Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Marquette University

Discipline
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 459

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Computational Characterization Of The Cellular Origins Of Electroencephalography, Shane Hesprich Apr 2019

Computational Characterization Of The Cellular Origins Of Electroencephalography, Shane Hesprich

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Electroencephalography (EEG) is a non-invasive technique used to measure brain activity. Despite its near ubiquitous presence in neuroscience, very little research has gone into connecting the electrical potentials it measures on the scalp to the underlying network activity which generates those signals. This results in most EEG analyses being more macroscopically focused (e.g. coherence and correlation analyses). Despite the many uses of macroscopically focuses analyses, limiting research to only these analyses neglects the insights which can be gained from studying network and microcircuit architecture. The ability to study these things through non-invasive techniques like EEG depends upon the ability ...


Ct Automated Exposure Control Using A Generalized Detectability Index, P. Khobragade, Franco Rupcich, Jiahua Fan, Dominic J. Crotty, Naveen M. Kulkarni, Stacy D. O'Connor, W. Dennis Foley, Taly Gilat Schmidt Jan 2019

Ct Automated Exposure Control Using A Generalized Detectability Index, P. Khobragade, Franco Rupcich, Jiahua Fan, Dominic J. Crotty, Naveen M. Kulkarni, Stacy D. O'Connor, W. Dennis Foley, Taly Gilat Schmidt

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Purpose

Identifying an appropriate tube current setting can be challenging when using iterative reconstruction due to the varying relationship between spatial resolution, contrast, noise, and dose across different algorithms. This study developed and investigated the application of a generalized detectability index (d'gen) to determine the noise parameter to input to existing automated exposure control (AEC) systems to provide consistent image quality (IQ) across different reconstruction approaches.

Methods

This study proposes a task‐based automated exposure control (AEC) method using a generalized detectability index (d'gen). The proposed method leverages existing AEC methods that are based on a prescribed noise ...


Assessment Of A Markerless Motion Analysis System For Manual Wheelchair Application, Jacob Rammer, Brooke A. Slavens, Joseph Krzak, Jack M. Winters, Susan A. Riedel, Gerald F. Harris Nov 2018

Assessment Of A Markerless Motion Analysis System For Manual Wheelchair Application, Jacob Rammer, Brooke A. Slavens, Joseph Krzak, Jack M. Winters, Susan A. Riedel, Gerald F. Harris

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Background

Wheelchair biomechanics research advances accessibility and clinical care for manual wheelchair users. Standardized outcome assessments are vital tools for tracking progress, but there is a strong need for more quantitative methods. A system offering kinematic, quantitative detection, with the ease of use of a standardized outcome assessment, would be optimal for repeated, longitudinal assessment of manual wheelchair users’ therapeutic progress, but has yet to be offered.

Results

This work evaluates a markerless motion analysis system for manual wheelchair mobility in clinical, community, and home settings. This system includes Microsoft® Kinect® 2.0 sensors, OpenSim musculoskeletal modeling, and an automated ...


Early Term Effects Of Rhbmp-2 On Pedicle Screw Fixation In A Sheep Model: Histomorphometric And Biomechanical Analyses, Jeffrey M. Toth, Mei Wang, Chetan Patel, Akshi Arora Sep 2018

Early Term Effects Of Rhbmp-2 On Pedicle Screw Fixation In A Sheep Model: Histomorphometric And Biomechanical Analyses, Jeffrey M. Toth, Mei Wang, Chetan Patel, Akshi Arora

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Background: The effects of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) on pedicle screw pullout force and its potential to improve spinal fixation have not previously been investigated. rhBMP-2 on an absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) carrier was delivered in and around cannulated and fenestrated pedicle screws in a sheep lumbar spine instability model. Two control groups (empty screw and ACS with buffer) were also evaluated. We hypothesized that rhBMP-2 could stimulate bone growth in and around the cannulated and fenestrated pedicle screws to improve early bone purchase.

Methods: Eight skeletally mature sheep underwent destabilizing laminectomies at L2–L3 and L4–L5 ...


