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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

A Novel Approach For Cancer Characterization Using Latent Dirichlet Allocation And Disease-Specific Genomic Analysis, Hima Bindu Yalamanchili Jan 2018

A Novel Approach For Cancer Characterization Using Latent Dirichlet Allocation And Disease-Specific Genomic Analysis, Hima Bindu Yalamanchili

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Two challenging problems in the clinical study of cancer are the characterization of cancer subtypes and the classification of individual patients according to those subtypes. Further, understanding the role of differential gene expression in the development of and molecular response to cancer is a complex problem that remains challenging, in part due to the sheer number of genes and gene products involved. Traditional statistical approaches addressing these problems are hindered by within-class heterogeneity and challenges inherent in data integration across high-dimensional data. In addition, many current machine learning methods do not lend themselves to biological interpretation. We have developed a ...


Effect Of Dimensionality On In Vitro Growth Environment And Mesenchymal Stem Cell Function, Fatema Tuj Zohora Jan 2018

Effect Of Dimensionality On In Vitro Growth Environment And Mesenchymal Stem Cell Function, Fatema Tuj Zohora

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The use of the standard two dimensional (2D) cell culture has laid down the fundamentals of molecular and cell biology. However, recent advances in cell-based regenerative medicine raises the concern on deconstructing cellular behaviors in more physiologically relevant three dimensional (3D) microenvironments. Differences in cell response in 2D versus 3D systems arise from the perturbations in gene expression patterns that stem from how cells sense their underlying 2D or surrounding 3D matrices and adjust their phenotypes accordingly. Thus, cells are no longer considered as a solitary entity of genome but a context arises from a combinatorial interactions of cell-ECM, cell-cell ...


M1 To M2 Macrophage Induction Using Retinoic Acid And Mesenchymal Stem Cells Loaded On An Electrospun Pullulan/Gelatin Scaffold To Promote Healing Of Chronic Wounds, Kaivon Assani Jan 2018

M1 To M2 Macrophage Induction Using Retinoic Acid And Mesenchymal Stem Cells Loaded On An Electrospun Pullulan/Gelatin Scaffold To Promote Healing Of Chronic Wounds, Kaivon Assani

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Modulation of macrophage polarization is required for effective tissue repair and regenerative therapies. Conversion of macrophages from inflammatory M1 to fibrotic M2 phenotype could help in diseases such as chronic wound which are stuck in inflammatory state. During the inflammatory phase, macrophages are of the inflammatory phenotype (M1) and distribute pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF-a and IL1[beta] which are microbicidal and recruit/activate cells. In normal wound healing macrophages then switch to a fibrotic phenotype (M2) promoting wound closure by angiogenesis, and matrix deposition. Chronic wounds are a major biological and financial burden to both patients and the health care ...


Coupling Of Mechanical And Electromagnetic Fields Stimulation For Bone Tissue Engineering, Alyaa I. Aldebs Jan 2018

Coupling Of Mechanical And Electromagnetic Fields Stimulation For Bone Tissue Engineering, Alyaa I. Aldebs

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Alternative bone regeneration strategies that do not rely on harvested tissue or exogenous growth factors and cells are badly needed. However, creating living tissue constructs that are structurally, functionally and mechanically comparable to the natural bone has been a challenge so far. A major hurdle has been recreating the bone tissue microenvironment using the appropriate combination of cells, scaffold and stimulation to direct differentiation. This project presents a bone regeneration formulation that involves the use of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stems cells (hASCs) and a 3D scaffold based on a self-assembled peptide hydrogel doped with superparamagnetic nanoparticles (NPs). Osteogenic differentiation of ...


