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Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering Commons

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Antibody-Drug Nanoparticle Induces Synergistic Treatment Efficacies In Her2 Positive Breast Cancer Cells, Muhammad Raisul Abedin, Kaitlyne Powers, Rachel Aiardo, Dibbya Barua, Sutapa Barua 2021 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Antibody-Drug Nanoparticle Induces Synergistic Treatment Efficacies In Her2 Positive Breast Cancer Cells, Muhammad Raisul Abedin, Kaitlyne Powers, Rachel Aiardo, Dibbya Barua, Sutapa Barua

Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

Chemotherapeutic drugs suffer from non-specific binding, undesired toxicity, and poor blood circulation which contribute to poor therapeutic efficacy. In this study, antibody–drug nanoparticles (ADNs) are engineered by synthesizing pure anti-cancer drug nanorods (NRs) in the core of nanoparticles with a therapeutic monoclonal antibody, Trastuzumab on the surface of NRs for specific targeting and synergistic treatments of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive breast cancer cells. ADNs were designed by first synthesizing ~ 95 nm diameter × ~ 500 nm long paclitaxel (PTX) NRs using the nanoprecipitation method. The surface of PTXNRs was functionalized at 2′ OH nucleophilic site using carbonyldiimidazole ...


Bioabsorbable Metal Zinc Differentially Affects Mitochondria In Vascular Endothelial And Smooth Muscle Cells, Olivia R. M. Bagshaw, Fereshteh Moradi, Christopher S. Moffatt, Hillary A. Hettwer, Ping Liang, Jeremy Goldman, Jaroslaw Drelich, Jeffrey A. Stuart 2021 Brock University

Bioabsorbable Metal Zinc Differentially Affects Mitochondria In Vascular Endothelial And Smooth Muscle Cells, Olivia R. M. Bagshaw, Fereshteh Moradi, Christopher S. Moffatt, Hillary A. Hettwer, Ping Liang, Jeremy Goldman, Jaroslaw Drelich, Jeffrey A. Stuart

Michigan Tech Publications

Zinc is an essential trace element having various structural, catalytic and regulatory interactions with an estimated 3000 proteins. Zinc has drawn recent attention for its use, both as pure metal and alloyed, in arterial stents due to its biodegradability, biocompatibility, and low corrosion rates. Previous studies have demonstrated that zinc metal implants prevent the development of neointimal hyperplasia, which is a common cause of restenosis following coronary intervention. This suppression appears to be smooth muscle cell-specific, as reendothelization of the neointima is not inhibited. To better understand the basis of zinc's differential effects on rat aortic smooth muscle (RASMC ...


Creating Reel Designs: Reflecting On Arthrogryposis Multiplex Congenita In The Community, Iris Layadi 2021 Purdue University

Creating Reel Designs: Reflecting On Arthrogryposis Multiplex Congenita In The Community, Iris Layadi

Purdue Journal of Service-Learning and International Engagement

Because of its extreme rarity, the genetic disease arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) and the needs of individuals with the diagnosis are often overlooked. AMC refers to the development of nonprogressive contractures in disparate areas of the body and is characterized by decreased flexibility in joints, muscle atrophy, and developmental delays. Colton Darst, a seven-year-old boy from Indianapolis, Indiana, was born with the disorder, and since then, he has undergone numerous surgical interventions and continues to receive orthopedic therapy to reduce his physical limitations. His parents, Michael and Amber Darst, have hopes for him to regain his limbic motion and are ...


