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Long-Acting Antituberculous Therapeutic Nanoparticles Target Macrophage Endosomes, Benson J. Edagwa, Dongwei Guo, Pavan Puligujja, Han Chen, JoEllyn McMillan, Xinming Liu, Howard Gendelman, Prabagaran Narayanasamy 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Long-Acting Antituberculous Therapeutic Nanoparticles Target Macrophage Endosomes, Benson J. Edagwa, Dongwei Guo, Pavan Puligujja, Han Chen, Joellyn Mcmillan, Xinming Liu, Howard Gendelman, Prabagaran Narayanasamy

Papers from the Nebraska Center for Biotechnology

Eradication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection requires daily administration of combinations of rifampin (RIF), isoniazid [isonicotinylhydrazine (INH)], pyrazinamide, and ethambutol, among other drug therapies. To facilitate and optimize MTB therapeutic selections, a mononuclear phagocyte (MP; monocyte, macrophage, and dendritic cell)-targeted drug delivery strategy was developed. Long-acting nanoformulations of RIF and an INH derivative, pentenyl- INH (INHP), were prepared, and their physicochemical properties were evaluated. This included the evaluation of MP particle uptake and retention, cell viability, and antimicrobial efficacy. Drug levels reached 6 μg/106 cells in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) for nanoparticle treatments compared with 0.1 μg ...


A Highly Adaptive And Cost Effective Second Generation Incubator (Sgi) Towards Educational, Research And Clinical Processes, Yassir H. Al-Sayagh 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

A Highly Adaptive And Cost Effective Second Generation Incubator (Sgi) Towards Educational, Research And Clinical Processes, Yassir H. Al-Sayagh

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Today´s rising demand for more reliable and affordable alternatives to organ transplant has led to a growing market for in vitro tissue culture systems. The main objective of tissue engineering as a whole is to employ human tissue equivalents for commercial use. The state-of-the-art processes for producing these so called tissue models are still very expensive, difficult to produce and time-consuming.

To engineer tissues, in vitro, a three-dimensional support structure commonly termed scaffold is needed. Stem cells are then added to the scaffold. In order for tissue to materialize, the scaffold and the cells must be incubated (cultured) at ...


Estimating Effective Connectivity From Fmri Data Using Factor-Based Subspace Autoregressive Models, Chee-Ming Ting PhD, Abd-Krim Seghouane PhD, Sh-Hussain Salleh PhD, Alias M. Noor PhD 2014 SelectedWorks

Estimating Effective Connectivity From Fmri Data Using Factor-Based Subspace Autoregressive Models, Chee-Ming Ting Phd, Abd-Krim Seghouane Phd, Sh-Hussain Salleh Phd, Alias M. Noor Phd

Chee-Ming Ting PhD

We consider the problem of identifying large-scale effective connectivity of brain networks from fMRI data. Standard vector autoregressive (VAR) models fail to estimate reliably networks with large number of nodes. We propose a new method based on factor modeling for reliable and efficient high-dimensional VAR analysis of large networks. We develop a subspace VAR (SVAR) model from a factor model (FM), where observations are driven by a lower-dimensional subspace of common latent factors with an AR dynamics. We consider two variants of principal components (PC) methods that provide consistent estimates for the FM hence the implied SVAR model, even of ...


Effect Of Plasticizer On Oxygen Permeability Of Cast Polylactic Acid (Pla) Films Determined Using Dynamic Accumulation Method, Kurniawan Yuniarto, Bruce A. Welt, ARIS PURWANTO, Hadi Karia Purwadaria, Ayman Abdellatief, Titi C. Sunarti, Setyo Purwanto 2014 Rochester Institute of Technology

Effect Of Plasticizer On Oxygen Permeability Of Cast Polylactic Acid (Pla) Films Determined Using Dynamic Accumulation Method, Kurniawan Yuniarto, Bruce A. Welt, Aris Purwanto, Hadi Karia Purwadaria, Ayman Abdellatief, Titi C. Sunarti, Setyo Purwanto

