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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

A Biomechanical And Physiological Signal Monitoring System For Four Degrees Of Upper Limb Movement, Allison R. Goldman Sep 2018

A Biomechanical And Physiological Signal Monitoring System For Four Degrees Of Upper Limb Movement, Allison R. Goldman

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

A lack of adherence to prescribed physical therapy regimens in improper healing results in poor outcomes for those affected by musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) of the upper limb. Societal and psychological barriers to proper adherence can be addressed through the system presented in this work consisting of the following components: an ambulatory biosignal acquisition sleeve, an electromyography (EMG) based motion repetition detection algorithm, and the design of a compatible capacitive EMG acquisition module.

The biosignal acquisition sleeve was untethered, unobtrusive to motion, contained only modular components, and collected biomechanical and physiological sensor data to form full motion profiles of the following ...


Promoting Global Clinical Care And Research For Children With Orthopaedic Disabilities Through Motion Analysis Technology, Jacob R. Rammer, Joycie Eulah Abiera, Monica Arroyo, Luis Fernando Caicedo, Karl Canseco, Christopher Constantino, Filipe Haces Garcia, Jorge Gomez, Nikhil T. Kurapati, Mariano Gonzalez Lugo, Terence Miller, Wilfredo Agredo Rodriguez, Carlo Emmanuel Sumpaico, Gerald F. Harris May 2018

Promoting Global Clinical Care And Research For Children With Orthopaedic Disabilities Through Motion Analysis Technology, Jacob R. Rammer, Joycie Eulah Abiera, Monica Arroyo, Luis Fernando Caicedo, Karl Canseco, Christopher Constantino, Filipe Haces Garcia, Jorge Gomez, Nikhil T. Kurapati, Mariano Gonzalez Lugo, Terence Miller, Wilfredo Agredo Rodriguez, Carlo Emmanuel Sumpaico, Gerald F. Harris

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Human motion analysis is a tool used to understand orthopaedic disabilities in children and to plan and monitor treatment strategies. It enables clinicians to quantitatively describe rehabilitative progress, plan surgeries, and conduct research. While this technology is prevalent in major academic medical centers, access is lacking in many regions throughout the world. This paper presents a novel approach to offer more accessible technology at greatly reduced cost. Current applications are underway in the Philippines, Mexico, and Colombia. Through international partnerships, improvements in clinical care, medical education, and research have been observed.


The Kinematic And Biomechanical Effects Of Bracing On The Rehabilitation Of The Lcl Injured Elbow, Sara M. Banayan Feb 2018

The Kinematic And Biomechanical Effects Of Bracing On The Rehabilitation Of The Lcl Injured Elbow, Sara M. Banayan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Lateral collateral ligament (LCL) injuries are often treated non-operatively or with surgical repair. If instability persists, hinged elbow orthoses (HEOs) are often recommended. However, these orthoses are designed as a straight hinge, which does not account for the native carrying angle of the elbow. A custom HEO was designed to adjust the orthosis valgus angulation to measure in vitro elbow kinematics and biomechanics. An in vitro study investigated the effect of HEO valgus angulation during simulated active and passive flexion, in the vertical dependent and varus positions, with the forearm pronated and supinated. In the vertical dependent position, the orthosis ...


Design And Analysis Of A 3d-Printed, Thermoplastic Elastomer (Tpe) Spring Element For Use In Corrective Hand Orthotics, Kevin Thomas Richardson Jan 2018

Design And Analysis Of A 3d-Printed, Thermoplastic Elastomer (Tpe) Spring Element For Use In Corrective Hand Orthotics, Kevin Thomas Richardson

Theses and Dissertations--Mechanical Engineering

This thesis proposes an algorithm that determine the geometry of 3D-printed, custom-designed spring element bands made of thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) for use in a wearable orthotic device to aid in the physical therapy of a human hand exhibiting spasticity after stroke. Each finger of the hand is modeled as a mechanical system consisting of a triple-rod pendulum with nonlinear stiffness at each joint and forces applied at the attachment point of each flexor muscle. The system is assumed quasi-static, which leads to a torque balance between the flexor tendons in the hand, joint stiffness and the design force applied to ...


Robotic Resistance Treadmill Training Improves Locomotor Function In Children With Cerebral Palsy: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study, Ming Wu, Janis Kim, Deborah J. Gaebler-Spira, Brian D. Schmit, Pooja Arora Nov 2017

Robotic Resistance Treadmill Training Improves Locomotor Function In Children With Cerebral Palsy: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study, Ming Wu, Janis Kim, Deborah J. Gaebler-Spira, Brian D. Schmit, Pooja Arora

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Objective

To determine whether applying controlled resistance forces to the legs during the swing phase of gait may improve the efficacy of treadmill training as compared with applying controlled assistance forces in children with cerebral palsy (CP).

