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Articles 1 - 30 of 461

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Characterization Of Oxone Mediated Tempo-Oxidized Nano Cellulose Mixed-Matrix Membranes During Ultrafiltration And Hemodialysis, Kristyn Robling May 2020

Characterization Of Oxone Mediated Tempo-Oxidized Nano Cellulose Mixed-Matrix Membranes During Ultrafiltration And Hemodialysis, Kristyn Robling

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The ninth leading cause of death in the United States is kidney disease, and hemodialysis is the process most commonly prescribed for treatment. It utilizes a selectively permeable membrane filter to remove toxins such as urea from the blood and retain necessary protein levels. However, traditional filters, such as cellulose triacetate, used during dialysis can be inefficient in terms of separation performance and reduction of fouling. Recent exploration of nanoparticles has resulted in the creation of Oxone Mediated TEMPO-Oxidized Nano Cellulose which has properties that are believed to increase hydrophilicity, increase tensile capacity, decrease membrane resistance and lower fouling, making ...


Bioengineering Extracellular Matrix Scaffolds For Volumetric Muscle Loss, Kevin Roberts Aug 2019

Bioengineering Extracellular Matrix Scaffolds For Volumetric Muscle Loss, Kevin Roberts

Theses and Dissertations

Volumetric muscle loss overwhelms skeletal muscle’s ordinarily capable regenerative machinery, resulting in fibrosis and severe functional deficits which have defied clinical repair strategies. My work spans the design and preclinical evaluation of implants intended to drive the cell community of injured muscle toward a regenerative state, as well as the development of an understanding of the molecular responses of this cell community to biomaterial interventions. I demonstrate a new class of biomaterial by leveraging the productive capacity of sacrificial hollow fiber membrane cell culture; I show specifically that unique threads of whole extracellular matrix can be isolated by solvent ...


A Ph-Sensitive Delivery System For The Prevention Of Dental Caries Using Salivary Protein, Yi Zhu, Yizhi Xiao, Elizabeth Gillies, Walter L. Siqueira Jun 2019

A Ph-Sensitive Delivery System For The Prevention Of Dental Caries Using Salivary Protein, Yi Zhu, Yizhi Xiao, Elizabeth Gillies, Walter L. Siqueira

Western Research Forum

Dental caries remains one of the most common chronic diseases worldwide. In previous studies, salivary proteins (e.g. histatin 3, statherin) have demonstrated biological functions including the inhibition of crystal growth, antibacterial activities, which are directly related to tooth homeostasis and prevention of dental caries. However, proteins are susceptible to the high proteolytic activities in the oral environment. Therefore, pH-sensitive chitosan nanoparticles (CNs) have been proposed as potential carriers to protect proteins against enzymatic degradation at physiological salivary pH, in addition to swell selectively at lower pH conditions to facilitate the release of the encapsulated proteins, as major oral complications ...


Multifunctional Hybrid Sol-Gel Implant Coatings On Anodized Titanium Substrates To Improve Osseointegration And Antimicrobial Effectiveness, Zach Gouveia Jun 2019

Multifunctional Hybrid Sol-Gel Implant Coatings On Anodized Titanium Substrates To Improve Osseointegration And Antimicrobial Effectiveness, Zach Gouveia

Western Research Forum

To improve patient outcomes in orthopedic and dental implantation procedures, the development of multifunctional implant coatings that can inhibit microbial cell proliferation while promoting osseointegration have been sought out by clinicians. While recent developments in material science and cell biology have seen the development of such coatings, many proposed systems lack clinical translatability. For example, to reach the clinic, modern coating systems must be highly adherent to their substrate (to avoid delamination upon implantation), have sufficient wettability (to promote the fixation of cells), and facilitate the controlled and sustained release of antimicrobial factors (falling within the therapeutic window to prevent ...


