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The Effect Of Fatigue On Brain Connectivity Networks, Shangen Zhang, Jingnan Sun, Xiaorong Gao 2020 Department of School of Computer and Communication Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China

The Effect Of Fatigue On Brain Connectivity Networks, Shangen Zhang, Jingnan Sun, Xiaorong Gao

Brain Science Advances

In the fatigue state, the neural response characteristics of the brain might be different from those in the normal state. Brain functional connectivity analysis is an effective tool for distinguishing between different brain states. For example, comparative studies on the brain functional connectivity have the potential to reveal the functional differences in different mental states. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between human mental states and brain control abilities by analyzing the effect of fatigue on the brain response connectivity. In particular, the phase-scrambling method was used to generate images with two noise levels, while the ...


Review Of Pathological Index Detection And New Rehabilitation Technique Of Drug Addicts, Banghua Yang, Xuelin Gu, Chao Gu, Ding Xu, Chengcheng Fan 2020 School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering and Automation, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China

Review Of Pathological Index Detection And New Rehabilitation Technique Of Drug Addicts, Banghua Yang, Xuelin Gu, Chao Gu, Ding Xu, Chengcheng Fan

Brain Science Advances

There are two major research issues with regard to detoxification; one is pathological testing of drug users and the other is rehabilitation methods and techniques. Over the years, domestic and foreign researchers have done a lot of work on pathological changes in the brain and rehabilitation techniques for drug users. This article discusses the research status of these two aspects. At present, the evaluation of brain function in drug addicts is still dominated by a single electroencephalography (EEG), near- infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), or magnetic resonance imaging scan. The multimodal physiological data acquisition method based on EEG–NIRS technique is relatively ...


Genome-Wide Studies Of Time Of Day In The Brain: Design And Analysis, Gang Wu, Marc D. Ruben, Yinyeng Lee, Jiajia Li, Michael E. Hughes, John B. Hogenesch 2020 Divisions of Human Genetics and Immunobiology, Center for Chronobiology, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 240 Albert Sabin Way, Cincinnati, OH 45229, U.S.A.

Genome-Wide Studies Of Time Of Day In The Brain: Design And Analysis, Gang Wu, Marc D. Ruben, Yinyeng Lee, Jiajia Li, Michael E. Hughes, John B. Hogenesch

Brain Science Advances

Transcriptome profiling at different times of day is powerful for studying circadian regulation in model organisms and humans. To date, 24 h profiles from many tissue types suggest that about half of all genes are circadian-expressed somewhere in the body. However, few of these studies focused on the brain. Thus, despite known links between circadian disruption and neurological disease, we have virtually no mechanistic understanding. In the coming decade, we expect more genome-wide studies of time of day in different brain diseases, regions, and cell types. We expect just as many different approaches to the design and analysis of these ...


Embodied Tactile Perception And Learning, Huaping Liu, Di Guo, Fuchun Sun, Wuqiang Yang, Steve Furber, Tengchen Sun 2020 Department of Computer Science and Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China

Embodied Tactile Perception And Learning, Huaping Liu, Di Guo, Fuchun Sun, Wuqiang Yang, Steve Furber, Tengchen Sun

Brain Science Advances

Various living creatures exhibit embodiment intelligence, which is reflected by a collaborative interaction of the brain, body, and environment. The actual behavior of embodiment intelligence is generated by a continuous and dynamic interaction between a subject and the environment through information perception and physical manipulation. The physical interaction between a robot and the environment is the basis for realizing embodied perception and learning. Tactile information plays a critical role in this physical interaction process. It can be used to ensure safety, stability, and compliance, and can provide unique information that is difficult to capture using other perception modalities. However, due ...


Circadian Rhythm And Neurodegenerative Disorders, Michelle Werdann, Yong Zhang 2020 Department of Biology, University of Nevada Reno, 1664 N Virginia St, Reno, NV 89557, U.S.A.