Technical Note: Enhancing Soft Tissue Contrast And Radiation‐Induced Image Changes With Dual‐Energy Ct For Radiation Therapy, George Noid, An Tai, Diane Schott, Nilesh Mistry, Yu Liu, Taly Gilat Schmidt, Jared R. Robbins, X. Allen Li Sep 2018

Technical Note: Enhancing Soft Tissue Contrast And Radiation‐Induced Image Changes With Dual‐Energy Ct For Radiation Therapy, George Noid, An Tai, Diane Schott, Nilesh Mistry, Yu Liu, Taly Gilat Schmidt, Jared R. Robbins, X. Allen Li

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Purpose

The purpose of this work is to investigate the use of low‐energy monoenergetic decompositions obtained from dual‐energy CT (DECT) to enhance image contrast and the detection of radiation‐induced changes of CT textures in pancreatic cancer.

Methods

The DECT data acquired for 10 consecutive pancreatic cancer patients during routine nongated CT‐guided radiation therapy (RT) using an in‐room CT (Definition AS Open, Siemens Healthcare, Malvern, PA) were analyzed. With a sequential DE protocol, the scanner rapidly performs two helical acquisitions, the first at a tube voltage of 80 kVp and the second at a tube voltage ...


Application Of Fractal Dimension For Quantifying Noise Texture In Computed Tomography Images, P. Khobragade, Jiahua Fan, Franco Rupcich, Dominic J. Crotty, Taly Gilat Schmidt Aug 2018

Application Of Fractal Dimension For Quantifying Noise Texture In Computed Tomography Images, P. Khobragade, Jiahua Fan, Franco Rupcich, Dominic J. Crotty, Taly Gilat Schmidt

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Purpose

Evaluation of noise texture information in CT images is important for assessing image quality. Noise texture is often quantified by the noise power spectrum (NPS), which requires numerous image realizations to estimate. This study evaluated fractal dimension for quantifying noise texture as a scalar metric that can potentially be estimated using one image realization.

Methods

The American College of Radiology CT accreditation phantom (ACR) was scanned on a clinical scanner (Discovery CT750, GE Healthcare) at 120 kV and 25 and 90 mAs. Images were reconstructed using filtered back projection (FBP/ASIR 0%) with varying reconstruction kernels: Soft, Standard, Detail ...


Control Design And Implementation Of An Active Transtibial Prosthesis, Joseph Klein Jul 2018

Control Design And Implementation Of An Active Transtibial Prosthesis, Joseph Klein

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Prior work at Marquette University developed the Marquette Prosthesis, an active transtibial prosthesis that utilized a torsional spring and a four-bar mechanism. The controls for the Marquette Prosthesis implemented a finite state control algorithm to determine the state of gait of the amputee along with two lower level controllers, a PI moment controller to control the moment during stance and a PID position controller to control the position during stance. The Marquette Prosthesis was successful in mimicking the gait profile presented by Winter. However, after completing human subject testing, the Marquette Prosthesis was insufficient in trying to match the gait ...


A Biomechanical Simulation Of Musculoskeletal Kinematics During Ambulation, Alex Thomas Jul 2018

A Biomechanical Simulation Of Musculoskeletal Kinematics During Ambulation, Alex Thomas

Master's Theses (2009 -)

The purpose of this study was to validate a 3D musculoskeletal model in OpenSim and assess OpenSim’s ability to determine muscle-length variation during ambulation. An 18 camera motion capture system was used to analyze 20 healthy individuals between the ages of 18 and 35. Following data collection, the data was processed through OpenSim and Visual3D. The kinematic output processed through the OpenSim model was then compared to the kinematic output of the validated Visual3D model to validate the OpenSim model. Muscle fiber length data obtained from the same experimental data was compared to control data to assess OpenSim’s ...


Will The Real Designer Please Stand Up? [Senior Design], Jay R. Goldberg Jul 2018

Will The Real Designer Please Stand Up? [Senior Design], Jay R. Goldberg

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

In the 1950s and 1960s, there was a popular television show called To Tell the Truth, on which three contestants claimed to be a person with an unusual occupation or distinction. Two of them were impostors, and the other was telling the truth. Four panelists asked the contestants questions to determine who was being truthful. After each panelist chose the contestant he or she thought was telling the truth, the host would ask "Will the real _____ please stand up?" To create drama, each contestant would rise at different times and then sit, leaving the contestant with the unusual occupation ...


