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Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering Commons

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2016

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Articles 1 - 30 of 893

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Denoising Techniques Reveal Neural Correlates Of Modulation Masking Release In Auditory Cortex, Sahil Chaubal Dec 2016

Denoising Techniques Reveal Neural Correlates Of Modulation Masking Release In Auditory Cortex, Sahil Chaubal

Theses

Hearing aids allow hearing impaired (HI) individuals to regain auditory perception in quiet settings. However, despite advances in hearing aid technology, HI individuals do not perform as well in situations with background sound as normally hearing (NH


Activity Preservation Of Plasmonic Biosensors With A Metal-Organic Framework, Lu Wang Dec 2016

Activity Preservation Of Plasmonic Biosensors With A Metal-Organic Framework, Lu Wang

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Antibody-antigen recognition enables antibody-conjugated nanostructures to serve as plasmonic biosensors with tunable specificity. However due to the instability of antibodies, these biosensors are susceptible to changes in the environment such as heat and aridity, leading to constraints on the transportation and handling of these sensors. Here we establish a method using a metal-organic framework crystal to preserve biosensor activity under severe environmental conditions, including exposure to high temperatures, an organic solvent and a proteolytic agent. After zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) crystals formed for 12 hours on a biosensor of gold nanorods conjugated with a model antibody, rabbit IgG, 80% of ...


Finite Element Simulation And Additive Manufacturing Of Stiffness-Matched Niti Fixation Hardware For Mandibular Reconstruction Surgery, Ahmadreza Jahadakbar, Narges Shayesteh Moghaddam, Amirhesam Amerinatanzi, David Dean, Haluk E. Karaca, Mohammad Elahinia Dec 2016

Finite Element Simulation And Additive Manufacturing Of Stiffness-Matched Niti Fixation Hardware For Mandibular Reconstruction Surgery, Ahmadreza Jahadakbar, Narges Shayesteh Moghaddam, Amirhesam Amerinatanzi, David Dean, Haluk E. Karaca, Mohammad Elahinia

Mechanical Engineering Faculty Publications

Process parameters and post-processing heat treatment techniques have been developed to produce both shape memory and superelastic NiTi using Additive Manufacturing. By introducing engineered porosity, the stiffness of NiTi can be tuned to the level closely matching cortical bone. Using additively manufactured porous superelastic NiTi, we have proposed the use of patient-specific, stiffness-matched fixation hardware, for mandible skeletal reconstructive surgery. Currently, Ti-6Al-4V is the most commonly used material for skeletal fixation devices. Although this material offers more than sufficient strength for immobilization during the bone healing process, the high stiffness of Ti-6Al-4V implants can cause stress shielding. In this paper ...


The Efficacy Of Bionate As An Articulating Surface For Joint Hemiarthroplasty, Sarah Dedecker Dec 2016

The Efficacy Of Bionate As An Articulating Surface For Joint Hemiarthroplasty, Sarah Dedecker

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Hemiarthroplasty procedures replace the diseased side of the joint with an implant to maximize bone preservation while maintaining more native anatomy than a total joint replacement. Even though hemiarthroplasty procedures have been clinically successful, they cause progressive cartilage damage over time due to the use of relatively stiff metallic implant materials. This work investigates the role of low moduli implant material on implant-cartilage contact mechanics and early in vitro cartilage wear. A finite element simulation was developed to assess the effect of low moduli implants in the range of 0.015-0.288 GPa on contact mechanics. Higher contact area and ...


Multimodal Imaging Of Photoreceptor Structure In Choroideremia, Lynn W. Sun, Ryan D. Johnson, Vesper Williams, Phyllis Summerfelt, Alfredo Dubra, David V. Weinberg, Kimberly E. Stepien, Gerald A. Fishman, Joseph Carroll Dec 2016

Multimodal Imaging Of Photoreceptor Structure In Choroideremia, Lynn W. Sun, Ryan D. Johnson, Vesper Williams, Phyllis Summerfelt, Alfredo Dubra, David V. Weinberg, Kimberly E. Stepien, Gerald A. Fishman, Joseph Carroll

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Purpose

Choroideremia is a progressive X-linked recessive dystrophy, characterized by degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), choroid, choriocapillaris, and photoreceptors. We examined photoreceptor structure in a series of subjects with choroideremia with particular attention to areas bordering atrophic lesions.