Circadian Rhythm And Neurodegenerative Disorders, Michelle Werdann, Yong Zhang

Brain Science Advances

The circadian clock controls daily rhythms in animal physiology, metabolism, and behavior, such as the sleep-wake cycle. Disruption of circadian rhythms has been revealed in many diseases including neurodegenerative disorders. Interestingly, patients with many neurodegenerative diseases often show problems with circadian clocks even years before other symptoms develop. Here we review the recent studies identifying the association between circadian rhythms and several major neurodegenerative disorders. Early intervention of circadian rhythms may benefit the treatment of neurodegeneration.


Chronotype Distribution In The Chinese Population, Zhiwei Liu, Yingying Dong, Ying Xu, Fei Zhou 2020 Cambridge-Suda (CAM-SU) Genomic Resource Center, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Neuropsychiatric Diseases Research, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, Jiangsu, China

Chronotype Distribution In The Chinese Population, Zhiwei Liu, Yingying Dong, Ying Xu, Fei Zhou

Brain Science Advances

Purpose:Individual chronotypes are reported to be closely associated with mood, health status, and even disease progression. However, no reports of chronotype distribution in the Chinese population have been made available to date.Methods:We performed a chronotype survey using the classic Morningness–Eveningness Questionnaire both online and offline. The webpage-based online survey was distributed via a social network application on mobile phones. The offline survey was distributed to local primary and middle schools. A total of 9476 questionnaires were collected, of which 8395 were valid. The mean age of the participants was 30.38 ± 11.47 years, and 37 ...


The Progress In The Treatment Of Spastic Cerebral Palsy With Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy (Sdr), Qi Sun, Wenling Huang, Bowen Deng, Jingpei Ren, Yi Zhao, Xiaohong Mu, Lin Xu 2020 Department of Orthopedics, Dongzhimen Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100700, China

The Progress In The Treatment Of Spastic Cerebral Palsy With Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy (Sdr), Qi Sun, Wenling Huang, Bowen Deng, Jingpei Ren, Yi Zhao, Xiaohong Mu, Lin Xu

Brain Science Advances

Spasticity is the main disabling clinical manifestation of children with cerebral palsy (CP). Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) has been performed for the treatment of spastic CP in Asia for quite some time from 1990. The purpose of this review is to discuss the historical origin and development of SDR. Our goal here is to identify the current patient selection criteria for SDR and to point out indications and contraindications based on the patients with CP, age from 2 to 18 years-old, over 6000 cases, who received SDR surgery with spasticity of muscle tension more than 3 degrees in our center ...


Selective Peripheral Neurotomy (Spn) As A Treatment Strategy For Spasticity, Juan Fan, Ronald Milosevic, Shijie Wang 2020 Yuquan Hosipital, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100040, China

Selective Peripheral Neurotomy (Spn) As A Treatment Strategy For Spasticity, Juan Fan, Ronald Milosevic, Shijie Wang

Brain Science Advances

Spasticity can be caused by central nervous system dysfunction, such as cerebral palsy and stroke. The accepted pathogenesis of spasticity is that the muscles are in the state of uninhibited stretch reflex without enough control of central nervous system. So far, there is no ideal way about how to repair central nervous system. However, the uninhibited stretch reflex can be reduced, targeting the posterior root of the spinal cord and peripheral nerves innervating the limbs, which are called selective posterior rhizotomy (SPR) and selective peripheral neurotomy (SPN), respectively. SPN is indicated for focal or multifocal spasticity, which is well accepted ...