Journal of Applied Packaging Research

Polylactic acid (PLA) is becoming an increasingly important biopolymer for packaging applications. PLA brittleness limits its applicability. This study evaluated PLA properties with increasing amounts of added polyethylene glycol (PEG) plasticizer. Oxygen transmission rate (OTR) of cast films was determined using the newly available Dynamic Accumulation (DA) method. Arrhenius temperature sensitivity of OTR and polymer Permeability was also determined. Permeability of neat PLA is 4.848 ml mm (STP)/m2 s kPa; hence, 4.84 ml mm (STP)/m2 s kPa, 4.07 ml mm (STP)/m2 s kPa and 5.42 ml mm (STP)/m2 ...


Characterization Of A Reverse-Phase Perfluorocarbon Emulsion For The Pulmonary Delivery Of Tobramycin., Ryan A. Orizondo, Charlene Irvin Babcock, Mario L. Fabiilli, Leonid Pavlovsky, J. Brian Fowlkes, John G. Younger, Keith E. Cook 2014 Carnegie Mellon University

Characterization Of A Reverse-Phase Perfluorocarbon Emulsion For The Pulmonary Delivery Of Tobramycin., Ryan A. Orizondo, Charlene Irvin Babcock, Mario L. Fabiilli, Leonid Pavlovsky, J. Brian Fowlkes, John G. Younger, Keith E. Cook

Department of Biomedical Engineering

BACKGROUND: Aerosolized delivery of antibiotics is hindered by poor penetration within distal and plugged airways. Antibacterial perfluorocarbon ventilation (APV) is a proposed solution in which the lungs are partially or totally filled with perfluorocarbon (PFC) containing emulsified antibiotics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate emulsion stability and rheological, antibacterial, and pharmacokinetic characteristics.

METHODS: This study examined emulsion aqueous droplet diameter and number density over 24 hr and emulsion and neat PFC viscosity and surface tension. Additionally, Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm growth was measured after 2-hr exposure to emulsion with variable aqueous volume percentages (0.25, 1, and 2.5 ...


Lower-Extremity Joint Kinematics And Muscle Activations During Semi-Reclined Cycling At Different Workloads In Healthy Individuals, Kamyar Momeni, Pouran D. Faghri, Martinus Evans 2014 University of Connecticut

Lower-Extremity Joint Kinematics And Muscle Activations During Semi-Reclined Cycling At Different Workloads In Healthy Individuals, Kamyar Momeni, Pouran D. Faghri, Martinus Evans

Open Access Author Fund

Background

A better understanding of lower-extremity muscles’ activation patterns and joint kinematics during different workloads could help rehabilitation professionals with prescribing more effective exercise regimen for elderly and those with compromised muscles. We examined the relative contribution, as well as activation and co-activation patterns, of lower-extremity muscles during semi-reclined cycling at different workloads during a constant cadence.

Methods

Fifteen healthy novice cyclists participated at three 90-second cycling trials with randomly assigned workloads of 0, 50, and 100 W, at a constant cadence of 60 rpm. During all trials, electromyograms were recorded from four lower-extremity muscles: rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris ...


The Effect Of Fixation Plate Length On Spinal Instability Following Anterior Cervical Plate Fixation For The Repair Of In Vitro Flexion-Distraction Injuries, Abdulaziz J. Al-Kuwari 2014 Western University

The Effect Of Fixation Plate Length On Spinal Instability Following Anterior Cervical Plate Fixation For The Repair Of In Vitro Flexion-Distraction Injuries, Abdulaziz J. Al-Kuwari

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Abstract:

The Effect of Fixation Plate Length on Spinal Instability Following Anterior Cervical Plate Fixation for the Repair of in Vitro Flexion-Distraction Injuries

Introduction: Anterior cervical decompression and fusion with a plate (ACDFP) is a commonly performed treatment following a traumatic injury to the subaxial cervical spine. The purpose of the presented work was to determine the biomechanical effect of plate length on cervical spine kinematic stability following ACDFP stabilization for a simulated traumatic injury.