Design

Randomized controlled study.

Setting

Research unit of a rehabilitation hospital.

Participants

Children with spastic CP (N=23; mean age, 10.6y; range, 6–14y; Gross Motor Function Classification System levels, I–IV).

Interventions

Participants were randomly assigned to receive controlled assistance (n=11) or resistance (n=12) loads applied to the legs at the ankle. Participants underwent robotic treadmill training 3 times ...


Elbow Patients’ Data Collection And Analysis: An Examination Of Electromyography Healing Patterns, Raneem Haddara Oct 2016

Elbow Patients’ Data Collection And Analysis: An Examination Of Electromyography Healing Patterns, Raneem Haddara

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Musculoskeletal conditions are the most common cause of severe long-term pain and physical disability, accounting for the highest disability costs of about $17 billion yearly. To provide better rehabilitation tactics, the knowledge gap between injuries and their healing mechanisms needs to be addressed. The use of electromyography (EMG) is very popular in detecting neuromuscular diseases or nerve lesions; however, there is limited knowledge available for quantifying healing patterns of EMG in orthopedic patients who have injured their joints, muscles, or bones. In order to quantify the progress of orthopedic patients and assess their neuromuscular health and muscle synergy patterns, EMG ...


Engineering Synthetic Feedback To Promote Recovery Of Self-Feeding Skills In People With Sensory Deficits Due To Stroke, Alexis Krueger Oct 2016

Engineering Synthetic Feedback To Promote Recovery Of Self-Feeding Skills In People With Sensory Deficits Due To Stroke, Alexis Krueger

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Kinesthesia refers to sensations of limb position and movement, and deficits of upper limb kinesthetic feedback are common after stroke, impairing stroke survivors’ ability to perform the fundamental reaching and stabilization behaviors needed for daily functions like self-feeding. I attempt to mitigate the negative impact of post-stroke kinesthesia deficits by evaluating the utility of vibrotactile sensory substitution to restore closed-loop kinesthetic feedback of the upper limb. As a first step, this study evaluated performance in healthy individuals during fundamental reaching, stabilization, and tracking behaviors while using supplemental vibrotactile feedback encoding either limb state information or goal-aware error information. First, I ...


Evaluation Of An Actuated Wrist Orthosis For Use In Assistive Upper Extremity Rehabilitation, Devon Holley Oct 2016

Evaluation Of An Actuated Wrist Orthosis For Use In Assistive Upper Extremity Rehabilitation, Devon Holley

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a neurological condition caused by damage to motor control centers of the brain. This leads to physical and cognitive deficiencies that can reduce an individual’s quality of life. Specifically, motor deficiencies of the upper extremity can make it difficult for an individual to complete everyday tasks, including eating, drinking, getting dressed, or combing their hair. Physical therapy, involving repetitive tasks, has been shown to be effective in training normal motion of the limb by invoking the neuroplasticity of the brain and its ability to adapt in order to facilitate motor learning. Creating a device for ...


The Development Of A Prosthetic Training Software For Upper Limb Amputees, Tyler Kayne Sullins Jun 2016

The Development Of A Prosthetic Training Software For Upper Limb Amputees, Tyler Kayne Sullins

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to develop an intuitive software that aids in the field of prosthetic training and rehabilitation by creating an individualized visualization of joint angles. This software is titled “the prosthetic training software (PTS) for individualized joint angle representation”, and it enables the individualized portrayal of predicted or pre-recorded joint angles. The PTS is an intuitive program for clinicians and prosthesis users that produces an animation of a virtual avatar reflecting the user’s segment lengths and amputation for rehabilitation and training purposes.

The PTS consists of a graphical user interface (GUI) and a 3D visualization ...


A Novel Approach To User Controlled Ambulation Of Lower Extremity Exoskeletons Using Admittance Control Paradigm, Kiran Kartika Karunakaran May 2016

A Novel Approach To User Controlled Ambulation Of Lower Extremity Exoskeletons Using Admittance Control Paradigm, Kiran Kartika Karunakaran

Dissertations

The robotic lower extremity exoskeletons address the ambulatory problems confronting individuals with paraplegia. Paraplegia due to spinal cord injury (SCI) can cause motor deficit to the lower extremities leading to inability to walk. Though wheelchairs provide mobility to the user, they do not provide support to all activities of everyday living to individuals with paraplegia.

