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Utilizing Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy For Prediction Of Cognitive Workload In Noisy Work Environments, Ryan Gabbard, Mary E. Fendley, Irfaan A. Dar, Rik Warren, Nasser H. Kashou 2017 Wright State University - Main Campus

Utilizing Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy For Prediction Of Cognitive Workload In Noisy Work Environments, Ryan Gabbard, Mary E. Fendley, Irfaan A. Dar, Rik Warren, Nasser H. Kashou

Biomedical, Industrial & Human Factors Engineering Faculty Publications

Occupational noise frequently occurs in the work environment in military intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance operations. This impacts cognitive performance by acting as a stressor, potentially interfering with the analysts’ decision-making process. We investigated the effects of different noise stimuli on analysts’ performance and workload in anomaly detection by simulating a noisy work environment. We utilized functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to quantify oxy-hemoglobin (HbO) and deoxy-hemoglobin concentration changes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), as well as behavioral measures, which include eye tracking, reaction time, and accuracy rate. We hypothesized that noisy environments would have a negative effect on the participant in ...


Use Of Imaging Biomarkers To Assess Perfusion And Glucose Metabolism In The Skeletal Muscle Of Dystrophic Mice, Nabeel Ahmad, Ian Welch, Robert Grange, Jennifer Hadway, Savita Dhanvantari, David Hill, Ting-Yim Lee, Lisa M Hoffman 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Use Of Imaging Biomarkers To Assess Perfusion And Glucose Metabolism In The Skeletal Muscle Of Dystrophic Mice, Nabeel Ahmad, Ian Welch, Robert Grange, Jennifer Hadway, Savita Dhanvantari, David Hill, Ting-Yim Lee, Lisa M Hoffman

Lisa Hoffman

BACKGROUND: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe neuromuscular disease that affects 1 in 3500 boys. The disease is characterized by progressive muscle degeneration that results from mutations in or loss of the cytoskeletal protein, dystrophin, from the glycoprotein membrane complex, thus increasing the susceptibility of contractile muscle to injury. To date, disease progression is typically assessed using invasive techniques such as muscle biopsies, and while there are recent reports of the use of magnetic resonance, ultrasound and optical imaging technologies to address the issue of disease progression and monitoring therapeutic intervention in dystrophic mice, our study aims to validate ...


The Effect Of Radial And Ulnar Length Change On Distal Forearm Loading, Ahaoiza D. Isa 2017 The University of Western Ontario

The Effect Of Radial And Ulnar Length Change On Distal Forearm Loading, Ahaoiza D. Isa

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The effect of distal radial and ulnar length change on forearm bone loading is not well understood during simulated dynamic wrist loading. This thesis presents two studies which investigate the effect of these length changes on distal forearm loading under simulated dynamic wrist motion. The first study investigates the effect of radial length change on axial loading at the distal radius and ulna and relationship between ulnar variance and distal forearm loading. The complex variation in axial loads in the distal radius and during length change and dynamic wrist motion were studied and discussed. There was no correlation between native ...


How Strongly Do Oysters Stick?, Nicolás M. Morato, Andrés M. Tibabuzo, Jonathan J. Wilker 2017 Universidad de Los Andes - Colombia

How Strongly Do Oysters Stick?, Nicolás M. Morato, Andrés M. Tibabuzo, Jonathan J. Wilker

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Biological adhesives are a type of interfacial material that has incredible potential to generate new biomimetic compounds that can replace current strong, but toxic, adhesives. Therefore, a study of the chemical composition and mechanical properties of those bio-adhesives is necessary. However, in the case of oysters, despite known chemical characterization of the adult’s adhesive, there are almost no studies on its mechanical properties. Furthermore, there is no available information on the adhesive properties of spat (oysters in their larvae state). Herein, we present the first mechanical characterization of the spat adhesive, measuring its adhesion strength by hydrodynamic determination using ...


A Chronically Implanted, Continuous Ph Monitoring System For Rats, Ryan B. Budde, Pedro P. Irazoqui 2017 Purdue University

A Chronically Implanted, Continuous Ph Monitoring System For Rats, Ryan B. Budde, Pedro P. Irazoqui

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Many body systems operate within a strict pH range, and any deviation can cause harm. pH measurement systems are used in many biomedical research fields. Measurement systems have been able to continuously record pH for a short period of time wirelessly, or over a long period of time with wires, but no system is currently capable of long term, wireless, continuous pH recording. This paper proposes a new pH measurement system that is capable of such measurement. The system is composed of inexpensive, micro-scale, and easy to manufacture pH sensitive and reference electrodes and a data acquisition and transmission module ...