Utilizing Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy For Prediction Of Cognitive Workload In Noisy Work Environments, Ryan Gabbard, Mary E. Fendley, Irfaan A. Dar, Rik Warren, Nasser H. Kashou Oct 2017

Utilizing Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy For Prediction Of Cognitive Workload In Noisy Work Environments, Ryan Gabbard, Mary E. Fendley, Irfaan A. Dar, Rik Warren, Nasser H. Kashou

Biomedical, Industrial & Human Factors Engineering Faculty Publications

Occupational noise frequently occurs in the work environment in military intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance operations. This impacts cognitive performance by acting as a stressor, potentially interfering with the analysts’ decision-making process. We investigated the effects of different noise stimuli on analysts’ performance and workload in anomaly detection by simulating a noisy work environment. We utilized functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to quantify oxy-hemoglobin (HbO) and deoxy-hemoglobin concentration changes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), as well as behavioral measures, which include eye tracking, reaction time, and accuracy rate. We hypothesized that noisy environments would have a negative effect on the participant in ...


Human Biomechanics Ii Course Project, Abdelaziz Mohammad Jun 2017

Human Biomechanics Ii Course Project, Abdelaziz Mohammad

Best Integrated Writing

Mohammad tested Human Arm Module PASCO ME-6807A, in order to determine some of the biomechanical characteristics, such as force, tension, instantaneous angular velocity, and acceleration vs. angular position required for various movements and arm positions in space.


Brain Lesions Among Orally Fed And Gastrostomy-Fed Dysphagic Preterm Infants: Can Routine Qualitative Or Volumetric Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Predict Feeding Outcomes?, Nasser H. Kashou, Irfaan Akram Dar, Mohamed A. El-Mahdy, Charles Pluto, Mark Smith, Ish K. Gulati, Warren Lo, Sudarshan R. Jadcherla Apr 2017

Brain Lesions Among Orally Fed And Gastrostomy-Fed Dysphagic Preterm Infants: Can Routine Qualitative Or Volumetric Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Predict Feeding Outcomes?, Nasser H. Kashou, Irfaan Akram Dar, Mohamed A. El-Mahdy, Charles Pluto, Mark Smith, Ish K. Gulati, Warren Lo, Sudarshan R. Jadcherla

Biomedical, Industrial & Human Factors Engineering Faculty Publications

Introduction: The usefulness of qualitative or quantitative volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in early detection of brain structural changes and prediction of adverse outcomes in neonatal illnesses warrants further investigation. Our aim was to correlate certain brain injuries and the brain volume of feeding-related cortical and subcortical regions with feeding method at discharge among preterm dysphagic infants.

Materials and methods: Using a retrospective observational study design, we examined MRI data among 43 (22 male; born at 31.5 ± 0.8 week gestation) infants who went home on oral feeding or gastrostomy feeding (G-tube). MRI scans were segmented, and volumes of ...


Context-Dependence Of Physiological Systems: Environment-Physiology Interactions In The Respiratory Control System, Joseph M. Santin Jan 2017

Context-Dependence Of Physiological Systems: Environment-Physiology Interactions In The Respiratory Control System, Joseph M. Santin

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We know that animals are tuned to survive different environmental conditions or else life would not exist. Unfortunately, this is often forgotten or ignored when designing experiments. As Marsh Tenney articulated, "The physiologist keeps the whole always in mind. He accepts the tactical necessity of reductionism to understand parts, but, once done, for him it is only the beginning, never the end” (from Remmers, 2005). In an era when it is all too common to take environmental complexity out of the organism to understand physiology, my work puts some of that complexity back in the study of organisms. I take ...


Functions Of The Apical Na+/ K+/ 2cl- Cotransporter 1 In Choroid Plexus Epithelial Cells., Jeannine Marie Crum Gregoriades Jan 2017

Functions Of The Apical Na+/ K+/ 2cl- Cotransporter 1 In Choroid Plexus Epithelial Cells., Jeannine Marie Crum Gregoriades

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Choroid plexus epithelial cells (CPECs) secrete cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and regulate its electrolyte composition. CPECs express both the Na+/ K+ ATPase and the Na+/ K+/ 2Cl- cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) on their apical membrane (CSF facing), deviating from the typical basolateral membrane location in chloride secretory epithelia. Given this unusual location of NKCC1 and the unknown intracellular Na+ and Cl- concentrations of CPECs, the cotransporter function in these cells is not understood. Further, the direction of net ion and associated water fluxes mediated by NKCC1 under basal physiological conditions in CPECs is controversial. Determining the direction of NKCC1- mediated fluxes is ...