A Physical And Computational Reverse-Engineering Approach To Determine Dimensional Change And Its Relationship To Oxidation In Retrieved Orthopedic Implants, Josephine Kalshoven Jun 2019

A Physical And Computational Reverse-Engineering Approach To Determine Dimensional Change And Its Relationship To Oxidation In Retrieved Orthopedic Implants, Josephine Kalshoven

ENGS 88 Honors Thesis (AB Students)

Oxidation of the Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) tibial inserts of total knee arthroplasty devices is a major factor underlying multiple modes of failure for these devices, including delamination, wear, and fracture. Previous research has demonstrated that oxidation of UHMWPE is driven by a high concentration of free radicals in the polyethylene. However, even new devices created with undetectable amounts of free radicals are oxidizing in vivo. One theory is that, in the absence of residual free radicals, oxidation is facilitated by absorbed species (e.g. lipids, ROS) delivered or exacerbated by contact stress. However, no method exists to comprehensively ...


Compositional Optimization Of Amyloid-Graphene Oxide Nanohybrids For Biomaterials, Claire L. Drewery Jun 2019

Compositional Optimization Of Amyloid-Graphene Oxide Nanohybrids For Biomaterials, Claire L. Drewery

Materials Engineering

Amyloid nanofibrils are natural materials capable of self-assembling into precise structures with tunable functionalities, while exhibiting excellent mechanical properties. In combination with highly conductive graphene oxide (GO), the 1-D amyloid nanofibrils and 2-D nanosheets of GO can produce a robust and bio-functional nanohybrid, hypothesized to exhibit multi-domain functional properties useful for enzyme sensing, water purification, drug delivery, and tissue scaffolding applications. Here, we examine the properties of an amyloid-graphene oxide nanohybrid film made with amyloids derived from hen egg white lysozymes in an attempt to explore the diverse toolbox of amyloid derivatives and establish ideal fabrication methods and formulations of ...


Applying An Innovative Idea To Kidney Stone Removal, Jack Beaty Jun 2019

Applying An Innovative Idea To Kidney Stone Removal, Jack Beaty

Honors Theses

Renal lithiasis, commonly referred to as “kidney stones” is a condition in which the urine composition crystallizes and cannot pass through the ureter, causing pain and discomfort. Renal lithiasis can be caused by diet, infection, reduced water retention, or hereditary disorders; each of which results in a distinct stone composition [1]. Stone compositions can vary between calcium oxalate, struvite, uric acid, and cystine[2]. Each stone type, however, provides the same pain to the patient and the same potential risk of blocking the urinary system.

Kidney stone symptoms may include but are not limited to: pain in the lower back ...


The Theia Soteria: Alternative Design For Safer Initial Entry During Laparoscopic Procedures, Kayla Dubois, Patrick Ryan, Madelyn Joanis Jun 2019

The Theia Soteria: Alternative Design For Safer Initial Entry During Laparoscopic Procedures, Kayla Dubois, Patrick Ryan, Madelyn Joanis

Honors Theses

Laparoscopic procedures account for 15 million surgeries worldwide [1], with the initial entry into the peritoneal cavity accounting for 33-50% of all major laparoscopic complications [7]. This initial entry is the most dangerous as surgeons must enter the cavity using a sharp object with no visibility and space between the outer surface of the cavity and internal tissues. During the initial entry into the peritoneal cavity, the patients undergoing laparoscopic procedures are at a high risk for damage to internal organs and vasculature, necessitating the development of a device to protect these internal tissues and increase patient safety.


Two And Three-Dimensional Models For Material And Cells Interaction, Nam H. Nguyen May 2019

Two And Three-Dimensional Models For Material And Cells Interaction, Nam H. Nguyen

Doctoral Dissertations

Three-dimensional (3D) cell spheroid model has been long considered a better model to mimic in vivo physiology compared to two-dimensional (2D) cell culture model. Traditional 2D cell models provide a simple, convenient and quick technique for drug screening but fail to simulate the complexity and heterogeneity of cells in the in vivo environment. The last few decades have remarked substantial progress toward the advancement of three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures as systems which better mimic cellcell and cell-matrix interaction in the in vivo physiology. Nowadays, 3D cell models have been emerging, not only as an important approach in drug discovery and ...