Methods: Eleven fresh-frozen cadaveric C5-C6 and C6-C7 motion segments were examined in this study. To assess kinematics, flexibility testing was performed on each specimen using ...


Characterization Of A Contact-Stylus Surface Digitization Method Using Collaborative Robots: Accuracy Evaluation In The Context Of Shoulder Replacement Or Resurfacing, Sara Saud Zimmo 2014 Western University

Characterization Of A Contact-Stylus Surface Digitization Method Using Collaborative Robots: Accuracy Evaluation In The Context Of Shoulder Replacement Or Resurfacing, Sara Saud Zimmo

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) is the third most common joint replacement. While robot-assisted hip and knee replacement technologies have enjoyed extensive development, this has been limited in the upper limb. This work focused on quantifying the localization accuracy of a robotic system, and evaluating its efficacy in the context of TSA.

A collaborative robot was fitted with a stylus tip to perform manual surface digitizations using the robot’s encoder output. In the first experiment, two precision-machined master cubes, representing the working volume around a glenoid structure, were used for system validation. Next, cadaveric glenoids were digitized and compared to ...


Dynamic Image Processing For Guidance Of Off-Pump Beating Heart Mitral Valve Repair, Feng Li 2014 Western University

Dynamic Image Processing For Guidance Of Off-Pump Beating Heart Mitral Valve Repair, Feng Li

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Compared to conventional open heart procedures, minimally invasive off-pump beating heart mitral valve repair aims to deliver equivalent treatment for mitral regurgitation with reduced trauma and side effects. However, minimally invasive approaches are often limited by the lack of a direct view to surgical targets and/or tools, a challenge that is compounded by potential movement of the target during the cardiac cycle. For this reason, sophisticated image guidance systems are required in achieving procedural efficiency and therapeutic success. The development of such guidance systems is associated with many challenges. For example, the system should be able to provide high ...


Finite Element Modeling Of The Proximal Humerus To Compare Stemless, Short And Standard Stem Humeral Components Of Varying Material Stiffness For Shoulder Arthroplasty, Najmeh Razfar 2014 Western University

Finite Element Modeling Of The Proximal Humerus To Compare Stemless, Short And Standard Stem Humeral Components Of Varying Material Stiffness For Shoulder Arthroplasty, Najmeh Razfar

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In patients with debilitating pain due to osteoarthritis, total shoulder arthroplasty can restore function and provide effective pain relief. Newer implant designs vary in length and material stiffness. Unfortunately, literature on these newer implants is limited. This thesis investigates the effect of stem length and implant material stiffness on proximal humeral bone stresses. 3D bone models with implants of various stem lengths (stemless, short, and standard) and different material stiffness’s (CoCr, Ti and PEEK) were generated using MIMICS, Solidworks and ABAQUS for varying abduction angles (15°, 45° and 75°). Cortical and trabecular stresses were contrasted with the intact bone ...


Visual Perception And Cognition In Image-Guided Intervention, Kamyar Abhari 2014 Western University

Visual Perception And Cognition In Image-Guided Intervention, Kamyar Abhari

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Surgical image visualization and interaction systems can dramatically affect the efficacy and efficiency of surgical training, planning, and interventions. This is even more profound in the case of minimally-invasive surgery where restricted access to the operative field in conjunction with limited field of view necessitate a visualization medium to provide patient-specific information at any given moment. Unfortunately, little research has been devoted to studying human factors associated with medical image displays and the need for a robust, intuitive visualization and interaction interfaces has remained largely unfulfilled to this day. Failure to engineer efficient medical solutions and design intuitive visualization interfaces ...