Methods

Twelve males with clinically-diagnosed choroideremia and confirmed hemizygous mutations in the CHM gene were examined. High-resolution images of the retina were obtained using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and both confocal and non-confocal split-detector adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) techniques.

Results

Eleven CHM gene mutations (3 novel) were identified; three subjects had the same mutation and one ...


Miniature Implantable Telemetry System For Pressure-Volume Cardiac Monitoring, Kyle G. Fricke Dec 2016

Miniature Implantable Telemetry System For Pressure-Volume Cardiac Monitoring, Kyle G. Fricke

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Safety Pharmacology is becoming an increasingly important field to pharmaceutical companies in order to determine if medical treatments (drugs) are safe for use in human subjects. In the pre-clinical phase, test models, most commonly small rodents, undergo various gene alterations to affect, for example, their cardiovascular system in order to emulate human diseases. Pharmaceutical companies rely on these models to determine the drug efficacy and to ensure minimal side effects and safety for human subjects. Currently, no fully implantable left-ventricle pressure--volume (PV) telemetry systems have been implemented for Safety Pharmacology assessment applications. A fully implantable PV telemetry system would not ...


Quantitative Optical Studies Of Oxidative Stress In Rodent Models Of Eye And Lung Injuries, Zahra Ghanian Dec 2016

Quantitative Optical Studies Of Oxidative Stress In Rodent Models Of Eye And Lung Injuries, Zahra Ghanian

Theses and Dissertations

Optical imaging techniques have emerged as essential tools for reliable assessment of organ structure, biochemistry, and metabolic function. The recognition of metabolic markers for disease diagnosis has rekindled significant interest in the development of optical methods to measure the metabolism of the organ.

The objective of my research was to employ optical imaging tools and to implement signal and image processing techniques capable of quantifying cellular metabolism for the diagnosis of diseases in human organs such as eyes and lungs. To accomplish this goal, three different tools, cryoimager, fluorescent microscope, and optical coherence tomography system were utilized to study the ...


Design And Basic Verification Of A Discrete Event Simulator For Glucose Metabolism In Human Beings, Elizabeth Andrews Dec 2016

Design And Basic Verification Of A Discrete Event Simulator For Glucose Metabolism In Human Beings, Elizabeth Andrews

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis describes the design and basic verification of a discrete event simulator for glucose metabolism in human beings. The simulator implements the glucose metabolism related behavior of various organs in the human body and tracks the blood plasma glucose level as the human body goes through a sequence of diet and exercise events. The simulator can mimic insulin resistance in various organs as well as the loss of insulin production in the pancreas and the adverse impact of these changes on the metabolic behavior of various organs. Thus, the simulator can serve as a model for people with diabetes ...


Stem Cell And Tissue Engineering Research, Feng Zhao Dec 2016

Stem Cell And Tissue Engineering Research, Feng Zhao

TechTalks

My research focuses on stem cell and tissue engineering. By combining stem cell biology and engineering tools, the Zhao Lab seeks strategies to biofabricate completely biological tissues to regenerate or repair damaged tissues or organs. The function of engineered tissues is being strengthened by recapitulating the in vivo environment of natural tissues. The underlying mechanism is being explored through investigating the interaction of cells with environmental factors such as topographical cues, biophysical forces, and oxygen tensions. We also prompt stem cell research at Michigan Tech to meet the progress and advance of the outside scientific society. Training opportunities are consistently ...


Laser-Processed Parchment Paper For Fabrication Of Chronic Wound Dressings With Selective Oxygenation, Manuel Ochoa Dec 2016

Laser-Processed Parchment Paper For Fabrication Of Chronic Wound Dressings With Selective Oxygenation, Manuel Ochoa

Open Access Dissertations

Chronic non-healing wounds (e.g., diabetic foot ulcers and bed sores) impact over 6.5 million Americans per year, costs in excess of $25 billion to treat on an annual basis, and are on the rise due to increasing levels of obesity and diabetes compounded by an aging population. A major inhibitor of healing is suboptimal oxygenation of the wound bed. Unlike acute injuries that receive sufficient oxygen via a functional blood vessel network, chronic wounds often suffer from the lack of a proper vascular network; thus being incapable of providing sufficient oxygen for tissue growth. Typical medical treatment of ...