Posterior Cervical Spine Crisscross Fixation: Biomechanical Evaluation, Joseph F. Cusick, Frank A. Pintar, Joseph S. Cheng, Jason I. Lifshutz, Narayan Yoganandan Jun 2018

Posterior Cervical Spine Crisscross Fixation: Biomechanical Evaluation, Joseph F. Cusick, Frank A. Pintar, Joseph S. Cheng, Jason I. Lifshutz, Narayan Yoganandan

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Background

Biomechanical/anatomic limitations may limit the successful implantation, maintenance, and risk acceptance of posterior cervical plate/rod fixation for one stage decompression-fusion. A method of posterior fixation (crisscross) that resolves biomechanical deficiencies of previous facet wiring techniques and not reliant upon screw implantation has been devised. The biomechanical performance of the new method of facet fixation was compared to the traditional lateral mass plate/screw fixation method.

Methods

Thirteen human cadaver spine segments (C2-T1) were tested under flexion-compression loading and four were evaluated additionally under pure-moment load. Preparations were evaluated in a sequence of surgical alterations with intact, laminectomy ...


Promoting Global Clinical Care And Research For Children With Orthopaedic Disabilities Through Motion Analysis Technology, Jacob R. Rammer, Joycie Eulah Abiera, Monica Arroyo, Luis Fernando Caicedo, Karl Canseco, Christopher Constantino, Filipe Haces Garcia, Jorge Gomez, Nikhil T. Kurapati, Mariano Gonzalez Lugo, Terence Miller, Wilfredo Agredo Rodriguez, Carlo Emmanuel Sumpaico, Gerald F. Harris May 2018

Promoting Global Clinical Care And Research For Children With Orthopaedic Disabilities Through Motion Analysis Technology, Jacob R. Rammer, Joycie Eulah Abiera, Monica Arroyo, Luis Fernando Caicedo, Karl Canseco, Christopher Constantino, Filipe Haces Garcia, Jorge Gomez, Nikhil T. Kurapati, Mariano Gonzalez Lugo, Terence Miller, Wilfredo Agredo Rodriguez, Carlo Emmanuel Sumpaico, Gerald F. Harris

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Human motion analysis is a tool used to understand orthopaedic disabilities in children and to plan and monitor treatment strategies. It enables clinicians to quantitatively describe rehabilitative progress, plan surgeries, and conduct research. While this technology is prevalent in major academic medical centers, access is lacking in many regions throughout the world. This paper presents a novel approach to offer more accessible technology at greatly reduced cost. Current applications are underway in the Philippines, Mexico, and Colombia. Through international partnerships, improvements in clinical care, medical education, and research have been observed.


Stepping Responses To Treadmill Perturbations Vary With Severity Of Motor Deficits In Human Sci, Virginia W. T. Chu, T. George Hornby, Brian Schmit Apr 2018

Stepping Responses To Treadmill Perturbations Vary With Severity Of Motor Deficits In Human Sci, Virginia W. T. Chu, T. George Hornby, Brian Schmit

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

In this study, we investigated the responses to tread perturbations during human stepping on a treadmill. Our approach was to test the effects of perturbations to a single leg using a split-belt treadmill in healthy participants and in participants with varying severity of spinal cord injury (SCI). We recruited 11 people with incomplete SCI and 5 noninjured participants. As participants walked on an instrumented treadmill, the belt on one side was stopped or accelerated briefly during mid to late stance. A majority of participants initiated an unnecessary swing when the treadmill was stopped in mid stance, although the likelihood of ...


Tactile-Star: A Novel Tactile Stimulator And Recorder System For Evaluating And Improving Tactile Perception, Giulia Ballardini, Giorgio Carlini, Robert A. Scheidt, Ilana Nisky, Maura Casadio Apr 2018

Tactile-Star: A Novel Tactile Stimulator And Recorder System For Evaluating And Improving Tactile Perception, Giulia Ballardini, Giorgio Carlini, Robert A. Scheidt, Ilana Nisky, Maura Casadio

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Many neurological diseases impair the motor and somatosensory systems. While several different technologies are used in clinical practice to assess and improve motor functions, somatosensation is evaluated subjectively with qualitative clinical scales. Treatment of somatosensory deficits has received limited attention. To bridge the gap between the assessment and training of motor vs. somatosensory abilities, we designed, developed, and tested a novel, low-cost, two-component (bimanual) mechatronic system targeting tactile somatosensation: the Tactile-STAR—a tactile stimulator and recorder. The stimulator is an actuated pantograph structure driven by two servomotors, with an end-effector covered by a rubber material that can apply two different ...


