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2002

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Articles 1 - 30 of 72

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

The Development Of A Biodegradable Scaffold For A Tissue Engineered Heart Valve, Thomas Adam Alheidt Dec 2002

The Development Of A Biodegradable Scaffold For A Tissue Engineered Heart Valve, Thomas Adam Alheidt

Theses

In the current state of medical technology, there exists the need for a quality medical device to replace a failing heart valve. Presently, mechanical valves as well as donor tissue valves, either from humans or animals are used to replace failing heart valves. These valves although they can operate in the heart satisfactorily are not equal to the body replacing its own valve. Tissue Engineering in simple terms is the field of helping the body replace its own failing organ. In scientific terms, Tissue Engineering is a relatively young field, a majority of the major advancements have come in the ...


Ccr4-Bearing T Cells Participate In Autoimmune Diabetes., Soon H. Kim, Mary M. Cleary, Howard S. Fox, Icos Coporation, Nora Sarvetnick Dec 2002

Ccr4-Bearing T Cells Participate In Autoimmune Diabetes., Soon H. Kim, Mary M. Cleary, Howard S. Fox, Icos Coporation, Nora Sarvetnick

Journal Articles: Regenerative Medicine

Chemokine receptor expression is exquisitely regulated on T cell subsets during the course of their migration to inflammatory sites. In the present study we demonstrate that CCR4 expression marks a pathogenic population of autoimmune T cells. CCR4 was found exclusively on memory CD4(+) T cells during the progression of disease in NOD mice. Cells expressing the CCR4 ligand TARC (thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine) were detected within infiltrated islets from prediabetic mice. Interestingly, neutralization of macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) with Ab caused a significant reduction of CCR4-positive T cells within the pancreatic infiltrates and inhibited the development of insulitis and diabetes. Furthermore ...


Lunar Lava Tube Radiation Safety Analysis, Giovanni De Angelis, J. W. Wilson, M. S. Clowdsley, J. E. Nealy, D. H. Humes, J. M. Clem Dec 2002

Lunar Lava Tube Radiation Safety Analysis, Giovanni De Angelis, J. W. Wilson, M. S. Clowdsley, J. E. Nealy, D. H. Humes, J. M. Clem

Mathematics & Statistics Faculty Publications

For many years it has been suggested that lava tubes on the Moon could provide an ideal location for a manned lunar base, by providing shelter from various natural hazards, such as cosmic radiation, meteorites, micrometeoroids, and impact crater ejecta, and also providing a natural environmental control, with a nearly constant temperature, unlike that of the lunar surface showing extreme variation in its diurnal cycle. An analysis of radiation safety issues on lunar lava tubes has been performed by considering radiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and Solar Particle Events (SPE) interacting with the lunar surface, modeled as a regolith ...


Effect Of Fa Chain Length On Normal- And Reversed-Phase Hplc Of Phospholipids, Dongmei Zhai, Peter J. Reilly Dec 2002

Effect Of Fa Chain Length On Normal- And Reversed-Phase Hplc Of Phospholipids, Dongmei Zhai, Peter J. Reilly

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Forty-seven saturated synthetic diacyl PA, PC, PE, PG, and PS and five unsaturated diacyl phospholipids (PL) underwent normal- and reversed-phase (RP) HPLC with isocratic isopropanol/hexane/water (5∶4∶1) and methanol/chloroform/acetonitrile/water (79.5∶9∶8∶3.5) mobile phases, respectively. For normal-phase HPLC, capacity factors (k′ i ) decrease with chain length (n) of the two identical PL FA residues, whereas the opposite occurs with RP (C18)-HPLC. Plots of In k′ i vs. n for individual PL classes are in general curved, violating the linear free-energy relationship. For PL of the same n but with ...


