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Department of Biomedical, Industrial & Human Factors Engineering

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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Effect Of Dimensionality On In Vitro Growth Environment And Mesenchymal Stem Cell Function, Fatema Tuj Zohora Jan 2018

Effect Of Dimensionality On In Vitro Growth Environment And Mesenchymal Stem Cell Function, Fatema Tuj Zohora

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The use of the standard two dimensional (2D) cell culture has laid down the fundamentals of molecular and cell biology. However, recent advances in cell-based regenerative medicine raises the concern on deconstructing cellular behaviors in more physiologically relevant three dimensional (3D) microenvironments. Differences in cell response in 2D versus 3D systems arise from the perturbations in gene expression patterns that stem from how cells sense their underlying 2D or surrounding 3D matrices and adjust their phenotypes accordingly. Thus, cells are no longer considered as a solitary entity of genome but a context arises from a combinatorial interactions of cell-ECM, cell-cell ...


M1 To M2 Macrophage Induction Using Retinoic Acid And Mesenchymal Stem Cells Loaded On An Electrospun Pullulan/Gelatin Scaffold To Promote Healing Of Chronic Wounds, Kaivon Assani Jan 2018

M1 To M2 Macrophage Induction Using Retinoic Acid And Mesenchymal Stem Cells Loaded On An Electrospun Pullulan/Gelatin Scaffold To Promote Healing Of Chronic Wounds, Kaivon Assani

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Modulation of macrophage polarization is required for effective tissue repair and regenerative therapies. Conversion of macrophages from inflammatory M1 to fibrotic M2 phenotype could help in diseases such as chronic wound which are stuck in inflammatory state. During the inflammatory phase, macrophages are of the inflammatory phenotype (M1) and distribute pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF-a and IL1[beta] which are microbicidal and recruit/activate cells. In normal wound healing macrophages then switch to a fibrotic phenotype (M2) promoting wound closure by angiogenesis, and matrix deposition. Chronic wounds are a major biological and financial burden to both patients and the health care ...


Coupling Of Mechanical And Electromagnetic Fields Stimulation For Bone Tissue Engineering, Alyaa I. Aldebs Jan 2018

Coupling Of Mechanical And Electromagnetic Fields Stimulation For Bone Tissue Engineering, Alyaa I. Aldebs

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Alternative bone regeneration strategies that do not rely on harvested tissue or exogenous growth factors and cells are badly needed. However, creating living tissue constructs that are structurally, functionally and mechanically comparable to the natural bone has been a challenge so far. A major hurdle has been recreating the bone tissue microenvironment using the appropriate combination of cells, scaffold and stimulation to direct differentiation. This project presents a bone regeneration formulation that involves the use of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stems cells (hASCs) and a 3D scaffold based on a self-assembled peptide hydrogel doped with superparamagnetic nanoparticles (NPs). Osteogenic differentiation of ...


Identifying The Impact Of Noise On Anomaly Detection Through Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (Fnirs) And Eye-Tracking, Ryan Dwight Gabbard Jan 2017

Identifying The Impact Of Noise On Anomaly Detection Through Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (Fnirs) And Eye-Tracking, Ryan Dwight Gabbard

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Occupational noise frequently occurs in the work environment in military intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) operations. This impacts cognitive performance by acting as a stressor, potentially interfering with the analysts' decision making process. In this study the effects of different noise stimuli on analysts' performance and workload in anomaly detection were investigated by simulating a noisy work environment. Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was utilized to quantify oxy-hemoglobin (HbO) and deoxy-hemoglobin (HbD) concentration changes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), as well as behavioral measures which include eye-tracking, reaction time, and accuracy rate. It was found that HbO for some of ...


Early Assessment Of Burn Severity In Human Tissue With Multi-Wavelength Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging, Chien Sing Poon Jan 2016

Early Assessment Of Burn Severity In Human Tissue With Multi-Wavelength Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging, Chien Sing Poon

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Burn injuries such as thermal burns, which are caused by contact with flames, hot liquids, hot surfaces, and other sources of high heat as well as chemical burns and electrical burns, affects at least 500,000 people in the United States, to which 45,000 of them require medical treatment and 3,500 of them result in death. It has also been reported that in the United States alone, fire results in a death approximately every three hours and an injury every 33 minutes. Early knowledge about burn severity can lead to improved outcome for patients. In this study, the ...