Concurrent Detection And Isolation Of Cellular And Molecular Biomarkers, Wanfeng Huang Dec 2016

Concurrent Detection And Isolation Of Cellular And Molecular Biomarkers, Wanfeng Huang

Open Access Dissertations

Detection of cancer markers such as protein biomolecules and cancer cells in bodily fluids is of great importance in early diagnosis, prognosis as well as evaluation of therapy efficacy. Numerous devices have been developed for detecting either cellular or molecular targets, however there has not yet been a system that can simultaneously detect both cellular and molecular targets effectively. Molecule and cell-based assays are important because each type of target can tell a different story about the state of the disease and the two types of information can potentially be combined and/or compared for more accurate biological or clinical ...


Device Design Factors For Enhancing The Functionality Of Chronic Intracortical Microelectrodes, Heui Chang Lee Dec 2016

Device Design Factors For Enhancing The Functionality Of Chronic Intracortical Microelectrodes, Heui Chang Lee

Open Access Dissertations

Intracortical microelectrodes are devices used in brain-computer interfaces (BCI) to help regain lost motor, sensory, and cognitive functions of individuals with neurological disorders. However, the long-term performance of microelectrode arrays is hampered by a series of inflammatory tissue responses. The consequence of the inflammatory response is the formation of a dense astroglial sheath around the vicinity of the electrode, impeding the electrical conduction between the electrode and neurons. Furthermore, due to the cascade of neuroinflammatory events, the number of neurons is significantly reduced near the electrode, manifested by decrease in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the yield of electrodes. Over time ...


Dynamic Holography In Semiconductors And Biomedical Optics, Hao Sun Dec 2016

Dynamic Holography In Semiconductors And Biomedical Optics, Hao Sun

Open Access Dissertations

Three-dimensional scanning and display are rapidly-advancing new technologies with important commercial drivers such as 3D printing and remote imaging for big data applications. Holography is a natural approach to recording and displaying three-dimensional information because it uses phase-sensitive interferometry to record interference patterns when a reference beam encounters coherent light arriving from an object. The 3D information is contained in the values of wave optics. Holography is a broad field that goes beyond recording and displaying. For instance, holographic optical elements, which take advantage of holographic imaging principles, perform the functions of lenses, gratings or mirrors. Holographic interferometry is also ...


Characterizing The Effects Of Repetitive Head Trauma In Female Soccer Athletes For Prevention Of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, Diana Otero Svaldi Dec 2016

Characterizing The Effects Of Repetitive Head Trauma In Female Soccer Athletes For Prevention Of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, Diana Otero Svaldi

Open Access Dissertations

As participation in women’s soccer continues to grow and the longevity of female athletes’ careers continues to increase, prevention of mTBI in women’s soccer has become a major concern for female athletes as the long-term risks associated with a history of mTBI are well documented. Among women’s sports, soccer exhibits the highest concussion rates, on par with those of men’s football at the collegiate level. Head impact monitoring technology has revealed that “concussive hits” occurring directly before symptomatic injury are not predictive of mTBI, suggesting that the cumulative effect of repetitive head impacts experienced by collision ...


Exploring The Production Of Extracellular Matrix By Astrocytes In Response To Mimetic Traumatic Brain Injury, Addison Walker Dec 2016

Exploring The Production Of Extracellular Matrix By Astrocytes In Response To Mimetic Traumatic Brain Injury, Addison Walker

Theses and Dissertations

Following injury to the central nervous system, extracellular modulations are apparent at

the site of injury, often resulting in a glial scar. Astrocytes are mechanosensitive cells, which can create a neuroinhibitory extracellular environment in response to injury. The aim for this research was to gain a fundamental understanding of the affects a diffuse traumatic brain injury has on the astrocyte extracellular environment after injury. To accomplish this, a bioreactor culturing astrocytes in 3D constructs delivered 150G decelerations with 20% biaxial strain to mimic a traumatic brain injury. Experiments were designed to compare the potential effects of media type, number of ...