Fabrication And Characterization Of Collagen-Polypyrrole Constructs Using Direct-Ink Write Additive Manufacturing, Rooshan Arshad May 2019

Fabrication And Characterization Of Collagen-Polypyrrole Constructs Using Direct-Ink Write Additive Manufacturing, Rooshan Arshad

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Current efforts in the tissue engineering field are being directed towards the creation of platforms which will facilitate in instructing cells towards biologically relevant outcomes such as stem cell differentiation and disease pathophysiology. Traditional fabrication methods serve as a limiting factor for the production of such platforms as they lack feature and geometric complexity. Additive Manufacturing (AM) offers advantage over said methods by affording designers creative freedom and great control over printed constructs. Such constructs can then be used to create appropriate models for study- ing a plethora of tissues and structures. An AM methodology for Direct-Ink Write (DIW) printing ...


Investigating Virus Clearance Via Ph Inactivation During Biomanufacturing, Wenbo Xu May 2019

Investigating Virus Clearance Via Ph Inactivation During Biomanufacturing, Wenbo Xu

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

In the processing of biopharmaceuticals, viral clearance and viral safety are important for the development of monoclonal antibodies. Murine xenotropic leukemia virus (XMuLV) is one of the retroviruses, recommended by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a model virus for viral clearance via inactivation from therapeutics derived from Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO). A robust and effective method was investigated to clear or inactivate endogenous viruses by low pH inactivation. The effects of different conductivity and inactivated time on XMuLV clearance was determined. Acetate buffer was prepared with different conductivity, and 2% XMuLV was spiked into acetate buffer. XMuLV virus ...


Tissue Equivalent Gellan Gum Gel Materials For Clinical Mri And Radiation Dosimetry, Pawel Brzozowski Apr 2019

Tissue Equivalent Gellan Gum Gel Materials For Clinical Mri And Radiation Dosimetry, Pawel Brzozowski

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Hydrogels contain high amount of water allowing their use as surrogates to human tissues with specific properties that can be tuned by additives. Gellan gum is a gel-forming material of interest and is a replacement for other common gelling agent with limited use as a tissue phantom. Therefore, this thesis examines the application of gellan gum gels as a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) phantom with a design of experiments model to obtain tunable properties. The analysis was extended to include mechanical and electrical properties with a separate design of experiment. Gels doped with synthesized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs ...


Design Of Tissue-Specific Cellular Microenvironments For Adipose-Derived Stromal Cell Culture And Delivery, Arthi Shridhar Apr 2019

Design Of Tissue-Specific Cellular Microenvironments For Adipose-Derived Stromal Cell Culture And Delivery, Arthi Shridhar

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The development of in vitro cell culture models that investigate tissue-specific effects of the extracellular matrix (ECM) on stem/progenitor cell lineage-commitment can contribute towards the design of improved cell delivery strategies. This thesis developed processing methods that conserved ECM bioactivity to generate well-characterized 2- and 3-D culture platforms that facilitated the evaluation of ECM composition on the adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs). Initial work compared α-amylase and pepsin digestion as methods to fabricate ECM coatings. The effects of enzyme processing and ECM composition were explored using human decellularized adipose tissue (DAT) and bovine tendon ...


Establishment Of 3-D Human Colorectal Cancer Spheroids, India Barnett Apr 2019

Establishment Of 3-D Human Colorectal Cancer Spheroids, India Barnett

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

Three-Dimensional (3D) cell culture plays an important role in cancer biology by providing a life-like microenvironment as a model for drug discovery and treatment. Hydrogels, like many other 3D scaffolds, demonstrate a unique property as matrices for 3D cell culture. The goal of this project is to establish a 3D cell culture for colorectal cancer and apply this 3D model to drug testing. Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in the United States with an early detection rate of 39%. Previously, 2D cell culture of human colorectal cancer cells, SW480, was used to determine the efficacy of ...


The Effect Of Defects And Surface Modification On Biomolecular Assembly And Transport, Haneen Martinez Mar 2019

The Effect Of Defects And Surface Modification On Biomolecular Assembly And Transport, Haneen Martinez

Nanoscience and Microsystems ETDs

Nanoscale transport using the kinesin-microtubule (MT) biomolecular system has been successfully used in a wide range of nanotechnological applications including self-assembly, nanofluidic transport, and biosensing. Most of these applications use the ‘gliding motility geometry’, in which surface-adhered kinesin motors attach and propel MT filaments across the surface, a process driven by ATP hydrolysis. It has been demonstrated that active assembly facilitated by these biomolecular motors results in complex, non-equilibrium nanostructures currently unattainable through conventional self-assembly methods. In particular, MTs functionalized with biotin assemble into rings and spools upon introduction of streptavidin and/or streptavidin-coated nanoparticles. Upon closer examination of these ...