Pairwise Correlation Analysis Of The Alzheimer’S Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (Adni) Dataset Reveals Significant Feature Correlation, Erik D. Huckvale, Matthew W. Hodgman, Brianna B. Greenwood, Devorah O. Stucki, Katrisa M. Ward, Mark T. W. Ebbert, John S. K. Kauwe, The Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, The Alzheimer’s Disease Metabolomics Consortium, Justin B. Miller 2021 University of Kentucky

Pairwise Correlation Analysis Of The Alzheimer’S Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (Adni) Dataset Reveals Significant Feature Correlation, Erik D. Huckvale, Matthew W. Hodgman, Brianna B. Greenwood, Devorah O. Stucki, Katrisa M. Ward, Mark T. W. Ebbert, John S. K. Kauwe, The Alzheimer’S Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, The Alzheimer’S Disease Metabolomics Consortium, Justin B. Miller

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging Faculty Publications

The Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) contains extensive patient measurements (e.g., magnetic resonance imaging [MRI], biometrics, RNA expression, etc.) from Alzheimer’s disease (AD) cases and controls that have recently been used by machine learning algorithms to evaluate AD onset and progression. While using a variety of biomarkers is essential to AD research, highly correlated input features can significantly decrease machine learning model generalizability and performance. Additionally, redundant features unnecessarily increase computational time and resources necessary to train predictive models. Therefore, we used 49,288 biomarkers and 793,600 extracted MRI features to assess feature correlation within the ...


Visuomotor Adaptation During Asymmetric Walking, Charles Napoli 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Visuomotor Adaptation During Asymmetric Walking, Charles Napoli

Masters Theses

Necessary for effective ambulation, head stability affords optimal conditions for the perception of visual information during dynamic tasks. This maintenance of head-in-space equilibrium is achieved, in part, by the attenuation of the high frequency impact shock resulting from ground contact. While a great deal of experimentation has been done on the matter during steady state locomotion, little is known about how head stability or dynamic visual acuity is maintained during asymmetric walking.

In this study, fifteen participants were instructed to walk on a split-belt treadmill for ten minutes while verbally reporting the orientation of a randomized Landolt-C optotype that was ...


A Novel Intervention To Prevent Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritis Following Knee Joint Injury, Gerardo E. Narez 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

A Novel Intervention To Prevent Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritis Following Knee Joint Injury, Gerardo E. Narez

Doctoral Dissertations

The knee joint is the most commonly injured body part in the human body. Injuries as a result of participation in sports, or other recreational activities, often leads to damage to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and meniscus. Injury to these tissues is strongly associated with subsequent knee post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA), which is considered a serious disease because it greatly impacts a patient’s quality of life and significantly increases their risk of premature death. To return stability to the joint, the current clinical treatment is to perform reconstruction of the torn ACL and a meniscal debridement, or meniscectomy, when ...


Physiological Processes, Chirag B. Raval 2021 CUNY City College

Physiological Processes, Chirag B. Raval

Open Educational Resources

Physiological Processes is designed to introduce fundamental concepts of physiology to biomedical engineering learners. Areas covered include: neural, muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory and renal system function; bioelectrical signals, capillary-level transport, organ-level exchange. Whenever possible, analysis will be quantitative in order to fulfill the course goals and to build the foundation for the subsequent biomedical engineering curriculum. This course is for Biomedical Engineering majors only.


Poly(2-Hydroxyethyl Methacrylate) Hydrogels For Contact Lens Applications–A Review, Kushendarsyah Saptaji, Nurlaely Rohmatul Iza, Sinta Widianingrum, Vania Katherine Mulia, Iwan Setiawan 2021 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Sampoerna University, Jakarta Selatan 12780, Indonesia

Poly(2-Hydroxyethyl Methacrylate) Hydrogels For Contact Lens Applications–A Review, Kushendarsyah Saptaji, Nurlaely Rohmatul Iza, Sinta Widianingrum, Vania Katherine Mulia, Iwan Setiawan

Makara Journal of Science

The emerging technology in biomedical engineering requires biocompatible materials, which are also referred to as biomaterials. For a material to be considered biocompatible, it should not interact with human tissues in a harmful way, and vice versa. Various properties of biocompatible materials, such as mechanical and optical properties, have to be considered for different biomedical applications. One of the most popular applications of biomaterials is for contact lenses. Hydrogels, specifically poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) hydrogels, are among the most popular ones in ophthalmologic applications, especially in soft contact lenses. This paper reviews the use of PHEMA hydrogels as one of ...