Current research is addressing the issue of ambulation through the use of wearable exoskeletons that are pre-programmed. There are currently four exoskeletons in the U.S. market: Ekso, Rewalk, REX and Indego. All of the currently available exoskeletons have 2 active Degrees of Freedom (DOF ...


Structural-Functional Brain Connectivity Underlying Integrative Sensorimotor Function After Stroke, Benjamin Thomas Kalinosky Apr 2016

Structural-Functional Brain Connectivity Underlying Integrative Sensorimotor Function After Stroke, Benjamin Thomas Kalinosky

Dissertations (2009 -)

In this dissertation research project, we demonstrated the relationship between the structural and functional connections across the brain in stroke survivors. We used this information to predict arm function in stroke survivors, suggesting that the tools developed through this research will be useful for prescribing individualized rehabilitation strategies in people after stroke. Current clinical methods for rehabilitating sensorimotor function after stroke are not based on the locus of injury in the brain. Instead, therapies are generalized, treating symptoms such as weakness and spasticity. This results in outcomes that are highly variable, with severity of impairment immediately following stroke as the ...


Assessment Of A Hand Exoskeleton On Proximal And Distal Training In Virtual Environments For Robot Mediated Upper Extremity Rehabilitation, Kevin Abbruzzese Jan 2016

Assessment Of A Hand Exoskeleton On Proximal And Distal Training In Virtual Environments For Robot Mediated Upper Extremity Rehabilitation, Kevin Abbruzzese

Dissertations

Stroke is the leading cause of disability in the United States with approximately 800,000 cases per year. This cerebral vascular accident results in neurological impairments that reduce limb function and limit the daily independence of the individual. Evidence suggests that therapeutic interventions with repetitive motor training can aid in functional recovery of the paretic limb. Robotic rehabilitation may present an exercise intervention that can improve training and induce motor plasticity in individuals with stroke. An active (motorized) hand exoskeleton that provides support for wrist flexion/extension, abduction/adduction, pronation/supination, and finger pinch is integrated with a pre-existing 3-Degree ...


Refining A Post-Stroke Pharmacological And Physical Treatment To Reduce Infarct Volume Or Improve Functional Recovery, Using Gene Expression Changes In The Peri-Infarct Region To Examine Potential Mechanisms In Male And Female Rats, Moner A. Ragas Jan 2016

Refining A Post-Stroke Pharmacological And Physical Treatment To Reduce Infarct Volume Or Improve Functional Recovery, Using Gene Expression Changes In The Peri-Infarct Region To Examine Potential Mechanisms In Male And Female Rats, Moner A. Ragas

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

Stroke, a life-threatening medical condition, is the fifth-leading cause of death in the United States with an estimated annual cost of treatments above $70 billion. A combination of innovative approaches was used in our lab to optimize the pre-clinical stroke research design by choosing the most appropriate animal model and methodologies to increase the translational capability of the stroke research. The first study, modeled after ongoing clinical trials using fluoxetine, refined the appropriate timing of fluoxetine and ascorbic acid delivery if a rat was on simvastatin for 7 days pre-stroke and throughout the remainder of the study. Administration of fluoxetine ...


Sensorimotor Adaptation In Whole-Body Postural Control, Alison Pienciak-Siewert Jan 2016

Sensorimotor Adaptation In Whole-Body Postural Control, Alison Pienciak-Siewert

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

The ability to maintain stable, upright standing is a critical component of our daily activities. This ability requires that we generate appropriate postural control when making voluntary movements and when responding to perturbations, and appropriately adapt that control to compensate for changing conditions. Despite this, adaptation of whole-body postural control is not well understood.

This dissertation investigates the control strategies involved in the adaptation of whole-body postural control and how well this learning transfers to different environments. We used an experimental paradigm in which subjects made reaching movements while standing and holding the handle of a force-generating robotic arm that ...


Increased Lower Limb Spasticity But Not Strength Or Function Following A Single-Dose Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor In Chronic Stroke, Krishnaj Gourab, Brian D. Schmit, T. George Hornby Dec 2015

Increased Lower Limb Spasticity But Not Strength Or Function Following A Single-Dose Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor In Chronic Stroke, Krishnaj Gourab, Brian D. Schmit, T. George Hornby

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Objective: To investigate the effects of single doses of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) on lower limb voluntary and reflex function in individuals with chronic stroke.

Design: Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial.

Setting: Outpatient research setting.

Participants: Individuals (N=10; 7 men; mean age ± SD, 57±10y) with poststroke hemiplegia of >1 year duration who completed all assessments.

Interventions: Patients were assessed before and 5 hours after single-dose, overencapsulated 10-mg doses of escitalopram (SSRI) or placebo, with 1 week between conditions.

