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Sound-Induced In-Plane And Out-Of-Plane Motion Of Human Tympanic Membranes, Morteza Khaleghi, Jeffrey T. Cheng, Cosme Furlong, John J. Rosowski 2015 Worcester Polytechnic Institute

Sound-Induced In-Plane And Out-Of-Plane Motion Of Human Tympanic Membranes, Morteza Khaleghi, Jeffrey T. Cheng, Cosme Furlong, John J. Rosowski

Morteza Khaleghi

The acousto-mechanical-transformer behavior of the Tympanic Membrane (TM) is determined by its geometry (shape and thickness) and mechanical properties. The questions of “How the TM couples acoustic energy to the ossicles?” and “How TM shape and vibration affect this series of events?” have yet to be fully answered. Holographic studies of 1D vibrations of the TM have been reported by several groups; however, 3D measurements of TM motions are few. In this study, we use full-field-of-view holographic techniques to measure near simultaneously the shape and 3D sound-induced displacement of cadaveric human TMs. Combinations of shape and 3D displacement measurements are ...


Altered Cd161bright Cd8+ Mucosal Associated Invariant T (Mait)-Like Cell Dynamics And Increased Differentiation States Among Juvenile Type 1 Diabetics., Robert Z. Harms, Kristina M. Lorenzo, Kevin P. Corley, Monina S. Cabrera, Nora Sarvetnick 2015 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Altered Cd161bright Cd8+ Mucosal Associated Invariant T (Mait)-Like Cell Dynamics And Increased Differentiation States Among Juvenile Type 1 Diabetics., Robert Z. Harms, Kristina M. Lorenzo, Kevin P. Corley, Monina S. Cabrera, Nora Sarvetnick

Journal Articles: Regenerative Medicine

Type 1A diabetes (T1D) is believed to be caused by immune-mediated destruction of β-cells, but the immunological basis for T1D remains controversial. Microbial diversity promotes the maturation and activation of certain immune subsets, including CD161bright CD8+ mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, and alterations in gut mucosal responses have been reported in type 1 diabetics (T1Ds). We analyzed T cell populations in peripheral blood leukocytes from juvenile T1Ds and healthy controls. We found that proportion and absolute number of MAIT cells were similar between T1Ds and controls. Furthermore, while MAIT cell proportions increased with age among healthy controls, this trend ...


Transitioning The Benefits Of Algal Growth To The Byproducts Of Oil And Natural Gas Production, Alan Hodges, Tyler Gladwin, Cody Maxfield, Jonathan Wood 2015 Utah State University

Transitioning The Benefits Of Algal Growth To The Byproducts Of Oil And Natural Gas Production, Alan Hodges, Tyler Gladwin, Cody Maxfield, Jonathan Wood

Research on Capitol Hill

No abstract provided.


Design Of Customized Rehabilitation Devices And Bench Testing System, Xueyu Gao 2015 Northeastern University

Design Of Customized Rehabilitation Devices And Bench Testing System, Xueyu Gao

Mechanical Engineering Master's Theses

Off-the-shelf rehabilitation devices are currently prescribed to assist patients with stroke. Current fabrication processes of custom-made rehabilitation devices are time consuming and laborious. The process could be only performed by skilled therapists. In addition, quantitative assessment of mechanical properties is crucial in the design of customized rehabilitation devices. By the design and the real time implementation of a 3D printed hand exoskeleton and a biomimetic testbed for Ankle-Foot Orthoses (AFOs), the improved digitalized methodologies of design and bench testing systems for customized rehabilitation devices were presented in this study.

A customized 3D printed hand exoskeleton (the EXCELSIOR) was developed and ...


Design, Development And Implementation Of Smart Cycling Kits For Rehabilitation Applications And End-Users, Qingchao Kong 2015 Northeastern University

Design, Development And Implementation Of Smart Cycling Kits For Rehabilitation Applications And End-Users, Qingchao Kong

Mechanical Engineering Master's Theses

There are three topics included: 1. VRACK study and improvement, 2.Smart Bike; 3. iVRACK design.

Topic 1: VRACK study and improvement

Ankle impairment and lower limb asymmetries in strength and coordination are common symptoms for individuals with selected musculoskeletal and neurological impairments. The virtual reality augmented cycling kit (VRACK) was designed as a compact mechatronics system and a compatible module that can be mounted on most bicycles to convert them to virtual reality (VR) cycles for lower limb and mobility rehabilitation. Novel hardware components with sensors instrument monitor physiological and biomechanical parameters of participants by measuring interaction forces and ...