Design And Evaluation Of A Fiber Optic Shape Tracker For Use As A Navigational Aid In Endovascular Guidewires And Catheters, Benjamin Stewart Rinehart Jan 2016

Design And Evaluation Of A Fiber Optic Shape Tracker For Use As A Navigational Aid In Endovascular Guidewires And Catheters, Benjamin Stewart Rinehart

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Endovascular intervention is the current gold-standard for screening and treating aortic aneurysms and complications caused by peripheral vascular disease (PAD). A typical endovascular procedure begins with inserting an endovascular guidewire into the femoral artery via incision. A catheter is then threaded over the guidewire and both tools are then navigated to the treatment site. The navigation is guided solely by fluoroscopy (x-ray) imagery that is performed throughout the duration of the procedure. Not only does this method provide limited 2-D guidance, but also exposes the patient and medical staff to high levels of radiation. This thesis research focuses on the ...


Comparison Of Vascular Pulsatility In The Native Beating Heart Versus Direct Mechanical Ventricular Actuation Support Of The Fibrillating Heart, Nathan Victor Wright Jan 2016

Comparison Of Vascular Pulsatility In The Native Beating Heart Versus Direct Mechanical Ventricular Actuation Support Of The Fibrillating Heart, Nathan Victor Wright

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Most conventional cardiac assist devices today employ continuous flow blood pumps to supplement function in the dysfunctional heart. Continuous flow pumps are predominantly preferred to the original pulsatile pumps due to the smaller size (greater implantability) and higher efficiency they achieve. However, interest in the impact of vascular pulsatility on human health has arisen from the growing evidence of higher complications with nonpulsatile devices compared to pulsatile devices. Direct cardiac compression (DCC) offers a unique solution to the pulsatility issue through the application of force directly to the heart's surface. It is believed that employing the existing pump architecture ...


Improving Anomaly Detection Through Identification Of Physiological Signatures Of Unconscious Awareness, Alyssa Marie Piasecki Jan 2016

Improving Anomaly Detection Through Identification Of Physiological Signatures Of Unconscious Awareness, Alyssa Marie Piasecki

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Missed anomalies have the potential to cause detrimental effects in the Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) domain. One possible cause of these missed anomalies is that cognitive processing may not reach conscious awareness and may only be perceived by the unconscious mind. Identification of correlates of these unconscious processes could provide an insight into potential missed targets. The present study explored missed anomalies in a visual search task and the possibility of unconscious awareness. Eye metrics were recorded and a "Detection Threshold Model" was created and validated with a nominal logistic regression model, in order to characterize the search patterns ...


Low-Cost, Wireless Optical Oximeter For Monitoring Of Brain Function In High-Risk Pediatric Population, Zahra Meghjani Jan 2016

Low-Cost, Wireless Optical Oximeter For Monitoring Of Brain Function In High-Risk Pediatric Population, Zahra Meghjani

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Nearly 4 million neonates die every year due to brain injuries, most caused by hypoxia. Neonatal ICU requires newborns with critical health conditions to be monitored continuously calling for the need of a non-invasive, compact and portable device. However, commercial devices are mostly bulky and/or expensive. The neonatal mortality is higher in under-developed countries, where such expensive and large devices are not affordable. Hence, my thesis focuses on building first generation compact, inexpensive, and wireless device that can monitor and provide feedback to clinicians during intervention. This approach is based on light absorption by oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin chromophores. The ...


Optical Redox Imaging Of Metabolic Activity, Syed Anwar Hyder Zaidi Jan 2016

Optical Redox Imaging Of Metabolic Activity, Syed Anwar Hyder Zaidi

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Fluorescence imaging can be used to determine tissue metabolism, which is an indication of the cellular functionality. Metabolic contrast is useful for the early detection of several medical conditions such as cancer, diabetes, lung diseases etc. This study aims to use fluorescence imaging to quantify NADH and FAD, which are cellular metabolic indicators. A parameter known as Redox ratio, can be used to study metabolic state of several tissue types and disease states. To quantify the Redox ratio, three fluorescence imaging systems were optimized to measure the fluorescence signal from NADH and FAD. The first system was a camera based ...