Orthopedic Treatment Of The Lower Limbs In Spastic Paralysis, Xiaohong Mu, Bowen Deng, Jie Zeng, Houjun Zhang, Yi Zhao, Qi Sun, Jie Xu, Le Wang, Lin Xu 2020 Department of Orthopedics, Dongzhimen Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100700, China

Orthopedic Treatment Of The Lower Limbs In Spastic Paralysis, Xiaohong Mu, Bowen Deng, Jie Zeng, Houjun Zhang, Yi Zhao, Qi Sun, Jie Xu, Le Wang, Lin Xu

Brain Science Advances

Spastic paralysis of the limb mainly results from the central lesion, in which spastic cerebral palsy is the common cause. Due to durative muscle spasm in spastic cerebral palsy, it is often accompanied by the formation of secondary musculoskeletal deformities, resulting in limb motor disability. Based on its pathogenesis, surgical treatment is currently applied: selective posterior rhizotomy (SPR) or orthopedic surgery. The primary purpose of early orthopedic surgery was simply to correct limb deformities, which usually led to the recurrence of deformity as a result of the presence of spasticity. With the application of SPR, high muscle tone was successfully ...


Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring In Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy (Sdr), Wenbin Jiang, Qijia Zhan, Junlu Wang, Rong Mei, Bo Xiao 2020 Department of Neurosurgery, Shanghai Children’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200062, China

Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring In Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy (Sdr), Wenbin Jiang, Qijia Zhan, Junlu Wang, Rong Mei, Bo Xiao

Brain Science Advances

For decades, intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) has been used to guide selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) for the treatment of spastic cerebral palsy (CP). Electromyography (EMG) interpretation methods, which are the core of IONM, have never been fully discussed and addressed, and their importance and necessity in SDR have been questioned for years. However, outcomes of CP patients who have undergone IONM-guided SDR have been favorable, and surgery-related complications are extremely minimal. In this paper, we review the history of evolving EMG interpretation methods as well as their neuroelectro- physiological basis.


Deep Brain Stimulation For The Treatment Of Cerebral Palsy: A Review, Hongjie Jiang, Rui Wang, Zhe Zheng, Junming Zhu 2020 Department of Neurosurgery, Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310009, China

Deep Brain Stimulation For The Treatment Of Cerebral Palsy: A Review, Hongjie Jiang, Rui Wang, Zhe Zheng, Junming Zhu

Brain Science Advances

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been used as a safe and effective neuromodulation technique for treatment of various diseases. A large number of patients suffering from movement disorders such as dyskinesia may benefit from DBS. Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of permanent disorders mainly involving motor impairment, and medical interventions are usually unsatisfactory or temporarily active, especially for dyskinetic CP. DBS may be another approach to the treatment of CP. In this review we discuss the targets for DBS and the mechanisms of action for the treatment of CP, and focus on presurgical assessment, efficacy for dystonia and other ...


Pain And Social Decision-Making: New Insights From The Social Framing Effect, Ruolei Gu, Jie Liu, Fang Cui 2020 CAS Key Laboratory of Behavioral Science, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China Department of Psychology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China

Pain And Social Decision-Making: New Insights From The Social Framing Effect, Ruolei Gu, Jie Liu, Fang Cui

Brain Science Advances

This paper focuses on the social function of painful experience as revealed by recent studies on social decision-making. Observing others suffering from physical pain evokes empathic reactions that can lead to prosocial behavior (e.g., helping others at a cost to oneself), which might be regarded as the social value of pain derived from evolution. Feelings of guilt may also be elicited when one takes responsibility for another’s pain. These social emotions play a significant role in various cognitive processes and may affect behavioral preferences. In addition, the influence of others’ pain on decision-making is highly sensitive to social ...


Involvement Of The Hippocampus In Chronic Pain And Depression, Tahmineh Mokhtari, Yiheng Tu, Li Hu 2020 CAS Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China Department of Psychology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China

Involvement Of The Hippocampus In Chronic Pain And Depression, Tahmineh Mokhtari, Yiheng Tu, Li Hu

Brain Science Advances

Increases in depressive behaviors have been reported in patients experiencing chronic pain. In these patients, the symptoms of pain and depression commonly coexist, impairing their lives and challenging effective treatment. The hippocampus may play a role in both chronic pain and depression. A reduction in the volume of the hippocampus is related to reduced neurogenesis and neuroplasticity in cases of chronic pain and depression. Moreover, an increase of proinflammatory factors and a reduction of neurotrophic factors have been reported to modulate the hippocampal neurogenesis and neuroplasticity in chronic pain and depression. This review discusses the mechanisms underlying the depressive-like behavior ...