Delivery Optimization And Evaluation Of Biomechanics Of An Injectable Nucleus Pulposus Replacement Device, Zachary Rustin Brown 2021 Rowan University

Delivery Optimization And Evaluation Of Biomechanics Of An Injectable Nucleus Pulposus Replacement Device, Zachary Rustin Brown

Theses and Dissertations

Lower back pain effects up to 80% of people at some point in their life, a majority of cases being the result of degenerative disc disease. Treatment options for degenerative disc disease are limited, jumping from physical therapy to major spinal fusion and total disc replacement surgery with little to no approaches in between. Furthermore, surgical treatments have not shown to be more effective than conservative treatments and reducing pain and disability over the long term. Hydrogels have shown promise as a potential nucleus pulposus replacement device. Their properties are controllable and can be implanted into the body through minimally ...


Mixed-Reality Visualization Environments To Facilitate Ultrasound-Guided Vascular Access, Leah Groves 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Mixed-Reality Visualization Environments To Facilitate Ultrasound-Guided Vascular Access, Leah Groves

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Ultrasound-guided needle insertions at the site of the internal jugular vein (IJV) are routinely performed to access the central venous system. Ultrasound-guided insertions maintain high rates of carotid artery puncture, as clinicians rely on 2D information to perform a 3D procedure. The limitations of 2D ultrasound-guidance motivated the research question: “Do 3D ultrasound-based environments improve IJV needle insertion accuracy”. We addressed this by developing advanced surgical navigation systems based on tracked surgical tools and ultrasound with various visualizations. The point-to-line ultrasound calibration enables the use of tracked ultrasound. We automated the fiducial localization required for this calibration method such that ...


Build Your Own Body Mod: Empowerment Through Prototyping And Design, Anaiss Arreola, Katherine R. Ganim 2021 Make Just Right

Build Your Own Body Mod: Empowerment Through Prototyping And Design, Anaiss Arreola, Katherine R. Ganim

Journal of Science Education for Students with Disabilities

When you don’t have a hand, what could you have instead? This article introduces the impact of inviting youth with disabilities to learn tools and technology to design their own solutions and advocate for their own future. This approach to programming is rooted in a mindset of designing WITH, not FOR. Not only are design outcomes improved when users are incorporated into the process, but this approach has been shown to improve confidence in creating one’s own solutions. These programs include hands-on “design-your-own-body-mod” workshops, as well as a budding inclusive design consultancy led by youth with disabilities. Through ...


Improving Healthspan Through Patient-Derived Artificial Organs From Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells And Two-Photon Polymerization, Connor Espenshade 2021 University of Pennsylvania

Improving Healthspan Through Patient-Derived Artificial Organs From Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells And Two-Photon Polymerization, Connor Espenshade

Protocols and Reports

Senescence, from the shortening of telomeres, accumulation of mutations, epigenetic hypomethylation, and other causes, begins an eventual cycle of decline in every patient. Stem cells disappear as a function of age, which in turn impairs cellular replication. Moreover, when fully differentiated cells are induced back into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), they not only revert to a state of pre-differentiation, but also to a younger cellular age. Their aging clocks turn back: their telomeres become longer and DNA methylation reverts back to an earlier age. It should therefore be possible to use iPSCs to replace the missing stem cells from ...


Layered Double Hydroxide-Based Nanocomposite Scaffolds In Tissue Engineering Applications, Burcin Izbudak, Berivan Cecen, Ingrid Anaya, Amir K. Miri, Ayca Bal-Ozturk, Erdal Karaoz 2021 Rowan University

Layered Double Hydroxide-Based Nanocomposite Scaffolds In Tissue Engineering Applications, Burcin Izbudak, Berivan Cecen, Ingrid Anaya, Amir K. Miri, Ayca Bal-Ozturk, Erdal Karaoz

Henry M. Rowan College of Engineering Faculty Scholarship

Layered double hydroxides (LDHs), when incorporated into biomaterials, provide a tunable composition, controllable particle size, anion exchange capacity, pH-sensitive solubility, high-drug loading efficiency, efficient gene and drug delivery, controlled release and effective intracellular uptake, natural biodegradability in an acidic medium, and negligible toxicity. In this review, we study potential applications of LDH-based nanocomposite scaffolds for tissue engineering. We address how LDHs provide new solutions for nanostructure stability and enhance in vivo studies' success.