Use Of Eeg To Understand Brain Intensity In Engineering Students Using A Stem Educational Mobile Application, Kevin Hatcher Jan 2016

Use Of Eeg To Understand Brain Intensity In Engineering Students Using A Stem Educational Mobile Application, Kevin Hatcher

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In the first two years of undergraduate work in engineering, students are taught concepts such as physics, electronics, and most importantly calculus. It is especially important for students to get a better grasp on foundational math concepts, such as calculus in the beginning or they will be overwhelmed by the workload to come. The focus of this research was to understand how students learning calculus, could benefit from an augmented-educational mobile application. In the study students were measured with electroencephalography (EEG) measurements utilized by the Emotive EPOC® as they attempted to solve different limit themed problems in order to determine ...


A Fractal-Based Mathematical Model For Cancellous Bone Growth Considering The Hierarchical Nature Of Bone, Stephanie Marie Suhr Jan 2016

A Fractal-Based Mathematical Model For Cancellous Bone Growth Considering The Hierarchical Nature Of Bone, Stephanie Marie Suhr

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The hierarchical structure of bone alone is not comprehensive enough to provide morphological explanation of how the size and arrangement of the trabeculae within cancellous bone affect load distribution, particularly concerning deterioration of bone in elderly patients. The collagen network and hydroxyapatite play a large role in defining the shape of trabeculae in cancellous bone despite that the arrangement and size is seemingly random. The growth of plates and rods in cancellous bone is mainly due to loading and stress lines within the bone, but mathematical predictive models can be developed using fractal analysis to show how bone may grow ...


Characterization Of Peripheral Lung Lesions By Statistical Image Processing Of Endobronchial Ultrasound Images, Aaron T. Madaris Jan 2016

Characterization Of Peripheral Lung Lesions By Statistical Image Processing Of Endobronchial Ultrasound Images, Aaron T. Madaris

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This thesis introduces the concept of implementing greyscale analysis, also known as intensity analysis, on endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) images for the purposes of diagnosing peripheral lung tumors. The statistical methodology of using greyscale and histogram analysis allows the characterization of lung tissue in EBUS images. Regions of interest (ROI) will be analyzed in MATLAB and a feature vector will be created. A feature vector of first-order, second-order and histogram greyscale analysis will be created and used for the classification of malignant vs benign peripheral lung tumors. The tools that were implemented were MedCalc for the initial statistical analysis of receiver ...


Neural Correlates Of Convergence Eye Movements In Convergence Insufficiency Patients Vs Normal Binocular Vision Controls: An Fmri Study, Chirag Bharatkumar Limbachia Jan 2015

Neural Correlates Of Convergence Eye Movements In Convergence Insufficiency Patients Vs Normal Binocular Vision Controls: An Fmri Study, Chirag Bharatkumar Limbachia

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Convergence Insufficiency is a binocular vision disorder, characterized by reduced ability of performing convergence eye movements. Absence of convergence causes, eye strain, blurred vision, doubled vision, headaches, and difficulty reading due frequent loss of place. These symptoms commonly occur during near work. The purpose of this study was to quantify neural correlates associated with convergence eye movements in convergence insufficient (CI) patients vs. normal binocular vision (NBV) controls, and to examine statistical differences between them. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans were collected using a 3T Siemens scanner. A disparity-driven convergence task was designed using a standard block design approach ...