Main Outcome Measures: Primary assessments included maximal ankle and knee isometric strength, and velocity-dependent (30°/s–120°/s ...


A Physiologically Based Clinical Measure For Spastic Reflexes In Spinal Cord Injury, Ela Benz, T. Hornby, Rita Bode, Robert Scheidt, Brian Schmit Mar 2015

A Physiologically Based Clinical Measure For Spastic Reflexes In Spinal Cord Injury, Ela Benz, T. Hornby, Rita Bode, Robert Scheidt, Brian Schmit

Robert Scheidt

Objective: To test the validity of the Spinal Cord Assessment Tool for Spastic reflexes (SCATS), a clinical tool intended to rate spastic motor behavior after spinal cord injury (SCI). Design: By using correlational analyses, the SCATS was validated using concurrent measurements of kinematics and electromyograms and traditional assessments of spasms and spastic hypertonia. Setting: Research laboratory (kinematics and electromyography) and outpatient medical clinic (traditional measures of spastic hypertonia). Participants: Eleven people with SCI were used for kinematic and electromyographic measurements. Seventeen people with SCI were used for comparison with other clinical scales. Interventions: Not applicable. Main outcome measures: Kinematic and ...


Motivating Rehabilitation By Distorting Reality, James L. Patton, Yejun Wei, Chris Scharver, Robert V. Kenyon, Robert A. Scheidt Mar 2015

Motivating Rehabilitation By Distorting Reality, James L. Patton, Yejun Wei, Chris Scharver, Robert V. Kenyon, Robert A. Scheidt

Robert Scheidt

We have found, through a series of recent experiments, encouraging evidence that the neuro-motor system is motivated to change motor patterns when exposed to visuo-motor tasks. We have also shown that the learning of these tasks can be heightened with forces and/or visual distortions that appropriately manipulate the error. This process does not require intense concentration and it is often considered a game. We describe the next generation of robotic large-workspace, three dimensional haptics/graphics systems for rehabilitation


Computerized Biofeedback Knee Goniometer: Acceptance And Effect On Exercise Behavior In Post-Total Knee Arthroplasty Rehabilitation, Todd Kuiken, Hagay Amir, Robert Scheidt Mar 2015

Computerized Biofeedback Knee Goniometer: Acceptance And Effect On Exercise Behavior In Post-Total Knee Arthroplasty Rehabilitation, Todd Kuiken, Hagay Amir, Robert Scheidt

Robert Scheidt

Objective To assess device accuracy, patient acceptance, and effect of a computerized biofeedback knee goniometer (CBG), on patients’ compliance with active range of motion (AROM) exercises after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Design Two-stage study: measurement validation on asymptomatic controls and an unblinded, multiple crossover trial. Setting Inpatient rehabilitation. Participants Asymptomatic controls (n=14) and post-TKA inpatients (n=11). Interventions For measurement validation, CBG-angle measurements were compared with manual, clinician-obtained angles. To assess motivational effect, the CBG was worn after TKA; on alternating days, it either monitored AROM silently (no feedback) or provided audiovisual feedback about reaching preset range of motion ...


A Continous Rotary Actuation Mechanism For A Powered Hip Exoskeleton, Matthew C. Ryder Jan 2015

A Continous Rotary Actuation Mechanism For A Powered Hip Exoskeleton, Matthew C. Ryder

Masters Theses

This thesis presents a new mechanical design for an exoskeleton actuator to power the sagittal plane motion in the human hip. The device uses a DC motor to drive a Scotch yoke mechanism and series elasticity to take advantage of the cyclic nature of human gait and to reduce the maximum power and control requirements of the exoskeleton. The Scotch yoke actuator creates a position-dependent transmission that varies between 4:1 and infinity, with the peak transmission ratio aligned to the peak torque periods of the human gait cycle. Simulation results show that both the peak and average motor torque ...


A Novel Fmri Paradigm Suggests That Pedaling-Related Brain Activation Is Altered After Stroke, Nutta-On Promjunyakul, Brian D. Schmit, Sheila M. Schindler-Ivens Jan 2015

A Novel Fmri Paradigm Suggests That Pedaling-Related Brain Activation Is Altered After Stroke, Nutta-On Promjunyakul, Brian D. Schmit, Sheila M. Schindler-Ivens

Physical Therapy Faculty Research and Publications

The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure pedaling-related brain activation in individuals with stroke and age-matched controls. We also sought to identify stroke-related changes in brain activation associated with pedaling. Fourteen stroke and 12 control subjects were asked to pedal a custom, MRI-compatible device during fMRI. Subjects also performed lower limb tapping to localize brain regions involved in lower limb movement. All stroke and control subjects were able to pedal while positioned for fMRI. Two control subjects were withdrawn due to claustrophobia, and one control data set was ...