Identification Of Novel Ligands And Structural Requirements For Heterodimerization Of The Liver X Receptor Alpha, Shimpi Bedi Jan 2017

Identification Of Novel Ligands And Structural Requirements For Heterodimerization Of The Liver X Receptor Alpha, Shimpi Bedi

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LXRs, LXRa (NR1H3) and LXRß (NR1H2), are ligand-activated transcription factors that are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Oxysterols and nonsteroidal synthetic compounds bind directly to LXRs and influence the expression of LXR dependent genes. The use of murine models and LXR-selective agonists have established the important role of LXRs as sterol sensors that govern the absorption, transport, and catabolism of cholesterol. Upon activation, these receptors have been shown to increase reverse cholesterol transport from the macrophage back to the liver to aid in the removal of excess cholesterol. Not surprisingly, LXR dysregulation is a feature of several human diseases ...


Analytical-Based Methodologies To Examine In Vitro Nanokinetics Of Silver Nanoparticles, Sesha Lakshmi Arathi Paluri Jan 2017

Analytical-Based Methodologies To Examine In Vitro Nanokinetics Of Silver Nanoparticles, Sesha Lakshmi Arathi Paluri

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Advancements in the nanotechnology have taken a huge leap in 21st century resulting in 1814 consumer products containing nanomaterials. About 47% of these products belong to the health and fitness sector and ~24% utilize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Despite the promising biomedical applications of AgNPs (e.g. bone cements, contrasting agents, and drug-carriers), lack of standardized methods for examining their nanokinetics (i.e., Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Elimination (ADMEs)) limit their clinical implementation. The current work addresses this knowledge gap by developing analytical-based approaches for studying in vitro ADMEs of AgNPs. To demonstrate the versatility of these methodologies, two in vitro ...


Novel Mechanisms Underlying Warm-Up And Percussion Myotonia In Myotonia Congenita, Kevin Richard Nnovak Jan 2017

Novel Mechanisms Underlying Warm-Up And Percussion Myotonia In Myotonia Congenita, Kevin Richard Nnovak

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Patients with myotonia congenita have muscle hyperexcitability due to loss-of-function mutations in the ClC-1 chloride channel in skeletal muscle, which causes spontaneous firing of muscle action potentials (myotonia), producing muscle stiffness. Triggers for myotonia can occur voluntarily at the neuromuscular junction or involuntarily by striking the muscle with a reflex hammer (percussion myotonia). In patients, muscle stiffness lessens with exercise, a change known as the warm-up phenomenon. Our goal was to identify the mechanism underlying warm-up and percussion myotonia and to use this information to guide development of novel therapies. To determine these underlying mechanisms, we used a drug to ...


Dysregulation Of Phospholipase D (Pld) Isoforms Increases Breast Cancer Cell Invasion, Kristen Fite Jan 2017

Dysregulation Of Phospholipase D (Pld) Isoforms Increases Breast Cancer Cell Invasion, Kristen Fite

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Breast cancer remains the second most prevalent cancer among women in the U.S. with metastatic breast cancer having the worst prognosis. A rapidly proliferating tumor under various stressors will promote phenotypic cellular changes, known as epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which allows cells to begin to invade surrounding tissue, enter the circulatory system, and eventually seed a distant metastatic site. The phospholipase D (PLD) enzymes are critical regulators of cell signaling pathways necessary for cell migration. While the importance of PLD enzymes in cancer cell invasion is well known, clinically applicable methods of PLD inhibition are not yet available. The best-studied ...