Interaction Between Social Pain And Physical Pain, Ming Zhang, Yuqi Zhang, Yazhuo Kong 2020 Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China Department of Psychology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China

Interaction Between Social Pain And Physical Pain, Ming Zhang, Yuqi Zhang, Yazhuo Kong

Brain Science Advances

People often experience two types of pain: social pain and physical pain. The former is related to psychological distance from other people or social groups, whereas the latter is associated with actual or potential tissue damage. Social pain caused by interpersonal interactions causes negative feelings in individuals and has negative consequences to the same degree as physical pain. Various studies have shown an interaction between social pain and physical pain, not only in behavioral performance but also in activities within shared neural regions. Accordingly, the present paper reviews: (1) the interaction between social pain and physical pain in individuals’ behavioral ...


Individual Differences Of Maladaptive Brain Changes In Migraine And Their Relationship With Differential Effectiveness Of Treatments, Karen M. von Deneen, Ling Zhao, Jixin Liu 2020 Center for Brain Imaging, School of Life Science and Technology, Xidian University, Xi'an 710126, Shaanxi, China Engineering Research Center of Molecular and Neuro Imaging, Ministry of Education, Xi'an 710126, Shaanxi, China

Individual Differences Of Maladaptive Brain Changes In Migraine And Their Relationship With Differential Effectiveness Of Treatments, Karen M. Von Deneen, Ling Zhao, Jixin Liu

Brain Science Advances

Migraine is a difficult disorder to identify with regard to its pathophysiological mechanisms, and its treatment has been primarily difficult owing to interindividual differences. Substantial rates of nonresponsiveness to medications are common, making migraine treatment complicated. In this review, we systematically analyzed recent studies concerning neuroimaging findings regarding the neurophysiology of migraine. We linked the current imaging research with anecdotal evidence from interindividual factors such as duration and pain intensity of migraine, age, gender, hormonal interplay, and genetics. These factors suggested the use of nonpharmacological therapies such as transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, and placebo therapy for the ...


Differences Between Empathy For Face And Body Pain: Cognitive And Neural Responses, Xiong LiⅠ, Yinya ZhangⅠ, Binyang XiangⅠ, Jing MengⅠ 2020 Key Laboratory of Applied Psychology, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 401331, China

Differences Between Empathy For Face And Body Pain: Cognitive And Neural Responses, Xiong Liⅰ, Yinya Zhangⅰ, Binyang Xiangⅰ, Jing Mengⅰ

Brain Science Advances

Empathy for pain is a hotspot in the field of empathy research because of its specific cognitive and neural mechanism. Currently, studies of empathy for pain can be classified into two categories based on the body regions receiving the painful stimulus, i.e., empathy for face pain and empathy for body pain, which conveys painful information based on individuals’ faces or body parts, respectively. Although the existing evidence revealed differences between these two kinds of pain empathy regarding the underlying cognitive and neural mechanisms, the current studies tend to confuse these findings. Therefore, we summarized the differences between empathy for ...


A Review On The Ongoing Quest For A Pain Signature In The Human Brain, Qian Su, Yingchao Song, Rui Zhao, Meng Liang 2020 Department of Molecular Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin's Clinical Research Center for China, Tianjin 300060, China

A Review On The Ongoing Quest For A Pain Signature In The Human Brain, Qian Su, Yingchao Song, Rui Zhao, Meng Liang

Brain Science Advances

Developing an objective biomarker for pain assessment is crucial for understanding neural coding mechanisms of pain in the human brain as well as for effective treatment of pain disorders. Neuroimaging techniques have been proven to be powerful tools in the ongoing quest for a pain signature in the human brain. Although there is still a long way to go before achieving a truly successful pain signature based on neuroimaging techniques, important progresses have been made through great efforts in the last two decades by the Pain Society. Here, we focus on neural responses to transient painful stimuli in healthy people ...