Robotic Resistance/Assistance Training Improves Locomotor Function In Individuals Poststroke: A Randomized Controlled Study, Ming Wu, Jill M. Landry, Janis Kim, Brian D. Schmit, Sheng-Che Yen, Jillian Macdonald May 2014

Robotic Resistance/Assistance Training Improves Locomotor Function In Individuals Poststroke: A Randomized Controlled Study, Ming Wu, Jill M. Landry, Janis Kim, Brian D. Schmit, Sheng-Che Yen, Jillian Macdonald

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Objective

To determine whether providing a controlled resistance versus assistance to the paretic leg at the ankle during treadmill training will improve walking function in individuals poststroke.

Design

Repeated assessment of the same patients with parallel design and randomized controlled study between 2 groups.

Setting

Research units of rehabilitation hospitals.

Participants

Patients (N=30) with chronic stroke.

Intervention

Subjects were stratified based on self-selected walking speed and were randomly assigned to the resistance or assistance training group. For the resistance group, a controlled resistance load was applied to the paretic leg at the ankle to resist leg swing during treadmill ...


Vicon Motion System, Arezoo Eshraghi Mar 2014

Vicon Motion System, Arezoo Eshraghi

AREZOO ESHRAGHI

No abstract provided.


Cv, Arezoo Eshraghi Feb 2014

Cv, Arezoo Eshraghi

AREZOO ESHRAGHI

No abstract provided.


A Novel Myoelectric Training Device For Upper Limb Prostheses, Ryan Clingman, Peter Pidcoe Jan 2014

A Novel Myoelectric Training Device For Upper Limb Prostheses, Ryan Clingman, Peter Pidcoe

Biomedical Engineering Publications

A training system intended for myoelectric prosthetic hands for upper limb amputees was developed to assist in learning myoelectric control schemes and training muscle isolation. The trainer allowed a user to operate a remote controlled car by use of a control scheme commonly used in myoelectric prosthetic hands. The trainer was designed to be easy for therapists to use and more engaging for the user than current methods of signal training. Preliminary testing of the trainer was conducted with eight nonamputee adult volunteers. The results indicated that the trainer could be a useful tool for myoelectric training in upper limb ...


P&O, Arezoo Eshraghi Dec 2013

P&O, Arezoo Eshraghi

AREZOO ESHRAGHI

No abstract provided.


Dynamic Balance Control During Treadmill Walking In Chronic Stroke Survivors, Eric Richard Walker Oct 2013

Dynamic Balance Control During Treadmill Walking In Chronic Stroke Survivors, Eric Richard Walker

Dissertations (2009 -)

Maintaining dynamic balance is an important component of walking function that is likely impaired in chronic stroke survivors, evidenced by an increased prevalence of falls. Dynamic balance control requires maintaining the center of mass (COM) within the base of support during movement. During walking, dynamic balance control is achieved largely by modifying foot placement to adjust the base of support. However, chronic stroke survivors have difficulty with both precision control of foot placement, as well as reduced control of COM movement. The objective of this dissertation was to characterize dynamic balance control strategies during walking in chronic stroke survivors. Additionally ...


The Design And Development Of A Perceptual-Based Haptic Display Device, Sohaib Akhter Aug 2013

The Design And Development Of A Perceptual-Based Haptic Display Device, Sohaib Akhter

Theses and Dissertations

Graphical information presented as pictures, graphs, maps, and the like are an important media for relaying knowledge and are a fundamental means of education rarely experienced by people who are blind or have a severe visual impairment. This thesis presents the design, development and testing of a multiple finger, haptic matrix dynamic display device capable of relaying graphical information through simulated textures. The design is based on user perception studies that determined which hand constraints provided the best tradeoff between simplicity of design, accuracy and time to answer. The best design was one that incorporated multiple fingers in close proximity ...


Hir Prosthetics Research Group Achievements: Road To Success, Arezoo Eshraghi May 2013

Hir Prosthetics Research Group Achievements: Road To Success, Arezoo Eshraghi

AREZOO ESHRAGHI

No abstract provided.


Magnetic Suspension System, Arezoo Eshraghi May 2013

Magnetic Suspension System, Arezoo Eshraghi

AREZOO ESHRAGHI

No abstract provided.


Iranian Elites, Arezoo Eshraghi Apr 2013

Iranian Elites, Arezoo Eshraghi

AREZOO ESHRAGHI

No abstract provided.