Sensorimotor Deficits Following Oxaliplatin Chemotherapy, Jacob Adam Vincent Jan 2017

Sensorimotor Deficits Following Oxaliplatin Chemotherapy, Jacob Adam Vincent

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Neurotoxicity is one of the most significant side effects diminishing clinical efficacy and patient quality of life during and following chemotherapy. Oxaliplatin (OX) is a platinum based chemotherapy agent used in the treatment of colorectal cancer. Colorectal cancer currently ranks as the 4th most common cancer, and the majority of patients receive OX as a part of their adjuvant therapy. OX based adjuvant therapies significantly improve 5 year survival rates, however in many cases patients must stop treatment early because of the neurotoxic side effects. OX causes two clinically distinct forms of neurotoxicity. Acutely, within hours and for days following ...


Persistent Inward Currents Play A Role In Muscle Dysfunction Seen In Myotonia Congenita, Ahmed Alaa Hawash Jan 2017

Persistent Inward Currents Play A Role In Muscle Dysfunction Seen In Myotonia Congenita, Ahmed Alaa Hawash

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Myotonia congenita is a rare skeletal muscle channelopathy caused by a reduced chloride channel (ClC-1) current, which results in debilitating muscle hyperexcitability, prolonged contractions, and transient episodes of weakness. The excitatory events that trigger myotonic action potentials in the absence of stabilizing ClC-1 current are not fully understood. My in vitro intracellular recordings from a mouse homozygous knockout of ClC-1 revealed a slow after-depolarization (AfD) that triggers myotonic action potentials. The AfD is well-explained by a tetrododoxin-sensitive and voltage-dependent Na+ persistent inward current (NaPIC). Notably, this NaPIC undergoes slow inactivation over seconds, thus providing the first mechanistic explanation for the ...


Functions Of The Apical Na+/ K+/ 2cl- Cotransporter 1 In Choroid Plexus Epithelial Cells, Jeannine Marie Crum Gregoriades Jan 2017

Functions Of The Apical Na+/ K+/ 2cl- Cotransporter 1 In Choroid Plexus Epithelial Cells, Jeannine Marie Crum Gregoriades

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

Choroid plexus epithelial cells (CPECs) secrete cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and regulate its electrolyte composition. CPECs express both the Na+/ K+ ATPase and the Na+/ K+/ 2Cl- cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) on their apical membrane (CSF facing), deviating from the typical basolateral membrane location in chloride secretory epithelia. Given this unusual location of NKCC1 and the unknown intracellular Na+ and Cl- concentrations of CPECs, the cotransporter function in these cells is not understood. Further, the direction of net ion and associated water fluxes mediated by NKCC1 under basal physiological conditions in CPECs is controversial. Determining the direction of NKCC1- mediated fluxes is ...


Persistent Inward Currents Play A Role In Muscle Dysfunction Seen In Myotonia Congenita, Ahmed Alaa Hawash Jan 2017

Persistent Inward Currents Play A Role In Muscle Dysfunction Seen In Myotonia Congenita, Ahmed Alaa Hawash

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Myotonia congenita is a rare skeletal muscle channelopathy caused by a reduced chloride channel (ClC-1) current, which results in debilitating muscle hyperexcitability, prolonged contractions, and transient episodes of weakness. The excitatory events that trigger myotonic action potentials in the absence of stabilizing ClC-1 current are not fully understood. My in vitro intracellular recordings from a mouse homozygous knockout of ClC-1 revealed a slow after-depolarization (AfD) that triggers myotonic action potentials. The AfD is well-explained by a tetrododoxin-sensitive and voltage-dependent Na+ persistent inward current (NaPIC). Notably, this NaPIC undergoes slow inactivation over seconds, thus providing the first mechanistic explanation for the ...