Investigation Of The Effects Of Prosthetic Knee Condition On Novice Transfemoral Amputee Runners, Natalie Nelson Apr 2018

Investigation Of The Effects Of Prosthetic Knee Condition On Novice Transfemoral Amputee Runners, Natalie Nelson

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Some unilateral transfemoral amputees (TFAs) run in a prosthesis with an articulating prosthetic knee, others choose to run without a knee (prosthetic socket and foot are linked via a straight, non-articulating pylon) to increase stability. Research regarding unilateral TFA running with an unlocked versus locked prosthetic knee (approximately equivalent to the no-knee condition) with respect to energy cost and temporal metrics is limited; no studies have investigated the impact of knee condition on kinematic metrics. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the prosthetic knee of a running-specific prosthesis (RSP) should be unlocked or locked for unilateral TFAs ...


Pharmacokinetic Modeling Of 99mtc-Hmpao Images Of Isolated Perfused Rat Lungs, Katherine C. Barry Apr 2018

Pharmacokinetic Modeling Of 99mtc-Hmpao Images Of Isolated Perfused Rat Lungs, Katherine C. Barry

Master's Theses (2009 -)

The single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) imaging biomarker technetium-labeled hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO) exists in two forms, the oxidized, cell-permeable form and the reduced, cell-impermeable form. Recent studies revealed that the lung uptake of 99mTc-HMPAO increases early in rat models of human acute lung injury. Lung uptake of 99mTc-HMPAO is the net result of multiple cellular and vascular processes, many of which can vary with acute illness. Thus, when a change in the lung uptake of 99mTc-HMPAO is detected, it is unclear how much of this change is due to alteration in the activity of the targeted cellular process versus alteration of ...


Investigation Of Reactive Oxygen Species Production In The Rat Lung Using Optical Imaging, Nina Friedly Apr 2018

Investigation Of Reactive Oxygen Species Production In The Rat Lung Using Optical Imaging, Nina Friedly

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Oxidative stress, the imbalance between production of oxidants or reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant activity, plays a key role in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic lung diseases. The objective of this thesis was to develop a robust protocol for measuring the rate of H2O2 production in isolated perfused rat lungs and to determine the cellular sources of that rate using Amplex Red (AR). For a given lung, AR (25 mM) along with horseradish peroxidase (5 U/ml) and ascorbate oxidase (1U/ml) were added to a perfusate reservoir that was recirculated through the lungs and sampled at 5 ...


High-Intensity Variable Stepping Training In Patients With Motor Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury: A Case Series, Carey L. Holleran, Patrick W. Hennessey, Abigail L. Leddy, Gordhan B. Mahtani, Gabrielle Brazg, Brian D. Schmit, T. George Hornby Apr 2018

High-Intensity Variable Stepping Training In Patients With Motor Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury: A Case Series, Carey L. Holleran, Patrick W. Hennessey, Abigail L. Leddy, Gordhan B. Mahtani, Gabrielle Brazg, Brian D. Schmit, T. George Hornby

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Background and Purpose: Previous data suggest that large amounts of high-intensity stepping training in variable contexts (tasks and environments) may improve locomotor function, aerobic capacity, and treadmill gait kinematics in individuals poststroke. Whether similar training strategies are tolerated and efficacious for patients with other acute-onset neurological diagnoses, such as motor incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI), is unknown. Individuals with iSCI potentially have greater bilateral impairments. This case series evaluated the feasibility and preliminary short- and long-term efficacy of highintensity variable stepping practice in ambulatory participants for more than 1 year post-iSCI.

Case Series Description: Four participants with iSCI (neurological levels ...