Implementation Of Gy-Eq For Deterministic Effects Limitation In Shield Design, John W. Wilson, Myung-Hee Y. Kim, Giovanni De Angelis, Francis A. Cucinotta, Nobuaki Yoshizawa, Francis F. Badavi Dec 2002

Implementation Of Gy-Eq For Deterministic Effects Limitation In Shield Design, John W. Wilson, Myung-Hee Y. Kim, Giovanni De Angelis, Francis A. Cucinotta, Nobuaki Yoshizawa, Francis F. Badavi

Mathematics & Statistics Faculty Publications

The NCRP has recently defined RBE values and a new quantity (Gy-Eq) for use in estimation of deterministic effects in space shielding and operations. The NCRP's RBE for neutrons is left ambiguous and not fully defined. In the present report we will suggest a complete definition of neutron RBE consistent with the NCRP recommendations and evaluate attenuation properties of deterministic effects (Gy-Eq) in comparison with other dosimetric quantities.


Characterization Of Engineered Human Lung Tissue, Benjamin Boytor Nov 2002

Characterization Of Engineered Human Lung Tissue, Benjamin Boytor

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Characterizing engineered human lung tissue is an important step in developing a functional tissue replacement for lung tissue repair and in vitro analysis. Small tissue constructs were grown by seeding IMR-90 fetal lung fibroblasts and adult microvascular endothelial cells onto a Polyglycolic acid (PGA) polymer template. Introducing the constructs to dynamic culture conditions inside a bioreactor facilitated three-dimensional growth seen in scanning electron microscopy images (SEM).

Characterization of the resultant tissue samples was done using SEM imagery, tensile tests, and biochemical assays to quantify extra-cellular matrix (ECM) composition. Tensile tests of the engineered samples indicated an increase in the mechanical ...


Mineralization Of Manure Nutrients, Bahman Eghball, Brian J. Wienhold, John E. Gilley, Roger A. Eigenberg Nov 2002

Mineralization Of Manure Nutrients, Bahman Eghball, Brian J. Wienhold, John E. Gilley, Roger A. Eigenberg

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

In order to apply manure or compost to fulfill the nutrient requirements of a crop, knowledge of the amount of nutrients mineralized following application is needed. Nutrient mineralization from applied manure depends on temperature, soil moisture, soil properties, manure characteristics, and microbial activity. Since these factors cannot be accurately predicted, nutrient mineralization from applied manure can only be approximated. Nitrogen (N) availability from applied manure includes the inorganic N (NO3-N and NH4-N) in manure plus the amount of organic N mineralized following application. Nitrogen mineralization differs for different manure types since the inorganic/organic fraction and ...


A Rehabilitation Engineering Course For Biomedical Engineers, M. Barbara Silver-Thorn Nov 2002

A Rehabilitation Engineering Course For Biomedical Engineers, M. Barbara Silver-Thorn

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

This paper describes an upper division elective course in rehabilitation engineering that addresses prosthetics and orthotics, wheelchair design, seating and positioning, and automobile modifications for individuals with disabilities. Faculty lectures are enhanced by guest lectures and class field trips. Guest lecturers include a prosthetist and a lower extremity amputee client, an engineer/prosthetist specializing in the upper extremity, and a rehabilitation engineer. The lower extremity prosthetist and his client present a case study for prosthetic prescription, fabrication, fitting, alignment, and evaluation. The engineer/prosthetist contrasts body-powered versus externally powered upper extremity prostheses and associated design, fitting, and functional considerations; he ...


The Impact Of Variations In Membrane Capacitance On The Detected Neural-Electronic Signal, Robert B. Szlavik Oct 2002

The Impact Of Variations In Membrane Capacitance On The Detected Neural-Electronic Signal, Robert B. Szlavik

Biomedical and General Engineering

There have been various theoretical and experimental studies presented in the literature that focus on interfacing neurons with discrete electronic devices such as transistors. The demonstrated lack of reproducible fidelity of the nerve cell action potential at the device junction would make it impractical to implement these devices in any neural prosthetic application where reliable detection of the action potential was a pre-requisite. In this study, the impact of typical variations in membrane capacitance on the detected neural signal is investigated.