Engineering A High-Throughput Screening Platform For Assessing Developmental Neurotoxicity Throughout Head- Regeneration In Schmidtea Mediterranea, Johnathan James Morris 2021 Rowan University

Engineering A High-Throughput Screening Platform For Assessing Developmental Neurotoxicity Throughout Head- Regeneration In Schmidtea Mediterranea, Johnathan James Morris

Theses and Dissertations

The increase in commercially used chemicals that are inadequately evaluated for safety and risk to development has created a reticent threat to human health. Addressing these deficiencies is compounded by limited methodologies to determine the etiology of exposure-related developmental neurotoxicity (DNT). Current means of assessing DNT are largely retrospective and limited by the expensive, time-consuming, and labor-intensive use of laboratory animal models, thereby motivating a global research effort to produce alternative chemical screening assays. In this work, we have developed a novel high- throughput platform that serves as a new tool to evaluate the effects of exogenous chemical exposure on ...


High Shear Stress Enhances Endothelial Permeability In The Presence Of The Risk Haplotype At 9p21.3, Evan L. Tang, Evan M. Masutami, Benjamin Yeoman, Jessica Fung, Rachel Lian, Brenda Ngo, Aditya Kumar, Jesse K. Placone, Valentina Lo Sardo, Adam J. Engler 2021 University of California - San Diego

High Shear Stress Enhances Endothelial Permeability In The Presence Of The Risk Haplotype At 9p21.3, Evan L. Tang, Evan M. Masutami, Benjamin Yeoman, Jessica Fung, Rachel Lian, Brenda Ngo, Aditya Kumar, Jesse K. Placone, Valentina Lo Sardo, Adam J. Engler

Physics & Engineering Faculty Publications

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are exceedingly common in non-coding loci, and while they are significantly associated with a myriad of diseases, their specific impact on cellular dysfunction remains unclear. Here, we show that when exposed to external stressors, the presence of risk SNPs in the 9p21.3 coronary artery disease (CAD) risk locus increases endothelial monolayer and microvessel dysfunction. Endothelial cells (ECs) derived from induced pluripotent stem cells of patients carrying the risk haplotype (R/R WT) differentiated similarly to their non-risk and isogenic knockout (R/R KO) counterparts. Monolayers exhibited greater permeability and reactive oxygen species signaling when the ...


In Situ Imaging Of Bacterial Outer Membrane Projections And Associated Protein Complexes Using Electron Cryo-Tomography, Mohammed Kaplan, Georges Chreifi, Lauren Ann Metskas, Janine Liedtke, Cecily R. Wood, Catherine M. Oikonomou, William J. Nicolas, Poorna Subramanian, Lori A. Zacharoff, Yuhang Wang, Yi-Wei Chang, Morgan Beeby, Megan J. Dobro, Yongtao Zhu, Mark J. McBride, Ariane Briegel, Carrie L. Shaffer, Grant J. Jensen 2021 California Institute of Technology

In Situ Imaging Of Bacterial Outer Membrane Projections And Associated Protein Complexes Using Electron Cryo-Tomography, Mohammed Kaplan, Georges Chreifi, Lauren Ann Metskas, Janine Liedtke, Cecily R. Wood, Catherine M. Oikonomou, William J. Nicolas, Poorna Subramanian, Lori A. Zacharoff, Yuhang Wang, Yi-Wei Chang, Morgan Beeby, Megan J. Dobro, Yongtao Zhu, Mark J. Mcbride, Ariane Briegel, Carrie L. Shaffer, Grant J. Jensen

Veterinary Science Faculty Publications

The ability to produce outer membrane projections in the form of tubular membrane extensions (MEs) and membrane vesicles (MVs) is a widespread phenomenon among diderm bacteria. Despite this, our knowledge of the ultrastructure of these extensions and their associated protein complexes remains limited. Here, we surveyed the ultrastructure and formation of MEs and MVs, and their associated protein complexes, in tens of thousands of electron cryo-tomograms of ~90 bacterial species that we have collected for various projects over the past 15 years (Jensen lab database), in addition to data generated in the Briegel lab. We identified outer MEs and MVs ...