Endogenous Dopamine And Endocannabinoid Signaling Mediate Cocaine-Induced Reversal Of Ampar Synaptic Potentiation In The Nucleus Accumbens Shell, Anna E. Ingebretson, Matthew Hearing, Ethan D. Huffington, Mark J. Thomas Mar 2018

Endogenous Dopamine And Endocannabinoid Signaling Mediate Cocaine-Induced Reversal Of Ampar Synaptic Potentiation In The Nucleus Accumbens Shell, Anna E. Ingebretson, Matthew Hearing, Ethan D. Huffington, Mark J. Thomas

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Repeated exposure to drugs of abuse alters the structure and function of neural circuits mediating reward, generating maladaptive plasticity in circuits critical for motivated behavior. Within meso-corticolimbic dopamine circuitry, repeated exposure to cocaine induces progressive alterations in AMPAR-mediated glutamatergic synaptic transmission. During a 10–14 day period of abstinence from cocaine, AMPAR signaling is potentiated at synapses on nucleus accumbens (NAc) medium spiny neurons (MSNs), promoting a state of heightened synaptic excitability. Re-exposure to cocaine during abstinence, however, rapidly reverses and depotentiates enhanced AMPAR signaling. To understand how re-exposure to cocaine alters AMPAR synaptic transmission, we investigated the roles of ...


Effect Of Sensory Attenuation On Cortical Movement-Related Oscillations, Joseph J. Lee, Brian Schmit Mar 2018

Effect Of Sensory Attenuation On Cortical Movement-Related Oscillations, Joseph J. Lee, Brian Schmit

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

This study examined the impact of induced sensory deficits on cortical, movement-related oscillations measured using electroencephalography (EEG). We hypothesized that EEG patterns in healthy subjects with induced sensory reduction would be comparable to EEG found after chronic loss of sensory feedback. EEG signals from 64 scalp locations were measured from 10 healthy subjects. Participants dorsiflexed their ankle after prolonged vibration of the tibialis anterior (TA). Beta band time frequency decompositions were calculated using wavelets and compared across conditions. Changes in patterns of movement-related brain activity were observed following attenuation of sensory feedback. A significant decrease in beta power of event-related ...


Evaluation Of Motion Artifact Metrics For Coronary Ct Angiography, Hongfeng Ma, Eric Gros, Aniko Szabo, Scott G. Baginski, Zachary R. Laste, Naveen M. Kulkarni, Darin Okerlund, Tal Gilat Schmidt Feb 2018

Evaluation Of Motion Artifact Metrics For Coronary Ct Angiography, Hongfeng Ma, Eric Gros, Aniko Szabo, Scott G. Baginski, Zachary R. Laste, Naveen M. Kulkarni, Darin Okerlund, Tal Gilat Schmidt

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Purpose

This study quantified the performance of coronary artery motion artifact metrics relative to human observer ratings. Motion artifact metrics have been used as part of motion correction and best‐phase selection algorithms for Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography (CCTA). However, the lack of ground truth makes it difficult to validate how well the metrics quantify the level of motion artifact. This study investigated five motion artifact metrics, including two novel metrics, using a dynamic phantom, clinical CCTA images, and an observer study that provided ground‐truth motion artifact scores from a series of pairwise comparisons.

Method

Five motion artifact metrics ...


Hyperoxia Causes Mitochondrial Fragmentation In Pulmonary Endothelial Cells By Increasing Expression Of Pro-Fission Proteins, Cui Ma, Andreas M. Beyer, Matthew J. Durand, Anne V. Clough, Daling Zhu, Laura Norwood Toro, Maia Terashvili, Johnathan D. Ebben, R. Blake Hill, Said H. Audi, Meetha Medhora, Elizabeth R. Jacobs Feb 2018

Hyperoxia Causes Mitochondrial Fragmentation In Pulmonary Endothelial Cells By Increasing Expression Of Pro-Fission Proteins, Cui Ma, Andreas M. Beyer, Matthew J. Durand, Anne V. Clough, Daling Zhu, Laura Norwood Toro, Maia Terashvili, Johnathan D. Ebben, R. Blake Hill, Said H. Audi, Meetha Medhora, Elizabeth R. Jacobs

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Objective—We explored mechanisms that alter mitochondrial structure and function in pulmonary endothelial cells (PEC) function after hyperoxia.