A Collagen‐Glycosaminoglycan‐Fibrin Scaffold For Heart Valve Tissue Engineering Applications, Claire Brougham, Stefan Jockenhoevel, Thomas Flanagan, Fergal J. O'Brien 2014 Dublin Institute of Technology

A Collagen‐Glycosaminoglycan‐Fibrin Scaffold For Heart Valve Tissue Engineering Applications, Claire Brougham, Stefan Jockenhoevel, Thomas Flanagan, Fergal J. O'Brien

Conference Papers

The field of heart valve biology and tissue engineering a heart valve continue to expand. The presentatio ns at this meeting reflect the advances made in both areas due to the multi-disciplinary approach taken by many laboratories.


Prostate Tumor Volume Measurement On Digital Histopathology And Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Mehrnoush Salarian 2014 Western University

Prostate Tumor Volume Measurement On Digital Histopathology And Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Mehrnoush Salarian

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

An accurate assessment of prostate tumour burden supports appropriate treatment selection, ranging from active surveillance through focal therapy, to radical whole-prostate therapies. For selected patients, knowledge of the three-dimensional locations and sizes of prostate tumours on pre-procedural imaging supports planning of effective focal therapies that preferentially target tumours, while sparing surrounding healthy tissue. In the post-prostatectomy context, pathologic measurement of tumour burden in the surgical specimen may be an independent prognostic factor determining the need for potentially life-saving adjuvant therapy. An accurate and repeatable method for tumour volume assessment based on histology sections taken from the surgical specimen would be ...


3d Cultures Of Human Liver Cell Lines Encapsulated In Puramatrix On A Microarray Chip Platform, Pratap Lama, Alexander D. Roth, Pranav Joshi, Akshata Datar, Moo-Yeal Lee 2014 Cleveland State University

3d Cultures Of Human Liver Cell Lines Encapsulated In Puramatrix On A Microarray Chip Platform, Pratap Lama, Alexander D. Roth, Pranav Joshi, Akshata Datar, Moo-Yeal Lee

Undergraduate Research Posters 2014

A high-throughput cell printing technology has developed to simulate the liver tissue environment using a hydrogel-based chip platform that has potential to shift in vivo drug toxicity models towards in vitro tests. However, the hydrophobic nature of polystyrene chips is not promoting direct adhesion of hydrogels, which created a problem with spot attachment. The main goal of this research is to create a surface chemistry that helps to attach a peptide-based hydrogel, including PuraMatrix, to a polystyrenebased micropillar chip. Seven analogs of maleic anhydride co-polymers were used to coat the micropillar chip to create a functional surface. Then, six ionic ...


Anatomy-Based Transmission Factors For Technique Optimization In Portable Chest X-Ray, Chris L. Liptak, W. Paul Segars, Ashraf G. Morgan, Frank F. Dong, Xiang Li 2014 Cleveland State University

Anatomy-Based Transmission Factors For Technique Optimization In Portable Chest X-Ray, Chris L. Liptak, W. Paul Segars, Ashraf G. Morgan, Frank F. Dong, Xiang Li

Undergraduate Research Posters 2014

Currently, portable x-ray examinations do not employ automatic exposure control (AEC). To aid in the design of a size-specific technique chart, acrylic slabs of various thicknesses are often used to estimate x-ray transmission factors for patients of various body thicknesses. This approach, while simple, does not account for patient anatomy, tissue heterogeneity, and the attenuation properties of the human body. To better account for these factors, in this work, we determined x-ray transmission factors using computational patient models that are anatomically realistic. A Monte Carlo program was developed to model a portable x-ray system. Detailed modeling was done of the ...


Monitoring Micelle Formation In Mixtures Of Linear And Foldon-Capped Polypeptides With Light Scattering Spectroscopy, Janna Mino, John P. Gavin, Michael G. Price, Kiril Streletzky, Nolan Holland 2014 Cleveland State University

Monitoring Micelle Formation In Mixtures Of Linear And Foldon-Capped Polypeptides With Light Scattering Spectroscopy, Janna Mino, John P. Gavin, Michael G. Price, Kiril Streletzky, Nolan Holland

Undergraduate Research Posters 2014

Elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) polymers are ideal for producing environmentally responsive micellar systems because they exhibit a transition from being water-soluble at low temperatures to phase-separated at high temperatures. For application development of drug delivery vehicles and biosensing nanoparticles, it is important to prepare spherical micelles of controlled diameter and shape. Since at a given salt concentration, the headgroup area for each foldon should be constant, the size of the micelles is expected to be proportional to the volume of the linear ELP available per foldon headgroup. Therefore, adding linear ELPs to a system of ELP-foldon should result in changes of ...


