, Katelyn Hillson May 2020

Design Of A 3d Printed Bioreactor For Bone Cancer Research, Brooklyn K. Vanderwolde, Katelyn Hillson

The Journal of Undergraduate Research

Bone cancer is an aggressive disease and has peak occurrence during physiological stimulation of growth and aging. Astronauts who undergo long-term space missions also acquire an increased risk of bone tissue degeneration and cancer. Few in-vitro models currently exist capable of reproducing the complex microenvironment of bone tissue to support multicellular activity in a three-dimensional structure. This limits the ability to understand disease progression and develop suitable treatment strategies. Therefore, developing a bone tissue model and an associated bioreactor is critical to understand the risks associated with cancer progression and improve treatment and preventions related to those risks. The goal ...


Rapid Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing Platform For Direct Clinical Samples, Terrance Zhang May 2020

Rapid Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing Platform For Direct Clinical Samples, Terrance Zhang

Honors Scholar Theses

Infectious diseases and septicemia are two of the major causes of death in the U.S., necessitating rapid treatment of septic patients with proper, efficacious antibiotics. Unfortunately, the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria are continuously being aggravated by an abuse in antibiotic prescription at a clinical and agricultural level. It is known that antibiotic resistance evolves through the sequential accumulation of multiple mutations in bacteria, which is accentuated by prolonged exposure of bacteria to ineffective antibiotics when implementing traditional septicemia treatment. The goal of this project is to develop a novel, easy-to-use AST platform for rapid antimicrobial susceptibility profiling ...


Comparing Economics Of Traditional Carbonation Method And A Novel Carbonation Invention For Craft Beer, Kira Simonson May 2020

Comparing Economics Of Traditional Carbonation Method And A Novel Carbonation Invention For Craft Beer, Kira Simonson

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The traditional method for the carbonation of beer includes bubbling CO2 through a pressurized brite tank until the desired level of carbonation concentration is reached. The gas either dissolves in the liquid volume or passes through the beer into the gas headspace above the bulk volume of beer. The gas that passes through the liquid can strip the beer of flavors, and this undissolved gas is vented to the atmosphere. To reduce the gas lost to the atmosphere, the CO2 is dissolved into the beer slowly over a long period of time, which increases gas-use efficiency but sacrifices ...


Probing Nanoelectroporation And Resealing Of The Cell Membrane By The Entry Of Ca2+ And Ba2+ Ions, Wenfei Bo, Mantas Silkunas, Uma Mangalanathan, Vitalij Novickij, Maura Casciola, Iurii Semenov, Shu Xiao, Olga N. Pakhomova, Andrei G. Pakhomov May 2020

Probing Nanoelectroporation And Resealing Of The Cell Membrane By The Entry Of Ca2+ And Ba2+ Ions, Wenfei Bo, Mantas Silkunas, Uma Mangalanathan, Vitalij Novickij, Maura Casciola, Iurii Semenov, Shu Xiao, Olga N. Pakhomova, Andrei G. Pakhomov

Bioelectrics Publications

The principal bioeffect of the nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) is a lasting cell membrane permeabilization, which is often attributed to the formation of nanometer-sized pores. Such pores may be too small for detection by the uptake of fluorescent dyes. We tested if Ca2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, and Ba2+ ions can be used as nanoporation markers. Time-lapse imaging was performed in CHO, BPAE, and HEK cells loaded with Fluo-4, Calbryte, or Fluo-8 dyes. Ca2+ and Ba2+ did not change fluorescence in intact cells, whereas their entry after nsPEF increased fluorescence within <1 ms. The threshold for one 300-ns pulse was at 1.5–2 kV/cm, much lower than >7 kV/cm for ...


Design Of A Deep Flow Technique Hydroponic System And An Elementary Education Module For Tri Cycle Farms, Cady Rosenbaum May 2020

Design Of A Deep Flow Technique Hydroponic System And An Elementary Education Module For Tri Cycle Farms, Cady Rosenbaum

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Hydroponics is an agricultural technique in which plants are grown without soil and are instead grown in water systems that include nutrients and other growth-supporting media. Hydroponic systems typically reside inside, so that the system can be fully controlled by the grower by manipulating the temperature and amount of light the plants receive. The benefits of growing plants using hydroponics include: the amount of water used is reduced, it is less labor to grow organic produce with an indoor system, less space used, and it allows for growing food anywhere. Tri Cycle Farms is planning for the construction of a ...