Simulations Of Hydrogel-Coated Neural Microelectrodes To Assess Biocompatibility Improvement Using Strain As A Metric For Micromotion, Sarah A. Bentil, Rebecca B. Dupaix Feb 2019

Simulations Of Hydrogel-Coated Neural Microelectrodes To Assess Biocompatibility Improvement Using Strain As A Metric For Micromotion, Sarah A. Bentil, Rebecca B. Dupaix

Sarah A. Bentil

This study investigates the benefit of coating silicon-substrate microelectrode arrays with hydrogel material for improved biocompatibility. Varying coating thicknesses and hydrogel material descriptions were considered to determine the impact on reducing strain in the surrounding brain tissue caused by relative micromotion of the electrode. Finite element simulations were used to explore biocompatibility by focusing on the longitudinal micromotion of an implanted single electrode shank. The finite element model for the brain and electrode, both with and without the hydrogel coating, remained constant. Three constitutive models were considered to describe the brain and/or hydrogel material: linear elastic, hyperviscoelastic, and fractional ...


Development Of In Situ Forming Hydrogels For Intra-Articular Drug Delivery, Andy Prince Feb 2019

Development Of In Situ Forming Hydrogels For Intra-Articular Drug Delivery, Andy Prince

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Hydrogels are 3-dimensional crosslinked polymer networks that can absorb significant amounts of water. The physical properties associated with hydrogels affords them resemblance to biological tissues making them good candidates for biomedical applications. Many pharmaceuticals, specifically non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), have poor aqueous solubility, which limits their bioavailability and efficacy. People suffering from chronic osteoarthritis (OA) are required to frequently take large doses to mitigate pain, which can lead to serious side effects. Hydrogels are good strategies to deliver NSAIDs via articular injection because they can form solid gels in situ. This thesis describes the synthesis, formulation, mechanical testing, in vitro ...


Ice-Binding Protein From Shewanella Frigidimarinas Inhibits Ice Crystal Growth In Highly Alkaline Solutions, Elizabeth Delesky, Shane D. Frazier, Jaqueline D. Wallat, Kendra L. Bannister, Chelsea Marie Heveran, Wil V. Srubar Iii Feb 2019

Ice-Binding Protein From Shewanella Frigidimarinas Inhibits Ice Crystal Growth In Highly Alkaline Solutions, Elizabeth Delesky, Shane D. Frazier, Jaqueline D. Wallat, Kendra L. Bannister, Chelsea Marie Heveran, Wil V. Srubar Iii

University Libraries Open Access Fund Supported Publications

The ability of a natural ice-binding protein from Shewanella frigidimarina (SfIBP) to inhibit ice crystal growth in highly alkaline solutions with increasing pH and ionic strength was investigated in this work. The purity of isolated SfIBP was first confirmed via sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and size-exclusion chromatography with an ultraviolet detector (SEC-UV). Protein stability was evaluated in the alkaline solutions using circular dichroism spectroscopy, SEC-UV, and SDS-PAGE. SfIBP ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI) activity, a measure of ice crystal growth inhibition, was assessed using a modified splat assay. Statistical analysis of results substantiated that, despite partial denaturation and ...


Pentablock Copolymer Micelle Nanoadjuvants Enhance Cytosolic Delivery Of Antigen And Improve Vaccine Efficacy While Inducing Low Inflammation, Sujata Senapati, Ross J. Darling, Darren Loh, Ian C. Schneider, Michael J. Wannemeuhler, Balaji Narasimhan, Surya K. Mallapragada Feb 2019

Pentablock Copolymer Micelle Nanoadjuvants Enhance Cytosolic Delivery Of Antigen And Improve Vaccine Efficacy While Inducing Low Inflammation, Sujata Senapati, Ross J. Darling, Darren Loh, Ian C. Schneider, Michael J. Wannemeuhler, Balaji Narasimhan, Surya K. Mallapragada

Chemistry Publications

As the focus has shifted from traditional killed or live, attenuated vaccines towards subunit vaccines, improvements in vaccine safety have been confronted with low immunogenicity of protein antigens. This issue has been addressed by synthesizing and designing a wide variety of antigen carriers and adjuvants, such as Toll-like receptor agonists (e.g., MPLA, CpG). Studies have focused on optimizing adjuvants for improved cellular trafficking, cytosolic availability, and improved antigen presentation. In this work, we describe the design of novel amphiphilic pentablock copolymer (PBC) adjuvants that exhibit high biocompatibility and reversible pH- and temperature-sensitive micelle formation. We demonstrate improved humoral immunity ...