Measuring Pulse Rate Variability During Motion Artifact With A Non-Contact, Multi-Imager Photoplethysmography System, Zachary Adam Kiehl Jan 2015

Measuring Pulse Rate Variability During Motion Artifact With A Non-Contact, Multi-Imager Photoplethysmography System, Zachary Adam Kiehl

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Non-contact imaging photoplethysmography is an exciting new field based on the principles of traditional photoplethysmography where viable signals can now be acquired without the use of contact equipment. Recent advances regarding non-contact imaging photoplethysmography have permitted a wide range of new possibilities focused on sensing the cardiopulmonary system. Physiological metrics such as pulse rate, respiration rate, and pulse rate variability can be obtained by current photoplethysmographic imaging methods. Although previous systems were challenged by head-motion artifacts, the mitigation of rigid head-motion artifacts has been demonstrated with a multi-imager design. This study investigated the feasibility and accuracy of pulse rate variability ...


Left Ventricle Volume Reconstruction To Minimize Scanning Time: Slice-Fitting Method, Prateek Kalra Jan 2015

Left Ventricle Volume Reconstruction To Minimize Scanning Time: Slice-Fitting Method, Prateek Kalra

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Assessment of left ventricle volume is usually done for diagnosis and prognosis of heart diseases. Slice-summation method is a standard method used to compute left ventricle volume where region of interest from several short axis (SA) slices are added. There are some limitations to this method, however. It requires short-axis slices to be taken parallel to the mitral valve plane from the base to apex. Moreover, scanning several short-axis slices is a tedious and time consuming process especially for studies that require several hundreds datasets. There are some existing methods to reconstruct left ventricle volume but most of them depend ...


Measuring Brain Activation Through Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Fmri) During Visual Task Learning, Mohd Saif Usmani Jan 2015

Measuring Brain Activation Through Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Fmri) During Visual Task Learning, Mohd Saif Usmani

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The purpose of this study is to understand the brain activity associated with learning a visual task by utilizing the applications of functional magnetic resonance imaging in cognitive neuroscience. The study was performed using two visual tasks referred to as aircraft and control, respectively. We compared the brain activation of these two visual tasks to understand the learning process of the participants. Fifteen young adults, ten males and five females, ranging in age from 19 to 35 years, participated in a ten-week study. Eight participants dropped out either voluntarily or were excluded for different reasons. The data analysis was completed ...


Design Of A Low-Cost Wireless Nirs System With Embedded Linux And A Smartphone Interface, Diogo Da Silva Dias Jan 2015

Design Of A Low-Cost Wireless Nirs System With Embedded Linux And A Smartphone Interface, Diogo Da Silva Dias

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Wireless near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) systems can help to reduce movement artifacts, and distraction due cables. Utilizing Embedded Linux (EL) can reduce size, development time, cost of a project and allow portability. The goal of this project is to develop a low-cost wireless small-sized NIRS system using EL and a Smartphone as the interface. This was achieved using a BeagleBone Black (BBB) with a deployed custom EL that: (1) controls two sources, (2) receives data from photodetectors (PDs), (3) processes, stores and transmits data via Bluetooth to an Android Smartphone. This device was implemented in under US$150 and its dimension ...


Evaluating Warehouse Strategies For Two-Product Class Distribution Planning, Bradley R. Guthrie Jan 2015

Evaluating Warehouse Strategies For Two-Product Class Distribution Planning, Bradley R. Guthrie

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Distribution networks often manage products with varying life-cycles, where demand for some products is relatively stable throughout the year (basic products) and the demand for others is short-lived (fashion products). Beyond the coordination of inventory and transportation decisions, decisions at the warehouse must be considered as its resources are frequently shared by both product classes simultaneously. For this two-product class distribution planning problem, we focus on characterizing three real-world distribution strategies observed in industry and evaluating them based on total distribution cost and warehouse measures (e.g., workforce plan and workload variation) against a benchmark ILS-based heuristic. Experimental results suggest ...


Reducing Error Rates In Intelligence, Surveillance, And Reconnaissance (Isr) Anomaly Detection Via Information Presentation Optimization, Donald Glen Church Jan 2015

Reducing Error Rates In Intelligence, Surveillance, And Reconnaissance (Isr) Anomaly Detection Via Information Presentation Optimization, Donald Glen Church

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In the ISR domain, time-critical decision-making and dealing with multiple information feeds places high demands on the human. When designing aids and tools, the decision maker must be taken into account. This research looks toward designing a decision aid based the personality type of the operator. The BFI is used to determine the impact of personality and decision aid type (graphical vs. textual) on performance. Results show Openness and Agreeableness to be the strongest single factors for decision aid impact on performance. A model was also developed to show how the human takes the information and relates it to a ...