A Spatial Stochastic Model Of Ampar Trafficking And Subunit Dynamics, Tyler VanDyk, Matthew C. Pharris, Tamara L. Kinzer-Ursem 2017 Purdue University

A Spatial Stochastic Model Of Ampar Trafficking And Subunit Dynamics, Tyler Vandyk, Matthew C. Pharris, Tamara L. Kinzer-Ursem

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

In excitatory neurons, the ability of a synaptic connection to strengthen or weaken is known as synaptic plasticity and is thought to be the cellular basis for learning and memory. Understanding the mechanism of synaptic plasticity is an important step towards understanding and developing treatment methods for learning and memory disorders. A key molecular process in synaptic plasticity for mammalian glutamatergic neurons is the exocytosis (delivery to the synapse) of AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs). While the protein signaling pathways responsible for exocytosis have long been investigated with experimental methods, it remains unreasonable to study the system in its full complexity ...


Co-Modulation Masking Release Begins In The Auditory Periphery, Kareem R. Hussein, Agudemu Borjigan, Mark Sayles 2017 Purdue University

Co-Modulation Masking Release Begins In The Auditory Periphery, Kareem R. Hussein, Agudemu Borjigan, Mark Sayles

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Understanding speech in noisy environments can be difficult, especially for people with hearing loss. The background noise can cover up the sounds of interest. Normally, the auditory system works to alleviate this problem by tagging and then cancelling the noise. Our experiments are aimed at understanding the mechanism of this noise cancellation process. We hypothesize that non-linear signal processing in the mammalian cochlea (the most peripheral part of the auditory system) is the basis of noise cancellation. To test this hypothesis, we measured the responses of auditory-nerve fibers (ANFs) to sounds embedded in background noise with different statistical properties. ANFs ...


A Novel High-Throughput, High-Content Three-Dimensional Assay For Determination Of Tumor Invasion And Dormancy, Mahera M. Husain, Theodore J. Puls, Sherry Voytik-Harbin 2017 Purdue University

A Novel High-Throughput, High-Content Three-Dimensional Assay For Determination Of Tumor Invasion And Dormancy, Mahera M. Husain, Theodore J. Puls, Sherry Voytik-Harbin

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Metastasis accounts for most cancer deaths, while dormancy of tumor cells leads to unexpected cancer recurrence. These two aspects of cancer remain relatively untreatable in part because current two-dimensional (2D) methods of high-throughput drug screening cannot quantify outcomes related to these phenotypes. Three-dimensional (3D) in-vitro tumor models are a promising alternative because they better recreate the tumor microenvironment and relevant phenotypes. However, outcome measures for high-throughput screening of these systems are often limited to single measures such as metabolic activity using assays that are not standardized or optimized for 3D models. To address this gap, the objective of this work ...


Localized Immunosuppression Therapy For Islet Cell Encapsulation, Madeline McLaughlin, Clarissa Stephens, Sherry Voytik-Harbin 2017 Purdue University

Localized Immunosuppression Therapy For Islet Cell Encapsulation, Madeline Mclaughlin, Clarissa Stephens, Sherry Voytik-Harbin

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Type 1 diabetes, an autoimmune disease in which the body’s immune system destroys the insulin-producing beta cells necessary for managing a person’s blood glucose levels, affects 1.25 million Americans. A potential treatment for this disease is islet cell transplantation where Islets of Langerhans, containing the beta cells, are transplanted from a normal donor to a diabetic recipient to regulate blood glucose levels and provide insulin independence. Similar to whole organ transplantation, immune modulation through immunosuppression therapy is necessary for successful transplantation of islets without rejection. However, long-term systemic immunosuppression therapy can be toxic to the patient and ...


Development Of Portable Hyperspectral Imaging Device, Chenxi Li, Youngkee Jung, Iyll-Joon Doh, Euiwon Bae 2017 Purdue University, Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering

Development Of Portable Hyperspectral Imaging Device, Chenxi Li, Youngkee Jung, Iyll-Joon Doh, Euiwon Bae

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Most of the conventional hyperspectral imaging devices require sophisticated optical components, occupy a large footprint, and requires an initial capital investment for laboratories which mostly suits for laboratories benchtop system. The requirement of shipping the sample and waiting an extended period of time to get the results are the main downsides of this traditional approach. Capitalize in many specific field applications and diagnosis, portable devices provide both convenience and on-site results which are desirable for government agencies and food safety inspectors. This project was aimed to develop a low-cost, portable hyperspectral device for food safety applications. A smartphone was used ...