Microfabrication Of Bio-Analytical Devices: Microelectrode Array And Traveling-Wave Electrophoresis, Neil Draper 2015 Utah State University

Microfabrication Of Bio-Analytical Devices: Microelectrode Array And Traveling-Wave Electrophoresis, Neil Draper

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The need for potable water is increasing with the ever-increasing world population. Further development of fast, portable, and cost effective analytical tools is necessary in order to create diagnostic techniques capable of supporting the water needs of the world’s population. Within the last decade microfluidics and Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) technologies have increased the portability and speed of detection for aqueous samples. Photolithography techniques serve as a cost effective fabrication tool to create LOC electrodes on the micron scale.

An in-depth look at the fabrication process is undertaken in this paper in order to further the development of micro-scale detection techniques ...


The Effect Of Cholesterol On The Osteoblast Responsiveness To Hydrodynamic Pressure Stimulation, Kristen Lough 2015 University of Kentucky

The Effect Of Cholesterol On The Osteoblast Responsiveness To Hydrodynamic Pressure Stimulation, Kristen Lough

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Hypercholesterolemia is a risk factor for osteoporosis but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Previous evidence suggests that osteoporosis results from an impaired regulation of osteoblasts by fluid pressure fluctuations in the bone matrix. Recently, our laboratory showed that enhanced cholesterol in the cell membrane, due to hypercholesterolemia, alters leukocyte mechanosensitivity. We predict a similar link between osteoblasts and hypercholesterolemia leading to osteoporosis. Specifically, we hypothesize that extracellular cholesterol modifies the osteoblast sensitivity to pressure. MC3T3-E1 cells were exposed to hydrodynamic pressures regimes (mean=40mmHg, amplitude=0-20mmHg, frequency=1Hz) for 1-12 hours. To assess the impact of membrane cholesterol enrichment, cells ...


Development And Validation Of A Robust, Adjustable Hippotherapy Simulator, Melissa Jo Montgomery 2015 Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology

Development And Validation Of A Robust, Adjustable Hippotherapy Simulator, Melissa Jo Montgomery

Graduate Theses - Applied Biology & Biomedical Engineering

This thesis describes all aspects of development, testing, refinement, and validation of a robust, adjustable hippotherapy simulator. This simulator primarily focuses on physical therapy; however, emotional benefits can be realized. It uniquely innovates on an effective design that has only partially been addressed in other simulators. Using a variable drive for adjustable speed, it incorporates reinforcements to increase load capacity along with removable camshafts that adjust the throw heights in the device’s simulated hips and shoulders. For testing and validation, Qualisys software and motion capture supported analysis of the device’s motion paths and speeds. Riders weighing approximately 135-300 ...


Nanopulse Generators: Their Design And Application To Cancer Therapy Studies, Daniel P. Wernig 2014 Liberty University

Nanopulse Generators: Their Design And Application To Cancer Therapy Studies, Daniel P. Wernig

Senior Honors Theses

Effective nanopulse generators have become critical in recent decades concerning the study of subcellular affects in response to nanosecond pulsed electric fields. It has been observed that nanosecond duration electric pulses can target intracellular organelles, ultimately leading to cell apoptosis, suggesting the possibility of a new, minimally invasive, low risk cancer therapy methodology. The standard topology for developing a medical nanopulser is the Blumlein “transmission line” approach. This approach relies on the nearly infinitesimal, yet finite amount of time required for an electromagnetic field to propagate down a short transmission line. Prior to design, requirements and constraints must be defined ...


Digestion Of Municipal Wastewater Biosolids Using An Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Bioreactor (Anfbr), Zhenqi Wang 2014 The University of Western Ontario

Digestion Of Municipal Wastewater Biosolids Using An Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Bioreactor (Anfbr), Zhenqi Wang

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This research investigated the efficacy of the anaerobic fluidized bed bioreactor (AnFBR) technology in treating municipal wastewater sludges. Primary sludge (PS) and thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) were studied in two lab-scale AnFBRs using High-density polyethylene (HDPE) as carrier media. PS was investigated at various organic loading rates (OLRs) ranging from 9 to 18 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/m3-d corresponding to hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 2 to 4 days, with maximum COD and volatile suspended solid (VSS) removal efficiency of 70% and 72%, respectively. For TWAS, VSS destruction efficiency varied from 53% at an HRT of ...