Transcriptomic Analysis Of Cytokine-Treated Tissue-Engineered Cartilage As An In Vitro Model Of Osteoarthritis, Jiehan Li May 2020

Transcriptomic Analysis Of Cytokine-Treated Tissue-Engineered Cartilage As An In Vitro Model Of Osteoarthritis, Jiehan Li

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Osteoarthritis (OA), as the most common form of arthritis and a leading cause of disability worldwide, currently has no disease-modifying drugs. Inflammation plays an important role in cartilage degeneration in OA, and pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and TNF-α, have been shown to induce degradative changes along with aberrant gene expression in chondrocytes, the only resident cells in cartilage. The goal of this study was to further understand the transcriptomic regulation of tissue-engineered cartilage in response to inflammatory cytokines using an in vitro miPSC model system. We performed RNA sequencing for the IL-1β or TNF-α treated tissue-engineered cartilage derived from murine iPSCs ...


Flexible Electrochemical Lactate Sensor, Peyton Miesse Apr 2020

Flexible Electrochemical Lactate Sensor, Peyton Miesse

Biomedical Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Lactic acid is a vital indicator for shock, trauma, stress, and exercise intolerance. It is a key biomarker for increases in stress levels and is the primary metabolically produced acid responsible for tissue acidosis that can lead to muscle fatigue and weakness. During intensive exercise, the muscles go through anerobic metabolism to produce energy. This leads to decreases in the blood flow of nutrients and oxygen to the muscles and increases in lactate production, which in turn cause lactic acidosis. Currently, changes in blood lactate concentrations are monitored by sensors that can be invasive via blood or wearable based sensors ...


Impedance Analysis Of Tissues In Nspef Treatment For Cancer Therapy, Edwin Ayobami Oshin Apr 2020

Impedance Analysis Of Tissues In Nspef Treatment For Cancer Therapy, Edwin Ayobami Oshin

Biomedical Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) for cancer therapy is characterized by applications of high voltage pulses with low pulsed energy to induce non-thermal effects on tissues such as tumor ablation. It nonthermally treats tissues via electroporation. Electroporation is the increase in permeabilization of a cell membrane due to the application of high pulsed electric field. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of nsPEF on tissue by monitoring the tissue’s impedance in real-time. Potato slices (both untreated and electroporated), and tumors extracted from female BALBc mice were studied. 100ns, 1-10kV pulses were applied to the tissues ...


Effects Of Novel Tool Use: Cortical And Functional Measures In Children Using A Prosthetic Simulator, Chris Copeland Mar 2020

Effects Of Novel Tool Use: Cortical And Functional Measures In Children Using A Prosthetic Simulator, Chris Copeland

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

As of 2005, there were a total of 1.6 million people living with the loss of a limb, with this population projected to double to 3.6 million by 2050 [1]. While prostheses aim to enhance the function of these individuals, it is estimated that 45% of pediatric prosthetic users reject their prosthesis [2]. The literature which describes the neurological control mechanisms of prosthetic use is sparse and often low-powered due to an inadequate number of participants. However, prosthetic simulators may be a solution to chronically low-powered prosthetic-centric studies by serving as functional homologues, though this has yet to ...


Sustainable, Alginate-Based Sensor For Detection Of Escherichia Coli In Human Breast Milk, Nicholas Kikuchi, Margaret May, Matthew Zweber, Jerard Madamba, Craig M. Stephens, Unyoung Kim, Maryam Mobed-Miremadi Feb 2020

Sustainable, Alginate-Based Sensor For Detection Of Escherichia Coli In Human Breast Milk, Nicholas Kikuchi, Margaret May, Matthew Zweber, Jerard Madamba, Craig M. Stephens, Unyoung Kim, Maryam Mobed-Miremadi

Bioengineering

There are no existing affordable diagnostics for sensitive, rapid, and on-site detection of pathogens in milk. To this end, an on-site colorimetric-based sustainable assay has been developed and optimized using an L16 (54) Taguchi design to obtain results in hours without PCR amplification. To determine the level of Escherichia coli (E. coli) contamination, after induction with 150 µL of breast milk, the B-Per bacterial protein extraction kit was added to a solution containing an alginate-based microcapsule assay. Within this 3 mm spherical novel sensor design, X-Gal (5-Bromo-4-Chloro-3-Indolyl β-D-Galactopyranoside) was entrapped at a concentration of 2 mg ...


