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Monitoring Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Toxins Via Miniaturized Electrochemical Assemblies, Thaddaeus Webster 2015 Northeastern University

Monitoring Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Toxins Via Miniaturized Electrochemical Assemblies, Thaddaeus Webster

Chemical Engineering Dissertations

The production of pyocyanin from the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa was probed using a variety of miniaturized electrochemical systems. Goal 1 used disposable screen printed carbon electrodes to measure pyocyanin in medically relevant samples showing for the first time that pyocyanin can be detected at medically relevant concentrations (1-100 µM) without sample processing. Goal 2 coupled these same electrodes with Polydimethylsiloxane growth chambers to expose P. aeruginosa biofilms to varying concentrations of colistin sulphate. A reduction in electrochemical signal from pyocyanin, of approximately 80% when exposed to 100 mg/L colistin sulphate, highlights this molecules relation to biofilm health. Goal ...


Gold Nanostructures For Sensing And Functional Bioimaging, Maximilian Y. Fei 2015 Washington University in St Louis

Gold Nanostructures For Sensing And Functional Bioimaging, Maximilian Y. Fei

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Gold nanostructures offer an extremely promising path forward in the fields of imaging and sensing because of their unique optical and chemical properties. Here, we demonstrate that plasmonic nanostructures can be employed as nanoscale transducers to monitor the growth and phase transitions in ultrathin polymer films. In particular, gold nanorods with high refractive index sensitivity (~150 nm / refractive index unit (RIU)) were employed to probe the growth and swelling of polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEM). By comparing the wavelength shift and extinction intensity of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of the gold nanorods coated with PEM in air and water, the ...


A Space-Variant Model For Motion Interpretation Across The Visual Field, Guido Maiello, Manuela Chessa, Peter J. Bex, Fabio Solari 2015 University College London

A Space-Variant Model For Motion Interpretation Across The Visual Field, Guido Maiello, Manuela Chessa, Peter J. Bex, Fabio Solari

MODVIS Workshop

We implement a neural model for the estimation of the focus of radial motion (FRM) at different retinal locations and we assess the model by comparing its results with respect to the precision with which human observers can estimate the FRM in naturalistic, moving dead leaves stimuli. The proposed neural model describes the deep hierarchy of the first stages of the dorsal visual pathway [Solari et al., 2014]. Such a model is space-variant, since it takes into account the retino-cortical transformation of the primate visual system through log-polar mapping that produces a cortical representation of the visual signal to the ...


Mitochondrial Dysfunction And Loss Of Glutamate Uptake In Primary Astrocytes Exposed To Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles, Christina L. Wilson 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Mitochondrial Dysfunction And Loss Of Glutamate Uptake In Primary Astrocytes Exposed To Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles, Christina L. Wilson

Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering Theses, Dissertations, & Student Research

The proper function of astrocytes is critical for brain health as they are the most abundant cells in the brain which monitor ion homeostasis, recycle neurotransmitters and respond to tissue damage therefore disruption in astrocyte function can result in overall detrimental effects and has been linked with neurodegenerative diseases. Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles are currently the second most produced engineered nanomaterial in the world with vast usage in consumer products leading to recurrent human exposure. Animal studies indicate significant nanoparticle accumulation in the brain while cellular toxicity studies demonstrate negative effects on neuronal cell viability and function. However, the ...


Fea Analysis Of The Taper-Trunnion Interface In A Metal On Metal Hip Implant, Kyle M. Bradley 2015 Cedarville University

Fea Analysis Of The Taper-Trunnion Interface In A Metal On Metal Hip Implant, Kyle M. Bradley

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Metal on metal total hip replacements are a common procedure in which the hip joint is replaced with a metal stem, a metal femoral head and a metal socket, usually made of titanium or cobalt chromium. The stem has a tapered region (trunnion) where the femoral head is impacted onto. This creates what is known as the taper-trunnion interface within a hip implant. However, these hip implants seem to be very susceptible to fretting corrosion, where the corrosive fluid environment of the body accelerates the process of wear between two contact surfaces. Previous research has suggested that the design parameters ...