Bme Stats Fall 2002, Department Of Biomedical Engineering, Florida International University Oct 2002

Bme Stats Fall 2002, Department Of Biomedical Engineering, Florida International University

STATS

No abstract provided.


Methods Of Modifying Lignin In Plants By Transformation With A 4-Coumarate Coenzyme A Ligase Nucleic Acid, Vincent Lee C. Chiang, Chung-Jui Tsai, Wen-Jing Hu Sep 2002

Methods Of Modifying Lignin In Plants By Transformation With A 4-Coumarate Coenzyme A Ligase Nucleic Acid, Vincent Lee C. Chiang, Chung-Jui Tsai, Wen-Jing Hu

Michigan Tech Patents

The invention pertains to methods of altering growth, lignin content, coniferyl and sinapyl alcohol units in the lignin structure, disease resistance and cellulose content in plants by transformation with a lignin pathway p-coumarate Co-enzyme A ligase (4CL) nucleic acid.


Ethyl Tert-Butyl Ether And Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether: Status, Review, And Alternative Use Exploring The Environmental Issues Of Mobile, Recalcitrant, Hossein Noureddini Sep 2002

Ethyl Tert-Butyl Ether And Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether: Status, Review, And Alternative Use Exploring The Environmental Issues Of Mobile, Recalcitrant, Hossein Noureddini

Papers in Biomaterials

Petroleum products leaking from under ground storage tanks have raised concerns regarding the quality of ground water resources, The concerns about the environmental behavior and rate of MTBE as an oxygenated additive prompted this iuvestigation to explore the technical characteristics of MTBE in comparison to ETBF. Evaluation of the existing literature suggests that ETBE has more favorable characteristics than MTBE. Findings in this research suggest that ETBE is a technically sound oxygenated octane enhancer, which can help refiners meet specificatios for cleaner burning gasoline.


Accurate Quantification Of Steady And Pulsatile Flow With Segmented K-Space Magnetic Resonance Velocimetry, Haosen Zhang, Sandra S. Halliburton, James R. Moore, Orlando P. Simonetti, Paulo R. Schvartzman, Richard D. White, George P. Chatzimavroudis Sep 2002

Accurate Quantification Of Steady And Pulsatile Flow With Segmented K-Space Magnetic Resonance Velocimetry, Haosen Zhang, Sandra S. Halliburton, James R. Moore, Orlando P. Simonetti, Paulo R. Schvartzman, Richard D. White, George P. Chatzimavroudis

Chemical & Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications

Conventional non-segmented magnetic resonance phase velocity mapping (MRPVM) is an accurate but relatively slow velocimetric technique. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the much faster segmented k-space MRPVM in quantifying flow. The axial velocity was measured in four straight tubes (inner diameter: 5.6–26.2 mm), using a segmented MRPVM sequence with seven lines of k-space per segment. The flow rate and flow volume were accurately quantified (errorssteady (r2=0.99) and pulsatile flow (r2=0.98), respectively. The measured velocity profiles and flow rates from the segmented ...


Investigation Of Lower-Limb Tissue Perfusion During Loading, Barbara Silver-Thorn Sep 2002

Investigation Of Lower-Limb Tissue Perfusion During Loading, Barbara Silver-Thorn

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

An extant tissue indentor used for amputee residual limb tissue indentation studies was modified to include laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) to enable measurement of tissue perfusion during indentation. This device allows quantitative assessment of the mechanical and physiological response of soft tissues to load, as demonstrated by indentation studies of the lower-limb tissues of young healthy subjects. Potential measures of interest include the relative change in tissue perfusion with load and the time delays associated with the perfusion response during tissue loading and unloading. Such measures may prove useful in future studies of residual limb tissues, improving our understanding of ...