Long-Acting Antituberculous Therapeutic Nanoparticles Target Macrophage Endosomes, Benson J. Edagwa, Dongwei Guo, Pavan Puligujja, Han Chen, JoEllyn McMillan, Xinming Liu, Howard Gendelman, Prabagaran Narayanasamy 2014 University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha

Long-Acting Antituberculous Therapeutic Nanoparticles Target Macrophage Endosomes, Benson J. Edagwa, Dongwei Guo, Pavan Puligujja, Han Chen, Joellyn Mcmillan, Xinming Liu, Howard Gendelman, Prabagaran Narayanasamy

Papers from the Nebraska Center for Biotechnology

Eradication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection requires daily administration of combinations of rifampin (RIF), isoniazid [isonicotinylhydrazine (INH)], pyrazinamide, and ethambutol, among other drug therapies. To facilitate and optimize MTB therapeutic selections, a mononuclear phagocyte (MP; monocyte, macrophage, and dendritic cell)-targeted drug delivery strategy was developed. Long-acting nanoformulations of RIF and an INH derivative, pentenyl- INH (INHP), were prepared, and their physicochemical properties were evaluated. This included the evaluation of MP particle uptake and retention, cell viability, and antimicrobial efficacy. Drug levels reached 6 μg/106 cells in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) for nanoparticle treatments compared with 0.1 μg ...


A Highly Adaptive And Cost Effective Second Generation Incubator (Sgi) Towards Educational, Research And Clinical Processes, Yassir H. Al-Sayagh 2014 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

A Highly Adaptive And Cost Effective Second Generation Incubator (Sgi) Towards Educational, Research And Clinical Processes, Yassir H. Al-Sayagh

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Today´s rising demand for more reliable and affordable alternatives to organ transplant has led to a growing market for in vitro tissue culture systems. The main objective of tissue engineering as a whole is to employ human tissue equivalents for commercial use. The state-of-the-art processes for producing these so called tissue models are still very expensive, difficult to produce and time-consuming.

To engineer tissues, in vitro, a three-dimensional support structure commonly termed scaffold is needed. Stem cells are then added to the scaffold. In order for tissue to materialize, the scaffold and the cells must be incubated (cultured) at ...


Performance Comparison Of Windowing Techniques For Ecg Signal Enhancement, Innovative Research Publications IRP India, K.Sravan Kumar, Babak Yazdanpanah, Dr.G.S.N Raju 2014 Innovative Research Publications

Performance Comparison Of Windowing Techniques For Ecg Signal Enhancement, Innovative Research Publications Irp India, K.Sravan Kumar, Babak Yazdanpanah, Dr.G.S.N Raju

Innovative Research Publications IRP India

Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal is generally corrupted by various artifacts like baseline wander, power line interference (50/60 Hz) and electromyography noise and these must be removed before diagnosis. The task propounded in this article is removal of low frequency interference i.e. baseline wandering and high frequency noise i.e. electromyography in ECG signal and digital filters are implemented to delete it. The digital filters accomplished are FIR with various windowing methods as of Rectangular, Hann, Blackman, Hamming, and Kaiser. The results received are at order of 300,450,600.The signal taken of the MIT-BIH database which contains the ...


The Effect Of Artery Bifurcation Angles On Fluid Flow And Wall Shear Stress In The Middle Cerebral Artery, Zachary Ramey Jones 2014 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

The Effect Of Artery Bifurcation Angles On Fluid Flow And Wall Shear Stress In The Middle Cerebral Artery, Zachary Ramey Jones

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Saccular aneurysms are the abnormal plastic deformation of veins and arteries that can lead to lethal thrombus genesis or internal hemorrhaging. Medication and surgery greatly reduce the mortality rates, but treatment is limited by predicting who will develop aneurysms. A common location for saccular aneurysm genesis is at the main middle cerebral artery (MCA) bifurcation. The main MCA bifurcation is comprised of the M1 MCA segment, parent artery, and two M2 segments, daughter arteries. Studies have found that the lateral angle (LA) ratio of the MCA bifurcation is correlated with aneurysm formation. The LA ratio is defined as the angle ...


A Low-Power Approach For Front End Biological Signal Conditioning, Logan Smith Taylor 2014 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

A Low-Power Approach For Front End Biological Signal Conditioning, Logan Smith Taylor

Masters Theses

In a lab-on-a-chip (LOC) application, the measurement of small analog signals such as local temperature variation often involves detection of very low-level signals in a noisy micro-scale environment. This is true for other biomedical monitoring systems as well. These systems observe various physiological parameters or electrochemical reactions that need to be tracked electrically. For temperature measurement pyroelectric transducers represent an efficient solution in terms of speed, sensitivity, and scale of integration, especially when prompt and accurate temperature monitoring is desired.

The ability to perform laboratory operations on a small scale using miniaturized LOC devices is a promising biosensing technique. The ...