Design Of Tkr Tibial Insert For Bowlegged Gait, Timothy L. Norman, Michael R. Gardner, Nathan A. Hanbury, Joel D. Hutchison, Dana C. Madsen, Joel D. Slabach, Kyle M. Bradley, J. D. Blaha 2015 Cedarville University

Design Of Tkr Tibial Insert For Bowlegged Gait, Timothy L. Norman, Michael R. Gardner, Nathan A. Hanbury, Joel D. Hutchison, Dana C. Madsen, Joel D. Slabach, Kyle M. Bradley, J. D. Blaha

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

One of the causes associated with total knee replacement (TKR) surgery is abnormal gait. In these gait cases, however, the TKR does not solve the ultimate issue because abnormal gait still occurs, and similar excessive forces still occur on the knee. It is likely that the TKR will experience accelerated wear, and the individual may have to undergo a second TKR sometime in the future. For our purposes, bowleggedness is either the external rotation of the hip or excessive varus of the knee. It was hypothesized that the inability to internally rotate the hip increases adduction moment and medial compartment ...


Cilia Have A Significant Role In Regulating Cell Size In Response To Fluid Flow Induced Shear Stress In A Flow Chamber, Schuyler E. Price, Ryan M. Hecklinger, Matthew B. Welkie Jr., Timothy L. Norman, Elisha R. Injeti 2015 Cedarville University

Cilia Have A Significant Role In Regulating Cell Size In Response To Fluid Flow Induced Shear Stress In A Flow Chamber, Schuyler E. Price, Ryan M. Hecklinger, Matthew B. Welkie Jr., Timothy L. Norman, Elisha R. Injeti

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Cilia are hair-like protrusions on the apical surface of cells. Their function is to relay mechanical signals like shear stress from extracellular into intracellular environment and thereby maintain cellular homeostasis. Ciliary dysfunctions include polycystic kidney disease and new therapeutic interventions based on ciliary function are under investigation. The current study evaluates the use of a custom designed fluid flow chamber’s ability to study the role of cilia in regulating cell size in response to shear stress.

A fluid flow chamber that continually maintains laminar flow at different flow rates and temperature was designed. Endothelial wild type cells (ETWT) that ...


Sound-Induced In-Plane And Out-Of-Plane Motion Of Human Tympanic Membranes, Morteza Khaleghi, Jeffrey T. Cheng, Cosme Furlong, John J. Rosowski 2015 Worcester Polytechnic Institute

Sound-Induced In-Plane And Out-Of-Plane Motion Of Human Tympanic Membranes, Morteza Khaleghi, Jeffrey T. Cheng, Cosme Furlong, John J. Rosowski

Morteza Khaleghi

The acousto-mechanical-transformer behavior of the Tympanic Membrane (TM) is determined by its geometry (shape and thickness) and mechanical properties. The questions of “How the TM couples acoustic energy to the ossicles?” and “How TM shape and vibration affect this series of events?” have yet to be fully answered. Holographic studies of 1D vibrations of the TM have been reported by several groups; however, 3D measurements of TM motions are few. In this study, we use full-field-of-view holographic techniques to measure near simultaneously the shape and 3D sound-induced displacement of cadaveric human TMs. Combinations of shape and 3D displacement measurements are ...


Altered Cd161bright Cd8+ Mucosal Associated Invariant T (Mait)-Like Cell Dynamics And Increased Differentiation States Among Juvenile Type 1 Diabetics., Robert Z. Harms, Kristina M. Lorenzo, Kevin P. Corley, Monina S. Cabrera, Nora Sarvetnick 2015 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Altered Cd161bright Cd8+ Mucosal Associated Invariant T (Mait)-Like Cell Dynamics And Increased Differentiation States Among Juvenile Type 1 Diabetics., Robert Z. Harms, Kristina M. Lorenzo, Kevin P. Corley, Monina S. Cabrera, Nora Sarvetnick

Journal Articles: Regenerative Medicine

Type 1A diabetes (T1D) is believed to be caused by immune-mediated destruction of β-cells, but the immunological basis for T1D remains controversial. Microbial diversity promotes the maturation and activation of certain immune subsets, including CD161bright CD8+ mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, and alterations in gut mucosal responses have been reported in type 1 diabetics (T1Ds). We analyzed T cell populations in peripheral blood leukocytes from juvenile T1Ds and healthy controls. We found that proportion and absolute number of MAIT cells were similar between T1Ds and controls. Furthermore, while MAIT cell proportions increased with age among healthy controls, this trend ...


Transitioning The Benefits Of Algal Growth To The Byproducts Of Oil And Natural Gas Production, Alan Hodges, Tyler Gladwin, Cody Maxfield, Jonathan Wood 2015 Utah State University

Transitioning The Benefits Of Algal Growth To The Byproducts Of Oil And Natural Gas Production, Alan Hodges, Tyler Gladwin, Cody Maxfield, Jonathan Wood

Research on Capitol Hill

No abstract provided.