An Improved Adaptive Filtering Approach For Removing Artifact From The Electroencephalogram, Justin Ronald Estepp Jan 2015

An Improved Adaptive Filtering Approach For Removing Artifact From The Electroencephalogram, Justin Ronald Estepp

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The biophysics of volume conduction that enable electrophysiological data acquisition also result in the mixing of data sources including possible, undesirable noise sources at the electrode interface. This work specifically focuses on improving the performance of the recursive least-squares (RLS) adaptive filtering method for removing eye movement artifact from the electroencephalogram. In biophysically-inspired simulated data, the RLS algorithm is verified to produce results that are inferior to extended infomax independent component analysis (ICA), the most widely used artifact correction approach in this problem space, due to its non-linear filter phase response and the presence of bidirectional contamination, or cross-talk, resultant ...


Finite Element Simulation Of Skull Fracture Evoked By Fall Injuries, Anthony Vicini Jan 2014

Finite Element Simulation Of Skull Fracture Evoked By Fall Injuries, Anthony Vicini

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This study presents novel predictive equations for von Mises stresses and deflection of bones in the frontal and lateral regions of the skull. The equations were developed based on results of a finite element model developed here. The model was validated for frontal and lateral loading conditions with input values mimetic to fall scenarios. Using neural network processing of the information derived from the model achieved R2 values of 0.9990 for both the stress and deflection. Based on the outcome of the fall victims, a threshold von Mises stress of 40.9 to 46.6 MPa was found to ...


Evaluation Of Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (Fnirs) For Assessment Of The Visual And Motor Cortices In Adults, Brenna Giacherio Jan 2014

Evaluation Of Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (Fnirs) For Assessment Of The Visual And Motor Cortices In Adults, Brenna Giacherio

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Introduction: Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a relatively young technique in the field of medical imaging. As such, it has yet to be widely implemented for clinical use, despite its promising advantages. However, unlike fMRI-its much bulkier and costly counterpart-fNIRS has yet to be proven as a standalone imaging tool within a clinical setting, particularly that of ophthalmology or physical therapy.

Methods: Ten healthy young adults (23.8 ┬▒ 4.8 years) participated in the study. Activation of the visual cortex was achieved utilizing various reversing checkerboard stimuli across three data collection sessions for each participant. Further, activation of the motor ...


Segmentation And Analysis Of Mris Of Infants With Dysphagia, Irfaan A. Dar Jan 2014

Segmentation And Analysis Of Mris Of Infants With Dysphagia, Irfaan A. Dar

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Neonates are at a rapid stage of development from birth throughout childhood. Impairments to certain cortical areas can result in long lasting neuro-cognitive dysfunctions. Disorders to the swallowing neural pathways can have detrimental effects throughout life course since methods to provide nutrition can be comprised. Dysphagia, or the inability to swallow, can be caused by a multitude of reasons, chiefly neurological, but the underlying disruptions to the neural pathways are not defined. In this study we investigated the growth of multiple cortical areas involved in the swallowing pathway and categorized feeding outcomes with neural growth. Results showed that infants that ...


Mobile Computing For Trauma And Surgical Care Continuous Education, Muhammad Y. Alamoud Jan 2013

Mobile Computing For Trauma And Surgical Care Continuous Education, Muhammad Y. Alamoud

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In medical domain, mobile computing has proven to be convenient, effective, and productive. With varying screen sizes, there is a challenge to present the right information in the right format such that medical practitioners can access information quickly. In this thesis, we discuss how mobile computing can be used as a way of continuous education for medical practitioners in the field of trauma and surgical care, and provide design guidelines on how to effectively present information on different mobile form factors. The focus is on three screen sizes- 4.7, 7 and 10.1 in., and three interaction methods - dropdown ...