A Bifunctional Nanocomposites Based Electrochemical Biosensor For In-Field Detection Of Pathogenic Bacteria In Food, Meng Xu Dec 2016

A Bifunctional Nanocomposites Based Electrochemical Biosensor For In-Field Detection Of Pathogenic Bacteria In Food, Meng Xu

Theses and Dissertations

This research focused on the application of electrochemical biosensors for the rapid detection of pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium, in foods. The possible presence of pathogenic bacteria in foods has always been a great threat to the wellbeing of people and the revenue of food companies. Therefore, the demand for rapid and sensitive methods to detect foodborne pathogens is growing. In this research, an impedimetric immunosensor was first developed for the rapid detection of E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium in foods. It was based on the techniques of immunomagnetic separation, enzyme labelling, and electrochemical ...


Examination Of Pseudomonas Fluorescence As A Recombinant Expression Host: Cloning, Expression, And Chromatography, Ahmed K.Ali Elmasheiti Dec 2016

Examination Of Pseudomonas Fluorescence As A Recombinant Expression Host: Cloning, Expression, And Chromatography, Ahmed K.Ali Elmasheiti

Theses and Dissertations

In an effort to expand the pool of bacterium useful for biotechnology applications, Pseudomonas fluorescens, a common gram negative microbe, was examined for its ability to function in a recombinant setting. P. fluorescens is ubiquitous in nature and was initially identified as a soil bacterium found in dirt and is typically associated with plant material. Past literature indicates that it shared characteristics common to Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, including simple growth conditions and potential cloning vectors, providing motivation to look into both the upstream and downstream characteristics of this bacterium. First, it was demonstrated that P. fluorescens could be ...


Scaffold And Tissue Based Therapies To Improve Skeletal Muscle Regeneration After Volumetric Muscle Loss, Benjamin Kasukonis Dec 2016

Scaffold And Tissue Based Therapies To Improve Skeletal Muscle Regeneration After Volumetric Muscle Loss, Benjamin Kasukonis

Theses and Dissertations

Volumetric muscle loss (VML) is an injury to skeletal muscle characterized by a loss of more than 20% of a muscles volume. The combination of the bulk loss of tissue, transection and separation of myofibers proximal and distal to the injury, loss of innervation and blood supply, and the depletion of muscle progenitor cells results in permanent fibrosis and functional deficits due to loss of contractile tissue. Scaffolds, cells, and engineered constructs have been explored as potential therapeutic interventions to induce myogenesis at the site of a VML injury in animal models, in addition to limited clinical trials. This dissertation ...


A Portable And Automatic Biosensing Instrument For Detection Of Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria In Food Samples, Zhuo Zhao Dec 2016

A Portable And Automatic Biosensing Instrument For Detection Of Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria In Food Samples, Zhuo Zhao

Theses and Dissertations

Foodborne diseases are a growing public health problem. In recent years, many rapid detection methods have been reported, but most of them are still in lab research and not practical for use in the field. In this study, a portable and automatic biosensing instrument was designed and constructed for separation and detection of target pathogens in food samples using nanobead-based magnetic separation and quantum dots (QDs)-labeled fluorescence measurement. The instrument consisted of a laptop with LabVIEW software, a data acquisition card (DAQ), a fluorescent detector, micro-pumps, stepper motors, and 3D printed tube holders. First, a sample in a syringe ...


Study Of Computational Image Matching Techniques: Improving Our View Of Biomedical Image Data, Ahmadreza Baghaie Dec 2016

Study Of Computational Image Matching Techniques: Improving Our View Of Biomedical Image Data, Ahmadreza Baghaie

Theses and Dissertations

Image matching techniques are proven to be necessary in various fields of science and engineering, with many new methods and applications introduced over the years. In this PhD thesis, several computational image matching methods are introduced and investigated for improving the analysis of various biomedical image data. These improvements include the use of matching techniques for enhancing visualization of cross-sectional imaging modalities such as Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), denoising of retinal Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), and high quality 3D reconstruction of surfaces from Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images. This work greatly improves the process of data ...