Identifying The Impact Of Noise On Anomaly Detection Through Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (Fnirs) And Eye-Tracking, Ryan Dwight Gabbard Jan 2017

Identifying The Impact Of Noise On Anomaly Detection Through Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (Fnirs) And Eye-Tracking, Ryan Dwight Gabbard

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Occupational noise frequently occurs in the work environment in military intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) operations. This impacts cognitive performance by acting as a stressor, potentially interfering with the analysts' decision making process. In this study the effects of different noise stimuli on analysts' performance and workload in anomaly detection were investigated by simulating a noisy work environment. Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was utilized to quantify oxy-hemoglobin (HbO) and deoxy-hemoglobin (HbD) concentration changes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), as well as behavioral measures which include eye-tracking, reaction time, and accuracy rate. It was found that HbO for some of ...


A Novel System For Detection Of Dna Double Strand Breaks And Repair In Human Cells, Todd Warren Lewis Jan 2017

A Novel System For Detection Of Dna Double Strand Breaks And Repair In Human Cells, Todd Warren Lewis

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Imperative to genomic stability is the ability of the cell to repair damaged DNA which can occur from numerous endogenous byproducts of metabolism or exogenous components from the environment. The Fanconi anemia pathway is a DNA repair mechanism used by human cells to resolve multiple forms of DNA damage including interstrand crosslinks (ICL). Fanconi anemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder characterized by genome instability, developmental abnormalities, cancer predisposition and bone marrow failure. FA is attributed to a mutations in at least 18 genes (FANCA-FANCT) that play a concerted role in DNA repair. FANCT is the latest discovery in ...


Somatic Stimulation Causes Frontoparietal Cortical Changes In Neonates: A Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study, Nasser H. Kashou, Irfaan Akram Dar, Kathryn Hasenstab, Ramzi W. Nahhas, Sudarshan R. Jadcherla Aug 2016

Somatic Stimulation Causes Frontoparietal Cortical Changes In Neonates: A Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study, Nasser H. Kashou, Irfaan Akram Dar, Kathryn Hasenstab, Ramzi W. Nahhas, Sudarshan R. Jadcherla

Biomedical, Industrial & Human Factors Engineering Faculty Publications

Palmar and plantar grasp are the foremost primitive neonatal reflexes and functions. Persistence of these reflexes in infancy is a sign of evolving cerebral palsy. Our aims were to establish measurement feasibility in a clinical setting and to characterize changes in oxyhemoglobin (HbO) and deoxyhemoglobin (HbD) concentration in the bilateral frontoparietal cortex in unsedated neonates at the crib-side using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). We hypothesized that bilateral concentration changes will occur upon somatic central and peripheral somatic stimulation. Thirteen preterm neonates (five males) underwent time 1, and six (two males) returned for time 2 (mean PMA ¼ 41.6 and ...


Long-Term Velaglucerase Alfa Treatment In Children With Gaucher Disease Type 1 Naïve To Enzyme Replacement Therapy Or Previously Treated With Imiglucerase, Laurie Smith, William Rhead, Joel Charrow, Suma P. Shankar, Ashish Bavdekar, Nicola Longo, Rebecca Mardach, Paul Harmatz, Thomas N. Hangartner, Hak-Myung Lee, Eric Crombez, Gregory M. Pastores Feb 2016

Long-Term Velaglucerase Alfa Treatment In Children With Gaucher Disease Type 1 Naïve To Enzyme Replacement Therapy Or Previously Treated With Imiglucerase, Laurie Smith, William Rhead, Joel Charrow, Suma P. Shankar, Ashish Bavdekar, Nicola Longo, Rebecca Mardach, Paul Harmatz, Thomas N. Hangartner, Hak-Myung Lee, Eric Crombez, Gregory M. Pastores

Biomedical, Industrial & Human Factors Engineering Faculty Publications

Background

Gaucher Disease type 1 (GD1) often manifests in childhood. Early treatment with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) may prevent disease complications. We report the assessment of velaglucerase alfa ERT in pediatric GD1 patients who participated in a long-term extension study (HGT-GCB-044, ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00635427).