Design Of Customized Rehabilitation Devices And Bench Testing System, Xueyu Gao 2015 Northeastern University

Design Of Customized Rehabilitation Devices And Bench Testing System, Xueyu Gao

Mechanical Engineering Master's Theses

Off-the-shelf rehabilitation devices are currently prescribed to assist patients with stroke. Current fabrication processes of custom-made rehabilitation devices are time consuming and laborious. The process could be only performed by skilled therapists. In addition, quantitative assessment of mechanical properties is crucial in the design of customized rehabilitation devices. By the design and the real time implementation of a 3D printed hand exoskeleton and a biomimetic testbed for Ankle-Foot Orthoses (AFOs), the improved digitalized methodologies of design and bench testing systems for customized rehabilitation devices were presented in this study.

A customized 3D printed hand exoskeleton (the EXCELSIOR) was developed and ...


Design, Development And Implementation Of Smart Cycling Kits For Rehabilitation Applications And End-Users, Qingchao Kong 2015 Northeastern University

Design, Development And Implementation Of Smart Cycling Kits For Rehabilitation Applications And End-Users, Qingchao Kong

Mechanical Engineering Master's Theses

There are three topics included: 1. VRACK study and improvement, 2.Smart Bike; 3. iVRACK design.

Topic 1: VRACK study and improvement

Ankle impairment and lower limb asymmetries in strength and coordination are common symptoms for individuals with selected musculoskeletal and neurological impairments. The virtual reality augmented cycling kit (VRACK) was designed as a compact mechatronics system and a compatible module that can be mounted on most bicycles to convert them to virtual reality (VR) cycles for lower limb and mobility rehabilitation. Novel hardware components with sensors instrument monitor physiological and biomechanical parameters of participants by measuring interaction forces and ...


Microfabrication Of Bio-Analytical Devices: Microelectrode Array And Traveling-Wave Electrophoresis, Neil Draper 2015 Utah State University

Microfabrication Of Bio-Analytical Devices: Microelectrode Array And Traveling-Wave Electrophoresis, Neil Draper

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The need for potable water is increasing with the ever-increasing world population. Further development of fast, portable, and cost effective analytical tools is necessary in order to create diagnostic techniques capable of supporting the water needs of the world’s population. Within the last decade microfluidics and Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) technologies have increased the portability and speed of detection for aqueous samples. Photolithography techniques serve as a cost effective fabrication tool to create LOC electrodes on the micron scale.

An in-depth look at the fabrication process is undertaken in this paper in order to further the development of micro-scale detection techniques ...


The Effect Of Cholesterol On The Osteoblast Responsiveness To Hydrodynamic Pressure Stimulation, Kristen Lough 2015 University of Kentucky

The Effect Of Cholesterol On The Osteoblast Responsiveness To Hydrodynamic Pressure Stimulation, Kristen Lough

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Hypercholesterolemia is a risk factor for osteoporosis but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Previous evidence suggests that osteoporosis results from an impaired regulation of osteoblasts by fluid pressure fluctuations in the bone matrix. Recently, our laboratory showed that enhanced cholesterol in the cell membrane, due to hypercholesterolemia, alters leukocyte mechanosensitivity. We predict a similar link between osteoblasts and hypercholesterolemia leading to osteoporosis. Specifically, we hypothesize that extracellular cholesterol modifies the osteoblast sensitivity to pressure. MC3T3-E1 cells were exposed to hydrodynamic pressures regimes (mean=40mmHg, amplitude=0-20mmHg, frequency=1Hz) for 1-12 hours. To assess the impact of membrane cholesterol enrichment, cells ...


Development And Validation Of A Robust, Adjustable Hippotherapy Simulator, Melissa Jo Montgomery 2015 Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology

Development And Validation Of A Robust, Adjustable Hippotherapy Simulator, Melissa Jo Montgomery

Graduate Theses - Applied Biology & Biomedical Engineering

This thesis describes all aspects of development, testing, refinement, and validation of a robust, adjustable hippotherapy simulator. This simulator primarily focuses on physical therapy; however, emotional benefits can be realized. It uniquely innovates on an effective design that has only partially been addressed in other simulators. Using a variable drive for adjustable speed, it incorporates reinforcements to increase load capacity along with removable camshafts that adjust the throw heights in the device’s simulated hips and shoulders. For testing and validation, Qualisys software and motion capture supported analysis of the device’s motion paths and speeds. Riders weighing approximately 135-300 ...