Low Molecular Weight Glucosamine/L-Lactide Copolymers As Potential Carriers For The Development Of A Sustained Rifampicin Release System: Mycobacterium Smegmatis As A Tuberculosis Model, Jorge Ragusa 2014 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Low Molecular Weight Glucosamine/L-Lactide Copolymers As Potential Carriers For The Development Of A Sustained Rifampicin Release System: Mycobacterium Smegmatis As A Tuberculosis Model, Jorge Ragusa

Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering Theses, Dissertations, & Student Research

Tuberculosis, a highly contagious disease, ranks as the second leading cause of death from an infectious disease, and remains a major global health problem. In 2013, 9 million new cases were diagnosed and 1.5 million people died worldwide from tuberculosis. This dissertation aims at developing a new, ultrafine particle-based efficient antibiotic delivery system for the treatment of tuberculosis. The carrier material to make the rifampicin (RIF)-loaded particles is a low molecular weight star-shaped polymer produced from glucosamine (molecular core building unit) and L-lactide (GluN-LLA). Stable particles with a very high 50% drug loading capacity were made via electrohydrodynamic ...


Unlocking The Secrets Of Multi-Flagellated Propulsion, Stefan Oma Nwandu-Vincent 2014 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Unlocking The Secrets Of Multi-Flagellated Propulsion, Stefan Oma Nwandu-Vincent

Doctoral Dissertations

In this work, unique high-speed imaging platforms and an array of theoretical analysis methods are used to thoroughly investigate eukaryotic multi-flagellated propulsion using Tritrichomonas foetus as a test case. Through experimental observations through our imaging system with superior resolution and capture rate exceeding that of previous studies, it was discovered for the first time that the T. foetus employs a strategy similar to that of the “run and tumble” strategies found in bacteria and Chlamydomonas; it has two distinct flagellar beating patterns that result in two different body swimming motions, linear and turning swimming.

These two flagella patterns were ...


Single Cell Biophysics: Applications In Cardiomyocyte Mechanobiology And Stem Cell Mechanotransduction, Benjamin Edward Reese 2014 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Single Cell Biophysics: Applications In Cardiomyocyte Mechanobiology And Stem Cell Mechanotransduction, Benjamin Edward Reese

Doctoral Dissertations

While a great deal of work has been done to analyze cardiac dynamics and mechanics at the organ and tissue levels, there remains much less data regarding these metrics at the single cell level. Additionally, as fields such as regenerative medicine and tissue engineering are beginning to demonstrate greater therapeutic potential, the study and influence of stem cell mechanics on differentiation has become a major area of interest. For these reasons, along with the continued advancement of molecular techniques and assays, there is a growing need to develop functional assays that can integrate and bridge the findings from multiple length ...


Biomechanical Joint Demands And Functional Outcomes During Manual Wheelchair Use In Pediatric Patients With Spinal Cord Injury, Christine M. Aurit 2014 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Biomechanical Joint Demands And Functional Outcomes During Manual Wheelchair Use In Pediatric Patients With Spinal Cord Injury, Christine M. Aurit

Theses and Dissertations

The biomechanical demands of the upper extremities (UEs) during pediatric manual wheelchair (MWC) use have not been fully explored. Children who use MWCs for mobility engage in a range of functional activities that may place large biomechanical demands on the UEs leading to a high risk on overuse injuries. This study aims to analyze the kinematics and kinetics of pediatric manual wheelchair use during propulsion, starting, stopping and weight relief tasks. Fourteen pediatric patients with spinal cord injury were recruited and data were collected using a 14-camera Vicon MX motion analysis system (Oxford Metric Group, Oxford, UK) and a SmartWheel ...


An Optogenetic Brain-Machine Interface For Spatiotemporal Neuromodulation, Ryan Andrew Baumgartner 2014 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

An Optogenetic Brain-Machine Interface For Spatiotemporal Neuromodulation, Ryan Andrew Baumgartner

Theses and Dissertations

Direct neural stimulation has recently become a standard therapy for neurological disorders such as Parkinson's Disease, Essential Tremors, and Dystonia. Currently, deep brain electro-stimulation and neuro-pharmaceutical treatments are the dominant therapeutic options available to the public. As our understanding of brain function and neurological diseases improves, we are able to develop more advanced neuromodulation techniques. These methods could become viable treatment solutions for treating brain dysfunction. Optogenetics, first introduced by a research team led by Karl Deisseroth at Stanford University, has proved to be a versatile technique with remarkable potential to be used in treatments for brain disorders, dysfunction ...


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