Approach and Results—Mitochondrial structures of PECs exposed to hyperoxia or normoxia were visualized and mitochondrial fragmentation quantified. Expression of pro-fission or fusion proteins or autophagy-related proteins were assessed by Western blot. Mitochondrial oxidative state was determined using mito-roGFP. Tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester estimated mitochondrial polarization in treatment groups. The role of mitochondrially derived reactive oxygen species in mt-fragmentation was investigated with mito-TEMPOL and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage studied by using ENDO III (mt-tat-endonuclease III), a protein that repairs mDNA damage. Drp-1 (dynamin-related ...


Motor Output Variability Impairs Driving Ability In Older Adults: Reply To Stinchcombe, Dickerson, Weaver, And Bedard, Evangelos A. Christou, Basma Yacoubi, Changki Kim, Hwasil Moon, Tanya Onushko, Neha Lodha Feb 2018

Motor Output Variability Impairs Driving Ability In Older Adults: Reply To Stinchcombe, Dickerson, Weaver, And Bedard, Evangelos A. Christou, Basma Yacoubi, Changki Kim, Hwasil Moon, Tanya Onushko, Neha Lodha

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Driving is a complex skill, as indicated by Stinchcombe and colleagues in their letter. It requires the integration of sensory inputs, cognitive processing, and motor execution. Although our title is broad, we clearly indicate that our findings only address a single component of driving, namely reactive driving. We also indicate that these findings are based on a simulated task and recommend that future studies should examine the contribution of motor output variability to on-road driving performance (see Considerations in the Discussion section). Thus, we share the consideration of Stinchcombe and colleagues that the current results only address a small portion ...


Optimizing Within-Subject Experimental Designs For Jica Of Multi-Channel Erp And Fmri, Jain Mangalathu-Arumana, Einat Liebenthal, Scott A. Beardsley Jan 2018

Optimizing Within-Subject Experimental Designs For Jica Of Multi-Channel Erp And Fmri, Jain Mangalathu-Arumana, Einat Liebenthal, Scott A. Beardsley

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

No abstract provided.


Opioids Delay Healing Of Spinal Fusion: A Rabbit Posterolateral Lumbar Fusion Model, Nikhil Jain, Khaled Himed, Jeffrey M. Toth, Karen C. Briley, Frank M. Phillips, Safdar N. Khan Jan 2018

Opioids Delay Healing Of Spinal Fusion: A Rabbit Posterolateral Lumbar Fusion Model, Nikhil Jain, Khaled Himed, Jeffrey M. Toth, Karen C. Briley, Frank M. Phillips, Safdar N. Khan

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Background Context

Opioid use is prevalent in the management of pre- and postoperative pain in patients undergoing spinal fusion. There is evidence that opioids downregulate osteoblasts in vitro, and a previous study found that morphine delays the maturation and remodeling of callus in a rat femur fracture model. However, the effect of opioids on healing of spinal fusion has not been investigated before. Isolating the effect of opioid exposure in humans would be limited by the numerous confounding factors that affect fusion healing. Therefore, we have used a well-established rabbit model to study the process of spinal fusion healing that ...


A Student-Centered Learning Approach To Design For Manufacturability: Meeting The Needs Of An Often- Forgotten Customer, Jay R. Goldberg, David Rank Jan 2018

A Student-Centered Learning Approach To Design For Manufacturability: Meeting The Needs Of An Often- Forgotten Customer, Jay R. Goldberg, David Rank

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

A hands-on learning module was implemented at Marquette University in 2012 to teach biomedical engineering students about basic manufacturing processes, lean manufacturing principles, and design for manufacturability. It incorporates active and student-centered learning as part of in-class assembly line simulations. Since then, it has evolved from three class periods to five. The module begins with two classroom presentations on manufacturing operations and electronics design, assembly, and testing. Students then participate in an in-class assembly line simulation exercise where they build and test an actual product per written work instructions. They reflect on this experience and suggest design and process changes ...


Optimizing Filter-Probe Diffusion Weighting In The Rat Spinal Cord For Human Translation, Matthew D. Budde, Nathan P. Skinner, L. Tugan Muftuler, Brian D. Schmit, Shekar N. Kurpad Dec 2017

Optimizing Filter-Probe Diffusion Weighting In The Rat Spinal Cord For Human Translation, Matthew D. Budde, Nathan P. Skinner, L. Tugan Muftuler, Brian D. Schmit, Shekar N. Kurpad

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

No abstract provided.