Using An Internal Auditory Stimulus To Activate The Developing Primary Auditory Cortex: A Fetal Fmri Study, Estee Goldberg Jan 2020

Using An Internal Auditory Stimulus To Activate The Developing Primary Auditory Cortex: A Fetal Fmri Study, Estee Goldberg

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Insight into the rapidly developing brain in utero is scarce. Fetal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a technique used to gain awareness into the developmental process. Previous auditory task-based fMRI studies employed an external sound stimulus directly on the maternal abdomen. However, there has since been recommendation to cease doing so. We sought to investigate a reliable paradigm to study the development of fetal brain networks and postulate that by using an internal stimulus, such as the mother singing, it would result in activation of the fetal primary auditory cortex. Volunteers carrying singleton fetuses with a gestational age of ...


"When The Enemy Drew Our Attention": Reconsidering Prior Restraint In The Context Of Dual Use Research Of Concern, Caine Caverly Jan 2020

"When The Enemy Drew Our Attention": Reconsidering Prior Restraint In The Context Of Dual Use Research Of Concern, Caine Caverly

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

Through 2016 and 2017, a team led by Canadian virologist David Evans, and funded by an American pharmaceutical company, attempted to synthesize the previously extinct horsepox virus. After just six months and an expenditure of $100,000, the research team was able to successfully construct the virus “using only commercially available information, technology and tools.” In January of 2018, the team went on to publish their information in an American-based journal, PLOS ONE.

The publication was controversial because it included a potential “blueprint” for the synthesis of a genetic strand in the same viral family as the highly lethal, albeit ...


Brassinosteroids Inhibit Autotropic Root Straightening By Modifying Filamentous-Actin Organization And Dynamics, Louise De Bang, Ana Paez-Garcia, Ashley E. Cannon, Sabrina Chin, Jaydeep Kolape, Fuqi Liao, J. Alan Sparks, Qingzhen Jiang, Elison B. Blancaflor Jan 2020

Brassinosteroids Inhibit Autotropic Root Straightening By Modifying Filamentous-Actin Organization And Dynamics, Louise De Bang, Ana Paez-Garcia, Ashley E. Cannon, Sabrina Chin, Jaydeep Kolape, Fuqi Liao, J. Alan Sparks, Qingzhen Jiang, Elison B. Blancaflor

Papers from the Nebraska Center for Biotechnology

When positioned horizontally, roots grow down toward the direction of gravity. This phenomenon, called gravitropism, is influenced by most of the major plant hormones including brassinosteroids. Epi-brassinolide (eBL) was previously shown to enhance root gravitropism, a phenomenon similar to the response of roots exposed to the actin inhibitor, latrunculin B (LatB). This led us to hypothesize that eBL might enhance root gravitropism through its effects on filamentous-actin (F-actin). This hypothesis was tested by comparing gravitropic responses of maize (Zea mays) roots treated with eBL or LatB. LatB- and eBL-treated roots displayed similar enhanced downward growth compared with controls when vertical ...


From Soap Bubbles To Cell Membranes, Peter Beltramo Jan 2020

From Soap Bubbles To Cell Membranes, Peter Beltramo

Science and Engineering Saturday Seminars

Have you ever blown a soap bubble and wondered - what causes the bubble to be so stable and produces those colorful reflections of light? The answer lies in a class of molecules known as surfactants, and they have remarkable similarities with the molecules that comprise the cell membrane of all living organisms. In this workshop, we will use the analogy of a soap bubble to describe cellular membrane properties such as chemistry, structure, membrane transport, and ion channel formation. The goals of this workshop are to 1) link initially intractable concepts in biology like intracellular transport to the intuitive soap ...


Bubble Lab Exercise, Peter Beltramo Jan 2020

Bubble Lab Exercise, Peter Beltramo

Science and Engineering Saturday Seminars

The cell membrane is a ubiquitous component in mammalian cells which control many vital biological functions. It consists of a phospholipid bilayer with embedded protein molecules which serve to transport molecules between the interior and exterior of the cell. Understanding what makes cell membranes so important and how they function requires concepts from physics, chemistry, and of course biology, but it is difficult to learn and conceptualize the structure and function of membranes due to their nanoscopic size and dynamic nature which can’t be properly appreciated in a static textbook. This activity draws analogies between the chemistry and structure ...


Atv Dynamics And Pediatric Rider Safety, James T. Auxier Ii Jan 2020

Atv Dynamics And Pediatric Rider Safety, James T. Auxier Ii

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

It has been observed through numerous academic and governmental agency studies that pediatric all-terrain vehicle ridership carries significant risk of injury and death. While no doubt valuable to safety, the post-hoc approach employed in these studies does little to explain the why and how behind the risk factors. Furthermore, there has been no prolonged, widespread, organized, and concerted effort to reconstruct and catalog the details and causes of the large (20,000+) number of ATV-related injuries that occur each year as has been done for road-based motor vehicle accidents. This dissertation takes the opposite approach from a meta-analysis and instead ...