Body Armor Induced Changes In The Trunk Mechancial And Neuromuscular Behavior, Rebecca Leigh Tromp 2015 University of Kentucky

Body Armor Induced Changes In The Trunk Mechancial And Neuromuscular Behavior, Rebecca Leigh Tromp

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

While military body armor is used among warfighters for protection on and off the battlefield, it has been suggested to impede performance and act as a risk factor for the development of musculoskeletal disorders, especially low back pain. Apart from personal suffering, low back pain in soldiers is a great economic burden on the US economy. The objective of this study was to quantify the changes in trunk mechanical and neuromuscular behavior following prolonged exposure to body armor compared to exposure without. A crossover study design was used where 12 sex-balanced participants completed a series of tests before and after ...


Bio-Inspired Materials And Micro/Nanostructures Enabled By Peptides And Proteins, Swathi Swaminathan 2015 Utah State University

Bio-Inspired Materials And Micro/Nanostructures Enabled By Peptides And Proteins, Swathi Swaminathan

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The development of a general approach for non-destructive chemical and biological functionalization of materials could expand opportunities for both fundamental studies and creating various device platforms. Phage display has emerged as a powerful method for selecting peptides that possess enhanced selectivity and binding affinity toward a variety of targets. In this study, a powerful yet benign approach for identifying binding motifs to materials like (Poly) dimethylsiloxane, epoxy, and (Poly) ethylenetetraphthalate and peptide nanotubes has been demonstrated via comprehensively screened phage-displayed peptides. Further, along with the development of microstructures, micropatterns and micro-molecular self-assembly, recognition with phage-displayed peptides can be specifically localized ...


Non-Catalytic Co-Gasification Of Sub-Bituminous Coal And Biomass, Guevara Che Nyendu 2015 Utah State University

Non-Catalytic Co-Gasification Of Sub-Bituminous Coal And Biomass, Guevara Che Nyendu

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Fluidization characteristics and co-gasification of pulverized sub-bituminous coal, hybrid poplar wood, corn stover, switchgrass, and their mixtures were investigated. Co-gasification studies were performed over temperature range from 700°C to 900°C in different media (N2, CO2, steam) using a bubbling fluidized bed reactor.

In fluidization experiments, pressure drop (ΔP) observed for coal-biomass mixtures was higher than those of single coal and biomass bed materials in the complete fluidization regime. There was no systematic trend observed for minimum fluidization velocity (Umf) with increasing biomass content. However, porosity at minimum fluidization (εmf) increased with increasing biomass content ...


Human Cardiovascular Responses To Simulated Partial Gravity And A Short Hypergravity Exposure, Qingguang Zhang 2015 University of Kentucky

Human Cardiovascular Responses To Simulated Partial Gravity And A Short Hypergravity Exposure, Qingguang Zhang

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Orthostatic intolerance (OI), i.e., the inability to maintain stable arterial pressure during upright posture, is a major problem for astronauts after spaceflight. Therefore, one important goal of spaceflight-related research is the development of countermeasures to prevent post flight OI. Given the rarity and expense of spaceflight, countermeasure development requires ground-based simulations of partial gravity to induce appropriate orthostatic effects on the human body, and to test the efficacy of potential countermeasures.

To test the efficacy of upright lower body positive pressure (LBPP) as a model for simulating cardiovascular responses to lunar and Martian gravities on Earth, cardiovascular responses to ...


Fluorescent Biosensors To Measure Endothelial Cell Responses To Fluid Shear Stress, Natalie Noll 2015 Virginia Commonwealth University

Fluorescent Biosensors To Measure Endothelial Cell Responses To Fluid Shear Stress, Natalie Noll

Undergraduate Research Posters

The response of endothelial cells, innermost layer of blood vessels, to blood flow is thought to be critical in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis in the human body is non-random and is highly correlated to vessel sites which experience oscillatory and reversing blood flow. Endothelial cells (ECs), the inner most cell layer of blood vessels are highly responsive to the drag force from blood flow, known as shear stress. To study endothelial cell responses to shear stress we used a parallel plate flow chamber in which we exposed endothelial cells to defined fluid shear stress. Using fluorescence resonance ...


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