The Temporal Expression Of Adipokines During Spinal Fusion, Sohrab Virk, Alicia L. Bertone, Hayam Hamaz Hussein, Jeffrey M. Toth, Mari Kaido, Safdar Khan Dec 2017

The Temporal Expression Of Adipokines During Spinal Fusion, Sohrab Virk, Alicia L. Bertone, Hayam Hamaz Hussein, Jeffrey M. Toth, Mari Kaido, Safdar Khan

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Background Context

Adipokines are secreted by white adipose tissue and have been associated with fracture healing. Our goal was to report the temporal expression of adipokines during spinal fusion in an established rabbit model.

Purpose

Our goal was to report the temporal expression of adipokines during spinal fusion in an established rabbit model.

Study Design

The study design included a laboratory animal model.

Methods

New Zealand white rabbits were assigned to either sham surgery (n=2), unilateral posterior spinal fusion (n=14), or bilateral posterior spinal fusion (n=14). Rabbits were euthanized 1–6 and 10 weeks out from surgery ...


Macroscopic Anisotropic Bone Material Properties In Children With Severe Osteogenesis Imperfecta, Carolyne Albert, John Jameson, Sergey Tarima, Peter Smith, Gerald Harris Nov 2017

Macroscopic Anisotropic Bone Material Properties In Children With Severe Osteogenesis Imperfecta, Carolyne Albert, John Jameson, Sergey Tarima, Peter Smith, Gerald Harris

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Children with severe osteogenesis imperfecta(OI) typically experience numerous fractures and progressive skeletal deformities over their lifetime. Recent studies proposed finite element models to assess fracture risk and guide clinicians in determining appropriate intervention in children with OI, but lack of appropriate material property inputs remains a challenge. This study aimed to characterize macroscopic anisotropic cortical bone material properties and investigate relationships with bone density measures in children with severe OI. Specimens were obtained from tibial or femoral shafts of nine children with severe OI and five controls. The specimens were cut into beams, characterized in bending, and imaged by ...


Sagittal Subtalar And Talocrural Joint Assessment During Ambulation With Controlled Ankle Movement (Cam) Boots, Ben Mchenry, Emily L. Exten, Janelle A. Cross, Karen M. Kruger, Brian Law, Jessica M. Fritz, Gerald F. Harris Nov 2017

Sagittal Subtalar And Talocrural Joint Assessment During Ambulation With Controlled Ankle Movement (Cam) Boots, Ben Mchenry, Emily L. Exten, Janelle A. Cross, Karen M. Kruger, Brian Law, Jessica M. Fritz, Gerald F. Harris

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Background: The purpose of the current study was to determine sagittal plane talocrural and subtalar kinematic differences between barefoot and controlled ankle movement (CAM) boot walking. This study used fluoroscopic images to determine talar motion relative to tibia and calcaneal motion relative to talus.

Methods: Fourteen male subjects (mean age 24.1 ± 3.5 years) screened for normal gait were tested. A fluoroscopy unit was used to collect images at 200 Hz during stance. Sagittal motion of the talocrural and subtalar joints were analyzed barefoot and within short and tall CAM boots.

Results: Barefoot talocrural mean maximum plantar and dorsiflexion ...


Robotic Resistance Treadmill Training Improves Locomotor Function In Children With Cerebral Palsy: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study, Ming Wu, Janis Kim, Deborah J. Gaebler-Spira, Brian D. Schmit, Pooja Arora Nov 2017

Robotic Resistance Treadmill Training Improves Locomotor Function In Children With Cerebral Palsy: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study, Ming Wu, Janis Kim, Deborah J. Gaebler-Spira, Brian D. Schmit, Pooja Arora

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Objective

To determine whether applying controlled resistance forces to the legs during the swing phase of gait may improve the efficacy of treadmill training as compared with applying controlled assistance forces in children with cerebral palsy (CP).

Design

Randomized controlled study.

Setting

Research unit of a rehabilitation hospital.

Participants

Children with spastic CP (N=23; mean age, 10.6y; range, 6–14y; Gross Motor Function Classification System levels, I–IV).

Interventions

Participants were randomly assigned to receive controlled assistance (n=11) or resistance (n=12) loads applied to the legs at the ankle. Participants underwent robotic treadmill training 3 times ...