An Investigation Of Thermal Imaging To Detect Physiological Indicators Of Stress In Humans, Carl Brady Cross Jan 2013

An Investigation Of Thermal Imaging To Detect Physiological Indicators Of Stress In Humans, Carl Brady Cross

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Real-time, stand-off sensing of humans to detect emotional state would be valuable in many defense, security and medical scenarios. Using a multimodal sensor platform that incorporates high-resolution visible-wavelength and mid-wave infrared cameras and a millimeter-wave (mmW) radar system, the detection of physiological indicators of psychological stress is tested through laboratory experiments. Our approach focuses on thermal imaging to measure temperature patterns in distinct facial regions representative of underlying hemodynamic patterns. Experiments were designed to: 1) determine the ability of thermal imaging to detect high levels of psychological stress and assess responses to physical versus psychological stressors; 2) evaluate the fidelity ...


Investigation Of The Utility Of Center Frequency In Electroencephalographic Classification Of Cognitive Workload Transitions, Jones Melissa Jan 2013

Investigation Of The Utility Of Center Frequency In Electroencephalographic Classification Of Cognitive Workload Transitions, Jones Melissa

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Successful classification of human cognitive workload is a vital component in identifying and avoiding potential performance deficits resulting from operator work overload. Previous research suggests that electroencephalogram (EEG) derived features, including center frequency, provide a robust signal which may be used to obtain highly accurate workload classification. The purpose of this work is to investigate evidence of physiological hysteresis and determine if center frequency improves a classifier's ability to correctly identify workload level. Results confirmed that including spectral data creates the most robust feature sets, while center frequency across all bands is equally reliable for classifying workload in the ...


Utility Of A Volume-Regulated Drive System For Direct Mechanical Ventricular Actuation, Benjamin A. Schmitt Jan 2013

Utility Of A Volume-Regulated Drive System For Direct Mechanical Ventricular Actuation, Benjamin A. Schmitt

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Direct Mechanical Ventricular Actuation (DMVA) is a non-blood contacting cardiac assist device that augments ventricular function. The purpose of this study was to determine if a volume-regulated "hand pump" drive system and a pressure-regulated "switch tank" drive system provide equivalent levels of cardiac support. Canine (n=2) and swine (n=4) were instrumented for hemodynamic monitoring and intravascular echocardiography. DMVA support was assessed during both severe heart failure and fibrillation. Pump function was evaluated using hemodynamic measures to calculate stroke work. Myocardial function was assessed using echocardiographic speckle tracking to quantify strain rate. Results were compared between groups using paired ...


Application Of The Human-Machine Interaction Model To Multiple Attribute Task Battery (Matb): Task Component Interaction And The Strategy Paradigm, Craig M. Walters Jan 2012

Application Of The Human-Machine Interaction Model To Multiple Attribute Task Battery (Matb): Task Component Interaction And The Strategy Paradigm, Craig M. Walters

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The Multiple-Attribute Task Battery (MATB) is composed of four simultaneously running components to which a human operator responds. A prior report has quantified information content as a machine input baud rate using the Hick-Hyman and Fitt's Laws for three of the four components and defines a strategy function. This report covers methods to quantify information content of the fourth component, creating a single metric which describes overall task complexity and evaluates human performance and strategy. Six MATB task-scenarios (combinations of two, three, or all four MATB components) each at two input baud rates are evaluated. Subjects were also provided ...


Optimization Of Wsu Total Ankle Replacement Systems, Bradley Jay Elliott Jan 2012

Optimization Of Wsu Total Ankle Replacement Systems, Bradley Jay Elliott

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Total ankle arthroplasty (TAR) is performed in order to reduce the pain and loss of ambulation in patients with various forms of arthritis and trauma. Although replacement devices fail by a number of mechanisms, wear in the polyethylene liner constitutes one of the dominating failure modes. This leads to instability and loosening of the implant. Mechanisms that contribute to wear in the liners are high contact and subsurface stresses that break down the material over time. Therefore, it is important to understand the gait that generates these stresses. Methods to characterize and decrease wear in Ohio TARs have been performed ...