Methods

Safety and efficacy were evaluated in pediatric patients receiving velaglucerase alfa 30–60 U/kg by intravenous infusion every other week. In addition to key hematological and visceral efficacy assessments, exploratory assessments conducted specifically in pediatric patients included evaluation of height, bone age, bone marrow burden, and Tanner stage of puberty.

Results

The study ...


Early Assessment Of Burn Severity In Human Tissue With Multi-Wavelength Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging, Chien Sing Poon Jan 2016

Early Assessment Of Burn Severity In Human Tissue With Multi-Wavelength Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging, Chien Sing Poon

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Burn injuries such as thermal burns, which are caused by contact with flames, hot liquids, hot surfaces, and other sources of high heat as well as chemical burns and electrical burns, affects at least 500,000 people in the United States, to which 45,000 of them require medical treatment and 3,500 of them result in death. It has also been reported that in the United States alone, fire results in a death approximately every three hours and an injury every 33 minutes. Early knowledge about burn severity can lead to improved outcome for patients. In this study, the ...


Design And Evaluation Of A Fiber Optic Shape Tracker For Use As A Navigational Aid In Endovascular Guidewires And Catheters, Benjamin Stewart Rinehart Jan 2016

Design And Evaluation Of A Fiber Optic Shape Tracker For Use As A Navigational Aid In Endovascular Guidewires And Catheters, Benjamin Stewart Rinehart

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Endovascular intervention is the current gold-standard for screening and treating aortic aneurysms and complications caused by peripheral vascular disease (PAD). A typical endovascular procedure begins with inserting an endovascular guidewire into the femoral artery via incision. A catheter is then threaded over the guidewire and both tools are then navigated to the treatment site. The navigation is guided solely by fluoroscopy (x-ray) imagery that is performed throughout the duration of the procedure. Not only does this method provide limited 2-D guidance, but also exposes the patient and medical staff to high levels of radiation. This thesis research focuses on the ...


Comparison Of Vascular Pulsatility In The Native Beating Heart Versus Direct Mechanical Ventricular Actuation Support Of The Fibrillating Heart, Nathan Victor Wright Jan 2016

Comparison Of Vascular Pulsatility In The Native Beating Heart Versus Direct Mechanical Ventricular Actuation Support Of The Fibrillating Heart, Nathan Victor Wright

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Most conventional cardiac assist devices today employ continuous flow blood pumps to supplement function in the dysfunctional heart. Continuous flow pumps are predominantly preferred to the original pulsatile pumps due to the smaller size (greater implantability) and higher efficiency they achieve. However, interest in the impact of vascular pulsatility on human health has arisen from the growing evidence of higher complications with nonpulsatile devices compared to pulsatile devices. Direct cardiac compression (DCC) offers a unique solution to the pulsatility issue through the application of force directly to the heart's surface. It is believed that employing the existing pump architecture ...


Stimulus And Optode Placement Effects On Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Of Visual Cortex, Nasser H. Kashou, Brenna M. Giacherio Jan 2016

Stimulus And Optode Placement Effects On Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Of Visual Cortex, Nasser H. Kashou, Brenna M. Giacherio

Biomedical, Industrial & Human Factors Engineering Faculty Publications

Functional near-infrared spectroscopy has yet to be implemented as a stand-alone technique within an ophthalmology clinical setting, despite its promising advantages. The present study aims to further investigate reliability of visual cortical signals. This was achieved by: (1) assessing the effects of optode placements using the 10–20 International System of Electrode Placement consisting of 28 channels, (2) determining effects of stimulus size on response, and (3) evaluating response variability as a result of cap placement across three sessions. Ten participants with mean age 23.8 4.8 years (five male) and varying types of hair color and thickness were ...