Comparison Of Electronic And Mechanical Handgrip Devices In Lowering Blood Pressure, Katie Webb, Brandon Musarra, Megan O’Keefe, Shana Strunk, Courtney Perkins, Kenneth E. Sparks, Emily Kullman, Eddie T.C. Lam 2014 Cleveland State University

Comparison Of Electronic And Mechanical Handgrip Devices In Lowering Blood Pressure, Katie Webb, Brandon Musarra, Megan O’Keefe, Shana Strunk, Courtney Perkins, Kenneth E. Sparks, Emily Kullman, Eddie T.C. Lam

Undergraduate Research Posters 2014

Hypertension causes billions of deaths per year (Millar et al., 2013). The Zona PlusTM is an expensive tool designed to lower blood pressure (BP) using isometric exercise. This exercise may be achieved using a less expensive Handgrip Dynamometer. PURPOSE: The purpose of this research is to determine if the Zona or Handgrip Dynamometer is more efficient at lowering BP and most cost effective for patients. METHODS: Twenty subjects used the Zona and twenty subjects used the dynamometer three times per week for six weeks. BP was taken once per week prior to the treatment. A maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) was ...


Advances In Image Acquisition And Filtering For Mri Neuroimaging At 7 Tesla, Andrew T. Curtis 2014 Western University

Advances In Image Acquisition And Filtering For Mri Neuroimaging At 7 Tesla, Andrew T. Curtis

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Performing magnetic resonance imaging at high magnetic field strength promises many improvements over low fields that are of direct benefit in functional neuroimaging. This includes the possibility of improved signal-to-noise levels, and increased BOLD functional contrast and spatial specificity. However, human MRI at 7T and above suffers from unique engineering challenges that limit the achievable gains. In this thesis, three technological developments are introduced, all of which address separate issues associated with functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging at very high magnetic field strengths.

First, the image homogeneity problem is addressed by investigating methods of RF shimming — modifying the excitation portion of ...


Implementation And Validation Of Aortic Remodeling In Hypertensive Rats, Shijia Zhao, Linxia Gu 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Implementation And Validation Of Aortic Remodeling In Hypertensive Rats, Shijia Zhao, Linxia Gu

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

A computational framework was implemented and validated to better understand the hypertensive artery remodeling in both geometric dimensions and material properties. Integrating the stress-modulated remodeling equations into commercial finite element codes allows a better control and visualization of local mechanical parameters. Both arterial thickening and stiffening effects were captured and visualized. An adaptive material remodeling strategy combined with the element birth and death techniques for the geometrical growth were implemented. The numerically predicted remodeling results in terms of the wall thickness, inner diameter, and the ratio of elastin to collagen content of the artery were compared with and fine-tuned by ...


Implementation And Validation Of Aortic Remodeling In Hypertensive Rats, Shijia Zhao, Linxia Gu 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Implementation And Validation Of Aortic Remodeling In Hypertensive Rats, Shijia Zhao, Linxia Gu

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

A computational framework was implemented and validated to better understand the hypertensive artery remodeling in both geometric dimensions and material properties. Integrating the stress-modulated remodeling equations into commercial finite element codes allows a better control and visualization of local mechanical parameters. Both arterial thickening and stiffening effects were captured and visualized. An adaptive material remodeling strategy combined with the element birth and death techniques for the geometrical growth were implemented. The numerically predicted remodeling results in terms of the wall thickness, inner diameter, and the ratio of elastin to collagen content of the artery were compared with and fine-tuned by ...


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