Lung Physiological Variations In Covid-19 Patients And Inhalation Therapy Development For Remodeled Lungs, Jinxiang Xi, Brendan Walfield, Xiuhua April Si, Alexander A. Bankier 2021 University of Massachusetts Lowell

Lung Physiological Variations In Covid-19 Patients And Inhalation Therapy Development For Remodeled Lungs, Jinxiang Xi, Brendan Walfield, Xiuhua April Si, Alexander A. Bankier

COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

In response to the unmet need for effective treatments for symptomatic patients, research efforts of inhaled therapy for COVID-19 patients have been pursued since the pandemic began. However, inhalation drug delivery to the lungs is sensitive to the lung anatomy and physiology, which can be significantly altered due to the viral infection. The ensued ventilation heterogeneity will change distribution and thus dosimetry of inhaled medications, rendering previous correlations concepts? of pulmonary drug delivery in healthy lungs less reliable. In this study, we first reviewed the recent developments of inhaled therapeutics and vaccines, as well as the latest knowledge of the ...


Tools And Strategies For The Patterning Of Bioactive Molecules And Macromolecules, Daniel J. Valles 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Tools And Strategies For The Patterning Of Bioactive Molecules And Macromolecules, Daniel J. Valles

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Hypersurface Photolithography (HP) is a printing method for fabricating structures and patterns composed of soft materials bound to solid surfaces and with ~1 micrometer resolution in the x, y, and z dimensions. This platform leverages benign, low intensity light to perform photochemical surface reactions with spatial and temporal control of irradiation, and, as a result, is particularly useful for patterning delicate organic and biological material. In particular, surface- initiated controlled radical polymerizations can be leveraged to create arbitrary polymer and block- copolymer brush patterns. Chapter 1 will review the advances in instrumentation architectures from our group that have made these ...


Drug Releasing Hydrogels For Opioid Use Disorder, Kaytlyn M. Crowe 2021 New Jersey Institute of Technology

Drug Releasing Hydrogels For Opioid Use Disorder, Kaytlyn M. Crowe

Theses

Ease of access to prescription opioids and the strength of synthetic opioids have contributed to the rise in over use disorders, overdose, and death rates during the opioid epidemic. The current overdose standard of care, rescue NLX (NLX), is a competitive antagonist to the μ-opioid receptor but has a relatively short period of action compared to opioid agonists, especially synthetic agonists. Rises in the abuse of these synthetic and semi-synthetic agents in recent years have shown the weaknesses of rescue NLX, as it can leave overdose patients vulnerable to renarcotization and precipitated withdrawal. To prevent both from occurring, we developed ...


Gradient Free Sign Activation Zero One Loss Neural Networks For Adversarially Robust Classification, Yunzhe Xue 2021 New Jersey Institute of Technology

Gradient Free Sign Activation Zero One Loss Neural Networks For Adversarially Robust Classification, Yunzhe Xue

Dissertations

The zero-one loss function is less sensitive to outliers than convex surrogate losses such as hinge and cross-entropy. However, as a non-convex function, it has a large number of local minima, andits undifferentiable attribute makes it impossible to use backpropagation, a method widely used in training current state-of-the-art neural networks. When zero-one loss is applied to deep neural networks, the entire training process becomes challenging. On the other hand, a massive non-unique solution probably also brings different decision boundaries when optimizing zero-one loss, making it possible to fight against transferable adversarial examples, which is a common weakness in deep learning ...


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