Hand-Grasping And Finger Tapping Induced Similar Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Cortical Responses, Nasser H. Kashou, Brenna M. Giacherio, Ramzi W. Nahhas, Sudarshan R. Jadcherla Jan 2016

Hand-Grasping And Finger Tapping Induced Similar Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Cortical Responses, Nasser H. Kashou, Brenna M. Giacherio, Ramzi W. Nahhas, Sudarshan R. Jadcherla

Biomedical, Industrial & Human Factors Engineering Faculty Publications

Despite promising advantages such as low cost and portability of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), it has yet to be widely implemented outside of basic research. Specifically, fNIRS has yet to be proven as a standalone tool within a clinical setting. The objective of this study was to assess hemodynamic concentration changes at the primary and premotor motor cortices as a result of simple whole-hand grasping and sequential finger-opposition (tapping) tasks. These tasks were repeated over 3 days in a randomized manner. Ten healthy young adults (23.8 4.8 years) participated in the study. Quantitatively, no statistically significant differences were ...


Novel Cell Killing Mechanism Of Hydroxyurea In The Fission Yeast Schizosaccharomyces Pombe And Its Implications In Improving Antifungal Therapy, Amanpreet Singh Jan 2016

Novel Cell Killing Mechanism Of Hydroxyurea In The Fission Yeast Schizosaccharomyces Pombe And Its Implications In Improving Antifungal Therapy, Amanpreet Singh

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Hydroxyurea (HU, also known as hydroxycarbamide) is a well known ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) inhibitor that depletes cellular deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs, the building blocks of DNA). Depleted dNTP pools inside the proliferating cells stalls ongoing DNA replication forks, leading to the activation of the well-conserved DNA replication checkpoint (also known as intra-S phase checkpoint) pathway. One of the major functions of the checkpoint pathway is to protect ongoing forks from collapsing. Stalled forks, if not protected by the checkpoint pathway, lead to DNA damage and ultimately cell death. Thus it is believed that DNA damage resulting from collapsed forks is the ...


Extension Of Multivariate Analyses To The Field Of Microbial Ecology, Vijay Shankar Jan 2016

Extension Of Multivariate Analyses To The Field Of Microbial Ecology, Vijay Shankar

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Ground-breaking advancements in molecular and analytical techniques in the past decade have enabled researchers to accumulate data at an extraordinary rate. Especially in the field of microbial ecology, the introduction of technologies such as high-throughput sequencing, quantitative microarrays, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry has led to the interrogation of diverse and previously unexplored microbial communities at unparalleled depth. Analysis and interpretation of patterns within datasets acquired with such high-throughput methods require powerful statistical approaches. A class of such techniques called multivariate statistical analyses is an excellent choice for analysis of complex microbiota-related datasets. This field of statistics is constantly ...


Modeling Effects Of Diet On Human Gut Microbiota, Richard Thomas Agans Jan 2016

Modeling Effects Of Diet On Human Gut Microbiota, Richard Thomas Agans

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The human gut microbiota is integrally involved in the metabolism of nutrients contained within the human diet. Studies into human nutrition have primarily been carried out using human and animal models. These studies are extremely important in our understanding of human nutrition, however, suffer from inherent limitations including unique microbial compositions between individuals, compliance in human studies, inability to carry out mechanistic studies, and inability to interrogate proximal regions of the gut without applying invasive techniques. In vitro gut simulator systems circumvent many of these limitations in animal and human models by allowing control of gut environmental conditions, decreasing variability ...


The Role Of Interleukin-2 In Directing Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Function And Its Implications For Understanding The Progression Of Atherosclerosis, Prakash Arumugam Jan 2016

The Role Of Interleukin-2 In Directing Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Function And Its Implications For Understanding The Progression Of Atherosclerosis, Prakash Arumugam

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Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disorder of the vasculature leading to the development of plaques within vessel walls. A critical component of atherosclerosis involves migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) into the developing plaque, however, its mechanism is not yet understood. Previous studies have reported that IL-2 is deposited within the vasculature and IL-2 accumulates within atherosclerotic plaques due to secretion by infiltrating Th-1 cells. A limited number of studies suggest that VSMCs express a partial IL-2 receptor, comprising the ß and ¿ subunit. This suggests that IL-2 may elicit a physiological response in VSMCs. Considering IL-2’s proliferative ...