Smartphone-Based Microscope For Pathogen Detection, Meghan E. Henderson, Katherine N. Clayton, Ryan M. Preston, Jacqueline Linnes, Tamara L. Kinzer-Ursem 2017 Purdue University

Smartphone-Based Microscope For Pathogen Detection, Meghan E. Henderson, Katherine N. Clayton, Ryan M. Preston, Jacqueline Linnes, Tamara L. Kinzer-Ursem

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Vibrio cholerae is a water and food borne bacteria that causes cholera, a severe acute diarrheal disease, when ingested and when left untreated, can cause patient death within hours. Currently there is a lack of both sensitive and rapid portable detection technologies of V. cholerae for testing water and food samples. Combining nucleic acid amplification and particle diffusometry present an alternative detection method for V. cholerae in under 30 minutes, but the process requires an expensive laboratory microscope. In this work, we develop a smartphone-based microscope to detect V. cholerae DNA in environmental water samples using particle diffusometry. A modular ...


Low Power, Low Noise Circuit For Biological Signal Recording, Rachael A. Swenson, Daniel J. Pederson, Pedro Irazoqui 2017 Purdue University

Low Power, Low Noise Circuit For Biological Signal Recording, Rachael A. Swenson, Daniel J. Pederson, Pedro Irazoqui

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Implantable devices are ideal for recording biological signals in animal models as they have minimal effect on the animal’s normal behavior during observation. The creation of the circuitry for an implantable device has several restrictions including size, power consumption, and noise reduction. These factors compete against each other, making it necessary to carefully optimize circuit components for a given application. This study evaluates the design of a four-channel analog front end circuit board to record cardiac, neural, and respiratory biological signals. Through a critical analysis of component specifications for the circuit’s components and an evaluation of the circuits ...


Comparative Analysis Of Nanoscale Ultrasound Contrast Agents, Elly Y. Lambert, Luis Solorio 2017 Purdue University

Comparative Analysis Of Nanoscale Ultrasound Contrast Agents, Elly Y. Lambert, Luis Solorio

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Current ultrasound contrast agents utilize microbubbles as a blood pooling agent, but the size inhibits access to small capillaries. The development of nanoscale ultrasound contrast agents can enter small capillaries of tissues and aid in the detection of diseased states. However, current nano-formulations are flushed from the body over a short period of time. We developed a nanoscale ultrasound contrast agent with increased circulation time to allow for better detection of diseased states in the microvasculature of the body. Characterization (zeta potential, size, echogenicity and stability) and pharmacokinetic analysis were conducted on three nanoscale formulations: 1) Liquid based Bovine Serum ...


Temporal Resolution Of Cell Death Signaling Events Induced By Cold Atmospheric Plasma And Electroporation In Human Cancer Cells, Danielle M. Krug, Prasoon K. Diwakar, Ahmed Hassanein 2017 Purdue University

Temporal Resolution Of Cell Death Signaling Events Induced By Cold Atmospheric Plasma And Electroporation In Human Cancer Cells, Danielle M. Krug, Prasoon K. Diwakar, Ahmed Hassanein

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Cancer treatment resistance and their invasive and expensive nature is propelling research towards developing alternate approaches to eradicate cancer in patients. Non-thermal, i.e., cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) and electroporation (EP) applied to the surface of cancerous tissue are new methods that are minimally invasive, safe, and selective. These approaches, both independently and synergistically, have been shown to deplete cancer cell populations, but the signaling mechanisms of death and their timelines of action are still widely unknown. To better understand the timeframe of signaling events occurring upon treatment, human cancer cell lines were treated with CAP, EP, and combined CAP ...


Fundamental Characterization Of Oxygen Nanobubbles, John Hamlin, Yi Wen, Joseph Irudayaraj 2017 Purdue University

Fundamental Characterization Of Oxygen Nanobubbles, John Hamlin, Yi Wen, Joseph Irudayaraj

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

A hypoxic environment is created by tumors’ incredible growth rate. Hypoxia provides radioresistance to the tumors, thus making radiation treatment less effective. The issue is that increasing the radiation leads to increased side effects in patients. Our goal for the oxygen-filled nanobubble is to deliver oxygen to the tumor to lessen radioresistance and make radiation treatment more efficient. However, we need preliminary research to understand and improve the nanobubbles before further research and implementation. To do this, we synthesized different batches of nanobubbles to optimize the production method and find the best container and temperature to store nanobubbles. We measured ...