Value Of Stereoelectroencephalography (Seeg)-Guided Radiofrequency Thermocoagulation In Treating Drug-Resistant Focal Epilepsy, Jianjun Bai, Wenjing Zhou, Haixiang Wang, Bingqing Zhang, Jiuluan Lin, Xiancheng Song, Jia Li, Jing Ruan, Yiou Liu, Jie Shi, Jing He, Qian Feng 2020 Epilepsy Center, Yuquan Hospital, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100049, China

Value Of Stereoelectroencephalography (Seeg)-Guided Radiofrequency Thermocoagulation In Treating Drug-Resistant Focal Epilepsy, Jianjun Bai, Wenjing Zhou, Haixiang Wang, Bingqing Zhang, Jiuluan Lin, Xiancheng Song, Jia Li, Jing Ruan, Yiou Liu, Jie Shi, Jing He, Qian Feng

Brain Science Advances

Stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) has been widely used in the presurgical evaluation of patients with medically intractable epilepsy. In the past, SEEG was commonly used as a method for mapping and localizing the epileptogenic zone (EZ). Since 2004, several studies have been conducted to examine the effectiveness of SEEG-guided radiofrequency thermocoagulation (RF-TC) in treating refractory epilepsy. However, the seizure-free and responder rates varied greatly across studies. We aimed to analyze the outcome of 56 patients who were treated with SEEG-guided RF-TC to evaluate the effectiveness of this treatment. SEEG-guided RF-TC can be considered as a treatment for refractory epilepsy. However, due to ...


Treatment Of Single-Segment Lumbar Tuberculosis With Minimally Invasive Posterior Internal Fixation Combined With Anterior Small Incision Debridement, Bing Fu, Yonghao Tian, Xinyu Liu 2020 Dezhou People’s Hospital, Dezhou 253000, Shandong, China

Treatment Of Single-Segment Lumbar Tuberculosis With Minimally Invasive Posterior Internal Fixation Combined With Anterior Small Incision Debridement, Bing Fu, Yonghao Tian, Xinyu Liu

Brain Science Advances

To review the clinical efficacy of minimally invasive pedicle fixation combined with anterior small incision focus debridement for single-segment lumbar spine tuberculosis, a total of 31 patients with single-segment marginal lumbar tuberculosis were enrolled in the study. All the patients received quadruple anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy for 2 weeks before surgery and treatment with minimally invasive posterior internal fixation, anterior small incision focus debridement, and bone graft fusion. Those patients with preoperative kyphosis deformity were initially treated with appropriate posterior distraction correction. Except for 1 patient who healed 2 weeks after medical dressing change, the remaining 30 patients healed as expected. All ...


The Role Of Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Bold-Fmri) Combined With Diffusion Tensor Imaging (Dti) In Surgery For Tumors Involving Motor Pathways, Chaoqun Lin, Lukui Chen 2020 School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu, China

The Role Of Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Bold-Fmri) Combined With Diffusion Tensor Imaging (Dti) In Surgery For Tumors Involving Motor Pathways, Chaoqun Lin, Lukui Chen

Brain Science Advances

Objective:Blood oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) in combination with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can clearly show the specific relationship between brain tumors and motor pathways. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of this combination in surgery for brain tumors involving motor pathways.Methods:From September 2018 to March 2019, preoperative BOLD-fMRI and DTI examinations were performed in patients with brain tumors involving motor pathways who were being treated in a neurosurgery department. The patients were divided into two groups according to the combined examination results. In one group, the motor pathways were intact ...


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