The Impact Of Aging And Mechanical Injury On Alveolar Epithelial And Macrophage Responses In Acute Lung Injury And Inflammation, Michael S. Valentine Jan 2020

The Impact Of Aging And Mechanical Injury On Alveolar Epithelial And Macrophage Responses In Acute Lung Injury And Inflammation, Michael S. Valentine

Theses and Dissertations

Patients with severe lung pathologies, such as Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), often require mechanical ventilation as a clinical intervention; however, this procedure frequently exacerbates the original pulmonary issue and produces an exaggerated inflammatory response that potentially leads to sepsis, multisystem organ failure, and mortality. This acute lung injury (ALI) condition has been termed Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury (VILI). Alveolar overdistension, cyclic atelectasis, and biotrauma are the primary injury mechanisms in VILI that lead to the loss of alveolar barrier integrity and pulmonary inflammation. Stress and strains during mechanical ventilation are believed to initiate alveolar epithelial mechanotransduction signaling mechanisms that contribute ...


Gravity-Drawing Flexible Silicone Filaments As Fiber Optics And Model Foldamers, Katherine Snell Jan 2020

Gravity-Drawing Flexible Silicone Filaments As Fiber Optics And Model Foldamers, Katherine Snell

CMC Senior Theses

Here, we present a method of gravity-drawing polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) silicone fibers with application as fiber optics and as model foldamers. Beginning as a viscous liquid, PDMS is cured using heat until its measured viscosity reaches 4000 mPa•s. The semi-cured elastomer is then extruded through a tube furnace to produce thin (diameters on the order of hundred micrometers) filaments with scalable lengths. PDMS is biocompatible, gas-permeable, flexible, and hydrophobic. Additionally, the PDMS surface hydrophobicity can be modified via UV exposure, O2 plasma, and corona discharge. We demonstrate the patternibility (i.e patterns of hydrophobicity) of PDMS fibers, adding complexity to ...


Perivascular Waste Metabolites Clearance In Central Nervous System (Cns), Yiming Cheng Dec 2019

Perivascular Waste Metabolites Clearance In Central Nervous System (Cns), Yiming Cheng

Dissertations

Efficient clearance of interstitial waste metabolites is essential for normal brain homeostasis. Such effective clearance is hampered by the lack of a lymphatic system in the brain, and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is unable to clear large size waste metabolites in the brain. Here, a novel idea that brain arterial endothelium and smooth muscle cells reactivity regulates the clearance of these water-insoluble large size waste metabolites through the perivascular dynamic exchange, and that low dose ethanol promotes this perivascular clearance is proposed.

In Aim 1, the biodistribution of a large size waste metabolite (Amyloid-β protein mimic) in rat perivascular space ...


Rhodococcus Opacus Pd630 Genetic Tool Development To Enable The Conversion Of Biomass, Drew Michael Delorenzo Dec 2019

Rhodococcus Opacus Pd630 Genetic Tool Development To Enable The Conversion Of Biomass, Drew Michael Delorenzo

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

The discovery of fossil fuels facilitated a new era in human history and allowed many firsts, such as the mass production of goods, the ability to travel and communicate long distances, the formation of population dense cities, and unprecedented improvements in quality of life. Alternative sources of energy and chemicals are needed, however, as hydrocarbon reserves continue to deplete and the effects of burning fossils on the planet become better understood. Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant raw material in the world and a viable alternative to petroleum-derived products. The pre-treatment of lignocellulose (e.g., thermocatalytic depolymerization, enzymatic hydrolysis, pyrolysis ...


Selection Of An Efficient Aav Vector For Robust Cns Transgene Expression, Killian S. Hanlon, Miguel Sena-Esteves, Eloise Hudry, Casey A. Maguire Dec 2019

Selection Of An Efficient Aav Vector For Robust Cns Transgene Expression, Killian S. Hanlon, Miguel Sena-Esteves, Eloise Hudry, Casey A. Maguire

Open Access Articles

Adeno-associated virus (AAV) capsid libraries have generated improved transgene delivery vectors. We designed an AAV library construct, iTransduce, that combines a peptide library on the AAV9 capsid with a Cre cassette to enable sensitive detection of transgene expression. After only two selection rounds of the library delivered intravenously in transgenic mice carrying a Cre-inducible fluorescent protein, we flow sorted fluorescent cells from brain, and DNA sequencing revealed two dominant capsids. One of the capsids, termed AAV-F, mediated transgene expression in the brain cortex more than 65-fold (astrocytes) and 171-fold (neurons) higher than the parental AAV9. High transduction efficiency was sex-independent ...