Comment On "Quadriceps Protects The Anterior Cruciate Ligament", Antonie J. Van Den Bogert Sep 2002

Comment On "Quadriceps Protects The Anterior Cruciate Ligament", Antonie J. Van Den Bogert

Mechanical Engineering Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Residual Effects Of Compost And Fertilizer Applications On Nutrients In Runoff, John E. Gilley, Bahman Eghball Sep 2002

Residual Effects Of Compost And Fertilizer Applications On Nutrients In Runoff, John E. Gilley, Bahman Eghball

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

The application of compost or fertilizer at rates that exceed crop nutrient requirements can result in phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) accumulation in soil. This study was conducted to determine the influence of soil P and N contents on the concentrations and total amounts of P and N transported in runoff. Composted beef cattle feedlot manure or inorganic fertilizer were added from 1992 to 1995 to a Sharpsburg silty clay loam soil at rates sufficient to meet P or N requirements for corn and incorporated following application. After four years of corn production following the last compost application, P concentration ...


Cortical Response To Facial Expressions Of Young Adult Males With Autism Spectrum Disorders And Controls Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Fmri), Jagriti Arora Aug 2002

Cortical Response To Facial Expressions Of Young Adult Males With Autism Spectrum Disorders And Controls Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Fmri), Jagriti Arora

Theses

Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is defined by deficits in social and emotional impairments and this study aims to identify specific brain regions involved during facial processing. The simple task of focusing on the face during social interactions for the normal group is found difficult by the autistic group.

In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used as subjects performed two experimental tasks (EXPLICIT and IMPLICIT) in which a series of photographs of nine males and nine females displaying three affective states (6 fear, 6 happy and 6 neutral) and six scrambled- face control stimuli were presented ...


Dimensional Study Of Desaminotyrosyl Polyarylates, Kalsank Vaishali Pai Aug 2002

Dimensional Study Of Desaminotyrosyl Polyarylates, Kalsank Vaishali Pai

Theses

Synthetic polymers have found widespread usage and acceptance in various areas of the medical device industry. The recognition that no polymeric biornaterials are truly biocompatible has led to the search for bioerodible materials with desirable biological and physical properties for use as tissue engineering scaffolds and to enable in-vivo devices. Several methodologies have been tried and tested to invent the "ideal" biopolymer. The ideal polymeric biomaterial would be one that offers a favorable response at both the cellular and the systemic level with minimum alteration to its mechanical properties and chemistry. The systematic investigation of process-structure-property space to determine the ...


Masseter Muscle Activity Resulting From Stimulation Of Hypothalamic Behavioral Sites : Wavelet Analysis, Anne Marie Petrock Aug 2002

Masseter Muscle Activity Resulting From Stimulation Of Hypothalamic Behavioral Sites : Wavelet Analysis, Anne Marie Petrock

Theses

Patterns of electromyographic (EMG) activity can give an insight into muscle activity associated with a given behavioral state. The masseter muscle is positioned closely to the temporomandibular joint and controls the position and movement of the jaw. The hypothalamus is the region of the brain associated with emotional behavior. In an effort to further understand the muscle activity underlying emotional display, the hypothalamus in two cats was stimulated to evoke a stereotyped emotional response, known as the "rage response." Unsheathing of the claws, retraction of the ears, significant pupillary dilation and vocalization (hissing) characterize this behavior. EMG data obtained at ...


Quantitative Assessment Of Reflex Blood Pressure Regulation Using A Dynamic Model Of The Cardiovascular System, Tanha Patel Aug 2002

Quantitative Assessment Of Reflex Blood Pressure Regulation Using A Dynamic Model Of The Cardiovascular System, Tanha Patel

Theses

A quantitative understanding of the changes in coronary, pulmonary and systemic hemodynamic variables and their effects on the regulation mechanism is important to the better postoperative management of patients with impaired cardiac function. The arterial baroreflex plays a key role in blood pressure homeostasis, and its impairment may result in exaggerated blood pressure fluctuations and an increased risk of cardiovascular morbid events.