Sensitivity Analysis Of Geometry Changes In The Simulation Of Basilar Aneurysms, Paul Eserkaln Dec 2016

Sensitivity Analysis Of Geometry Changes In The Simulation Of Basilar Aneurysms, Paul Eserkaln

Theses and Dissertations

Computer simulation is a useful tool in the research and treatment of basilar aneurysms. Current technology allows researchers to create 3D models from cerebral vasculature in-vivo, allowing for the investigation of surgical options with minimal risk to the patient. The method used to construct these models overlooks smaller lateral arterial branches which are difficult to discern due to resolution limits of the imaging process. These lateral branches have minimal impact on the overall blood flow through the basilar artery, but they play a significant role in the health of the patient, so it is important to ensure sufficient blood will ...


Laboratory Development Of A Self-Powered Fontan For Treatment Of Congenital Heart Disease, Arka Das Dec 2016

Laboratory Development Of A Self-Powered Fontan For Treatment Of Congenital Heart Disease, Arka Das

Dissertations and Theses

Around 8% of all newborns with a Congenital Heart Defect (CHD) have only a single functioning ventricle. The Fontan operation has served as a palliation for this anomaly for decades, but the surgery entails multiple complications and survival rate is less than 50% by adulthood. A rapidly testable novel alternative is proposed by creating a bifurcating graft, or Injection Jet Shunt (IJS), used to “entrain” the pulmonary flow and thus provide assistance while reducing the caval pressure. A benchtop Mock Flow Loop (MFL) is configured to validate this hypothesis. The MFL is based on a Lumped-Parameter Model (LPM) of the ...


Mathematical Analysis Of Feedback Targets Of Bmp Signaling In Drosophila Embryonic Development, Yan Luo Dec 2016

Mathematical Analysis Of Feedback Targets Of Bmp Signaling In Drosophila Embryonic Development, Yan Luo

Open Access Theses

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) drive a range of cellular processes especially in the early stages of embryonic development. This family of proteins acts as one of the most important extracellular signals in development pattern formation across the animal kingdom. Cells in embryos differentiate into different cell types in response to the concentration level of BMP. This complex process is regulated by multiple regulators that serve to tune the signal response.

Extensive experimental and computational research has been performed to analyze BMP regulation in Drosophila, a widely studied model organism, and has advanced our understanding of animal development. Because of BMP ...


A Multi-Channel 3d-Printed Bioreactor For Evaluation Of Growth And Production In The Microalga Dunaliella Sp, Cristian A. Cox Dec 2016

A Multi-Channel 3d-Printed Bioreactor For Evaluation Of Growth And Production In The Microalga Dunaliella Sp, Cristian A. Cox

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

We explored the capabilities of additive manufacturing using a photo-cured jetted material 3D printer to manufacture a milli-microfluidic device with direct application in microalgae Dunaliella sp growth and intracellular compounds biosynthesis tests. A continuous microbioreactor for microalgae culture was CAD designed and successfully built in 1 hour and 49 minutes using black photopolymer cured by UV and a support material. The microreactor was made up of 2 parts including the bioreactor itself and a microchannel network for culture media fluids and microalgae. Both parts were assembled to form a single unit. Additional optical and auxiliar components were added. An external ...


Final Design Report: Polymer Fatigue Characterization Test Method, Wyatt Ayling, Tyler Price, Brandon Stell, Michela Upson Dec 2016

Final Design Report: Polymer Fatigue Characterization Test Method, Wyatt Ayling, Tyler Price, Brandon Stell, Michela Upson

Mechanical Engineering

Polylogix is a team dedicated to the design, build, and testing of a fatigue machine to simulate cyclic loading on a biomedical polymer. This project is sponsored by Endologix, Inc. to provide test data characterizing mechanical material properties of various formulations of polymer used in abdominal aortic aneurysm surgeries. With this project goal, the machine must be able to test the polymer at body conditions; these include a testing temperature of 37°C and a cycling frequency ranging from 1 Hz to 10 Hz. This report proposes the following solution to this design challenge: an AC motor-driven mechanism utilizing a ...