The Response Of Schwann Cells To Weak Dc Electric Fields, Alexander T. Lai, Jianming Li 2017 Purdue University

The Response Of Schwann Cells To Weak Dc Electric Fields, Alexander T. Lai, Jianming Li

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Schwann cells are glial cells that serve the vital role of supporting neurons in the peripheral nervous system. While their primary function is to provide insulation (myelin) for axons, they also help regenerate injured axons by digesting severed axons and providing scaffolding to guide the regeneration process. This specific role of Schwann cells makes them highly important cellular targets following nerve injury. Although some efforts have been made to encourage Schwann cell migration after nerve damage, the use of electric fields to control cell responses remain unexplored; therefore, this experiment serves to characterize the behavior of Schwann cells to weak ...


Intrinsic Regulators Of Actomyosin Contractility Engendering Pulsatile Behaviors, Qilin Yu, Jing Li, Taeyoon Kim 2017 Purdue University

Intrinsic Regulators Of Actomyosin Contractility Engendering Pulsatile Behaviors, Qilin Yu, Jing Li, Taeyoon Kim

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Actomyosin contractility regulates various biological processes including cell migration, muscle contraction, and tissue morphogenesis. Cell cortex underlying a membrane, which is a representative actomyosin network in eukaryote cells, exhibits dynamic contractile behaviors. Interestingly, the cell cortex shows reversible aggregation of actin and myosin called pulsatile contraction in diverse cellular phenomena, such as embryogenesis and tissue morphogenesis. While contractile behaviors have been studied in several in vitro experiments and computational studies, none of them demonstrated the pulsatile contraction of actomyosin networks observed in vivo. Here, we used an agent-based computational model based on Brownian dynamics to identify factors facilitating the pulsatile ...


Establishing A Lung Model For Evaluation Of Engineered Lung Microbiome Therapies, Kathryn F. Atherton, Stephen Miloro, Jenna Rickus 2017 Purdue University

Establishing A Lung Model For Evaluation Of Engineered Lung Microbiome Therapies, Kathryn F. Atherton, Stephen Miloro, Jenna Rickus

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Benzene, a toxin and carcinogen found in air polluted by cigarette smoke, car exhaust, and industrial processes, is associated with the development of leukemia and lymphoma. Other than avoiding exposure, there is no current method to deter the effects of benzene. One potential strategy to prevent these effects is to engineer the bacteria of the human lung microbiome to degrade benzene. To evaluate this novel approach, we must verify that the bacteria remain viable within the lung microenvironment. To do so, lungs were harvested from rats and swabbed to determine the contents of the original lung microbiome. Then green fluorescent ...


Pathogenic Dna Detection Using Dna Hairpins: A Non-Linear Hybridization Chain Reaction Platform, Lance Novak, Tamara L. Kinzer-Ursem 2017 Purdue University

Pathogenic Dna Detection Using Dna Hairpins: A Non-Linear Hybridization Chain Reaction Platform, Lance Novak, Tamara L. Kinzer-Ursem

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Currently, 3.2 billion people are at risk of being infected with malaria, with 1.2 billion of those being at high risk (>1 in 1000 chance of getting malaria in a year). Thus, there is a need for a biosensor that is highly sensitive, cost effective, and simple to use for point-of-care diagnosis. The biosensing platform, PathVis, has achieved this by measuring changes in fluid properties after a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). LAMP is a DNA amplification system that requires enzymes and a temperature of 65degrees C. LAMP currently limits PathVis by being costly, requiring refrigeration, and difficult to ...


Effects Of Stroma On Er+ Breast Cancer Cell Metastasis, Shipeng Xu, Luis Solorio, Sarah Calve 2017 Purdue University

Effects Of Stroma On Er+ Breast Cancer Cell Metastasis, Shipeng Xu, Luis Solorio, Sarah Calve

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Breast cancer is one of the most wide-spread diseases among women in America. If the cancer is local, it is easily controlled by surgical resection. However, if the cancer cells metastasize, patient survival is significantly reduced. 70% of breast cancers can be targeted through estrogen receptors (ER) on the membrane, with compounds such as tamoxifen. However, tamoxifen shows unreliable outcomes on different patients and it is believed that the ineffectiveness of tamoxifen is related to the epithetical-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cancer cells. To address this problem, we are designing a system that stimulates metastasis activation with the aim of incorporating ...


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