The objective of this work was to construct a mathematical model of the cardiovascular system, which will allow us to simulate the effects of the baroreceptor reflex regulation on sudden changes in blood pressure, caused by sudden changes ...


Ua3/9/5 Complex For Engineering & Biological Sciences Groundbreaking, Wku President's Office Aug 2002

Ua3/9/5 Complex For Engineering & Biological Sciences Groundbreaking, Wku President's Office

WKU Archives Records

Remarks delivered by WKU president Gary Ransdell at the groundbreaking of the Complex for Engineering & Biological Sciences.


Herman P. Schwan: A Scientist And Pioneer In Biomedical Engineering, Kenneth R. Foster Aug 2002

Herman P. Schwan: A Scientist And Pioneer In Biomedical Engineering, Kenneth R. Foster

Departmental Papers (BE)

No abstract provided.


Molecular Characterization Of The T(4;9)12gso Mutation And Analysis Of The Associated Fitness, Skeletal, And Lymphoproliferative Phenotypes, Laura Ray Chittenden Aug 2002

Molecular Characterization Of The T(4;9)12gso Mutation And Analysis Of The Associated Fitness, Skeletal, And Lymphoproliferative Phenotypes, Laura Ray Chittenden

Doctoral Dissertations

The t(4;9)(B3;E3.2)12Gso reciprocal translocation is an autosomal recessive mouse mutation involving chromosome 4, band B3 (Mmu4B3) and chromosome 9, band E3.2 (Mmu9E3.2). The most striking phenotype of the 12Gso homozygote involves axial skeleton deformities, resulting in significant shortening of body length, scoliosis, displaced hips and kinky tails. Homozygous animals are significantly smaller than normal littermates and frequently exhibit early lethality, as many of the mutants perish by 1 day postnatal, and many others do not survive the three weeks to weaning age. Homozygous 12Gso mice also develop an unusual bone marrow defect ...


Survey Of Hydrogen Sulfide Concentrations In Vicinity Of Beef Cattle Feedlots, Richard K. Koelsch, Bryan L. Woodbury, David E. Stenberg, Daniel N. Miller, Dennis D. Schulte Jul 2002

Survey Of Hydrogen Sulfide Concentrations In Vicinity Of Beef Cattle Feedlots, Richard K. Koelsch, Bryan L. Woodbury, David E. Stenberg, Daniel N. Miller, Dennis D. Schulte

Conference Presentations and White Papers: Biological Systems Engineering

A field survey of Total Reduced Sulfur (TRS) concentrations in the vicinity of beef cattle feedlots was conducted to compare field observations against current regulatory thresholds. In addition, environmental factors that may contribute to increased TRS emissions were evaluated. It was observed that TRS levels in the vicinity of beef cattle feedlots are not likely to exceed current regulatory thresholds used by mid-western states. It was further noted that concentration of TRS varies with air temperature and time of day. However, wet feedlot surface conditions and wind speed had almost no impact upon observed concentrations.


Functional Profiling Of The Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Genome, Patrick Flaherty Jul 2002

Functional Profiling Of The Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Genome, Patrick Flaherty

Mathematics and Statistics Department Faculty Publication Series

Determining the effect of gene deletion is a fundamental approach to understanding gene function. Conventional genetic screens exhibit biases, and genes contributing to a phenotype are often missed. We systematically constructed a nearly complete collection of gene-deletion mutants (96% of annotated open reading frames, or ORFs) of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. DNA sequences dubbed 'molecular bar codes' uniquely identify each strain, enabling their growth to be analysed in parallel and the fitness contribution of each gene to be quantitatively assessed by hybridization to high-density oligonucleotide arrays. We show that previously known and new genes are necessary for optimal growth under ...