Hollow Fiber Membranes For Artificial Lung Applications, Lauren Reed Dec 2016

Hollow Fiber Membranes For Artificial Lung Applications, Lauren Reed

Chemical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Artificial lungs are in use, but difficult issues remain in the field of membrane development related to fouling issues. Currently there are external artificial lungs circulating blood outside the body, taking out the carbon dioxide, and inserting oxygenated blood back into the body. An example of this type of machine is the ExtraCorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) machine currently used in hospitals. The ECMO takes over the functions for both the lungs and the heart but is only available for short term use by patients with respiratory failure due to infections [1]. The fibers in the machine develop fouling due to ...


The Impacts Of Arterial Occlusion, Sex, And Exercise On Arteriogenesis And Functional Vasodilation, Megan Tze-Mei Chu Dec 2016

The Impacts Of Arterial Occlusion, Sex, And Exercise On Arteriogenesis And Functional Vasodilation, Megan Tze-Mei Chu

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The most frequent clinical presentation of peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) is intermittent claudication, which may be caused by impaired vasodilation. Patients demonstrate both local and systemic impairments in vasodilation, but as the collateral circulation is the primary site of resistance to the ischemic zone, impaired collateral vasodilation would have the greatest potential to induce claudication. Collateral function following arterial occlusion is not well defined, but immature collaterals may demonstrate impaired vasodilation in animal models, although this is potentially improved with exercise training. Furthermore, as females exhibit poorer physical function with ischemia and less improvement with therapeutic exercise, there appears ...


A Validated Software Application To Measure Fiber Organization In Soft Tissue, Erica E. Morrill, Azamat N. Tulepbergenov, Christina J. Stender, Roshani Lamichhane, Raquel J. Brown, Trevor J. Lujan Dec 2016

A Validated Software Application To Measure Fiber Organization In Soft Tissue, Erica E. Morrill, Azamat N. Tulepbergenov, Christina J. Stender, Roshani Lamichhane, Raquel J. Brown, Trevor J. Lujan

Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

The mechanical behavior of soft connective tissue is governed by a dense network of fibrillar proteins in the extracellular matrix. Characterization of this fibrous network requires the accurate extraction of descriptive structural parameters from imaging data, including fiber dispersion and mean fiber orientation. Common methods to quantify fiber parameters include fast Fourier transforms (FFT) and structure tensors, however, information is limited on the accuracy of these methods. In this study, we compared these two methods using test images of fiber networks with varying topology. The FFT method with a band-pass filter was the most accurate, with an error of 0 ...


Synchronization And Random Triggering Of Lymphatic Vessel Contractions, James W. Baish, Christian Kunert, Timothy P. Padera, Lance L. Munn Dec 2016

Synchronization And Random Triggering Of Lymphatic Vessel Contractions, James W. Baish, Christian Kunert, Timothy P. Padera, Lance L. Munn

Faculty Journal Articles

The lymphatic system is responsible for transporting interstitial fluid back to the bloodstream, but unlike the cardiovascular system, lacks a centralized pump-the heart–to drive flow. Instead, each collecting lymphatic vessel can individually contract and dilate producing unidirectional flow enforced by intraluminal check valves. Due to the large number and spatial distribution of such pumps, high-level coordination would be unwieldy. This leads to the question of how each segment of lymphatic vessel responds to local signals that can contribute to the coordination of pumping on a network basis. Beginning with elementary fluid mechanics and known cellular behaviors, we show that ...


Design Of A Flexible Control Platform And Miniature In Vivo Robots For Laparo-Endoscopic Single-Site Surgeries, Lou P. Cubrich Dec 2016

Design Of A Flexible Control Platform And Miniature In Vivo Robots For Laparo-Endoscopic Single-Site Surgeries, Lou P. Cubrich

Mechanical (and Materials) Engineering -- Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Minimally-invasive laparoscopic procedures have proven efficacy for a wide range of surgical procedures as well as benefits such as reducing scarring, infection, recovery time, and post-operative pain. While the procedures have many advantages, there are significant shortcomings such as limited instrument motion and reduced dexterity. In recent years, robotic surgical technology has overcome some of these limitations and has become an effective tool for many types of surgeries. These robotic platforms typically have an increased workspace, greater dexterity, improved ergonomics, and finer control than traditional laparoscopic methods. This thesis presents the designs of both a four degree-of-freedom (DOF) and 5-DOF ...