Functional Profiling Of The Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Genome, Patrick Flaherty Jul 2002

Functional Profiling Of The Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Genome, Patrick Flaherty

Patrick Flaherty

Determining the effect of gene deletion is a fundamental approach to understanding gene function. Conventional genetic screens exhibit biases, and genes contributing to a phenotype are often missed. We systematically constructed a nearly complete collection of gene-deletion mutants (96% of annotated open reading frames, or ORFs) of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. DNA sequences dubbed 'molecular bar codes' uniquely identify each strain, enabling their growth to be analysed in parallel and the fitness contribution of each gene to be quantitatively assessed by hybridization to high-density oligonucleotide arrays. We show that previously known and new genes are necessary for optimal growth under ...


Spontaneous Planarization Of Nanoscale Phase Separated Thin Film, Ravi F. Saraf, Sanjun Niu, Eric Stumb Jun 2002

Spontaneous Planarization Of Nanoscale Phase Separated Thin Film, Ravi F. Saraf, Sanjun Niu, Eric Stumb

Ravi Saraf Publications

Structure of complex fluid at mesoscales is influenced by interfacial effects. We describe the dynamic response in such films to sudden change in interfacial tension. In a self-assembled block copolymer film, the monolayer of 15 nm diam cylindrical discrete phases close to the surface commence to sink at an average rate of 0.16 nm/day in response to the interfacial tension change. Surprisingly, this spontaneous planarization occurs, even though the cylinders are covalently stitched to the matrix. A simple model explains the observed behavior. The observation may lead to approaches to tailor the structure of mesoscale thin films of ...


Low Concentration Microenvironments Enhance The Migration Of Neonatal Cells Of Glial Lineage, Richard A. Able, Jr., Celestin Ngnabeuye, Cade Beck, Eric C. Holland, Maribel Vazquez Jun 2002

Low Concentration Microenvironments Enhance The Migration Of Neonatal Cells Of Glial Lineage, Richard A. Able, Jr., Celestin Ngnabeuye, Cade Beck, Eric C. Holland, Maribel Vazquez

Publications and Research

Glial tumors have demonstrated abilities to sustain growth via recruitment of glial progenitor cells (GPCs), which is believed to be driven by chemotactic cues. Previous studies have illustrated that mouse GPCs of different genetic backgrounds are able to replicate the dispersion pattern seen in the human disease. How GPCs with genetic backgrounds transformed by tumor paracrine signaling respond to extracellular cues via migration is largely unexplored, and remains a limiting factor in utilizing GPCs as therapeutic targets. In this study, we utilized a microfluidic device to examine the chemotaxis of three genetically-altered mouse GPC populations towards tumor conditioned media, as ...


Modular Machine Learning Methods For Computer-Aided Diagnosis Of Breast Cancer, Mia Kathleen Markey '94 Jun 2002

Modular Machine Learning Methods For Computer-Aided Diagnosis Of Breast Cancer, Mia Kathleen Markey '94

Doctoral Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to improve breast cancer diagnosis by reducing the number of benign biopsies performed. To this end, we investigated modular and ensemble systems of machine learning methods for computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of breast cancer. A modular system partitions the input space into smaller domains, each of which is handled by a local model. An ensemble system uses multiple models for the same cases and combines the models' predictions.

Five supervised machine learning techniques (LDA, SVM, BP-ANN, CBR, CART) were trained to predict the biopsy outcome from mammographic findings (BIRADS™) and patient age based on a ...


A Computational Model Of Spasticity Based On A Decoupling Of The Alpha And Gamma Efferents, Bruno A. Mantilla May 2002

A Computational Model Of Spasticity Based On A Decoupling Of The Alpha And Gamma Efferents, Bruno A. Mantilla

Theses

It is generally accepted that spasticity results from changes in the excitability of the stretch reflex. This change lowers the threshold of the motoneurons of the spinal cord where the integration of a signal from velocity/position sensors is processed and then fed back to the contracting muscle (alphaextrafusal and gamma-intrafusal fibers). The stretch reflex depends on the initial length of the muscle, the stretch velocity and voluntary activity. The exact sequence of the triggering events remains unknown, is poorly understood and as a result is controversial. The clinical classification scales are mainly subjective and by definition, inaccurate.

This computational ...