Development Of Gelatin And Graphene-Based Nerve Regeneration Conduits Using 3d Printing Strategies For Electrical Transdifferentiation Of Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Metin Uz, Maxsam Donta, Meryem Mededovic, Donald S. Sakaguchi, Surya Mallapragada Feb 2019

Development Of Gelatin And Graphene-Based Nerve Regeneration Conduits Using 3d Printing Strategies For Electrical Transdifferentiation Of Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Metin Uz, Maxsam Donta, Meryem Mededovic, Donald S. Sakaguchi, Surya Mallapragada

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

In this study, gelatin and graphene-based nerve regeneration conduits/scaffolds possessing tailored 3D microstructures and mechanical properties were fabricated using 3D printing. The effect of 3D conduit microstructure and mechanical properties along with the applied electrical stimuli on mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) behavior and transdifferentiation into Schwann cell (SC)-like phenotypes were investigated. The results indicated that the gelatin conduits/scaffolds had favorable 3D microstructural and mechanical properties for MSC attachment and growth. Immunocytochemistry results demonstrated that the application of electrical stimuli through the conductive graphene within the gelatin-based 3D microstructure had a profound effect on the differentiation of MSCs ...


The Endocytotic Fate Of A Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticle Supported Lipid Bylayer Crispr Delivery Vehicle, Angelea Maestas-Olguin Jan 2019

The Endocytotic Fate Of A Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticle Supported Lipid Bylayer Crispr Delivery Vehicle, Angelea Maestas-Olguin

2019 Award Winners

No abstract provided.


Designing Biomimetic Implant Surfaces To Promote Osseointegration Under Osteoporotic Conditions By Revitalizing Mechanisms Coupling Bone Resorption To Formation, Ethan M. Lotz Jan 2019

Designing Biomimetic Implant Surfaces To Promote Osseointegration Under Osteoporotic Conditions By Revitalizing Mechanisms Coupling Bone Resorption To Formation, Ethan M. Lotz

Theses and Dissertations

In cases of compromised bone remodeling like osteoporosis, insufficient osseointegration occurs and results in implant failure. Implant retention relies on proper secondary fixation, which is developed during bone remodeling. This process is disrupted in metastatic bone diseases like osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is characterized low bone mass and bone strength resulting from either accelerated osteoclast-mediated bone resorption or impaired osteoblast-mediated bone formation. These two processes are not independent phenomena. In fact, osteoporosis can be viewed as a breakdown of the cellular communication connecting bone resorption to bone formation. Because bone remodeling occurs at temporally generated specific anatomical sites and at different times ...


Design And Mechanical Characterization Of 3d Printed Gradient Porosity Poly(Propylene Fumarate) Scaffolds, Andrea Felicelli Jan 2019

Design And Mechanical Characterization Of 3d Printed Gradient Porosity Poly(Propylene Fumarate) Scaffolds, Andrea Felicelli

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Worldwide incidence of bone disorders and conditions, an already prevalent problem, is expected to double by 2020 from the rate in 2013 due to factors such as higher life expectancies and lower levels of physical activity. Every year in the United States, over half a million patients receive bone defect repairs, with costs greater than $2.5 billion. Current repairs are typically done with bone grafts, which are often costly and can result in added complications in the donor surgical site. Tissue engineering, a growing field that seeks to assist and enhance tissue defect repairs through the use of synthetic ...


The Production And Characterization Of Chitosan Based Microgels Using A Novel Microfluidic Device To Promote Cell Survival, Kaileen Shevchuk Jan 2019

The Production And Characterization Of Chitosan Based Microgels Using A Novel Microfluidic Device To Promote Cell Survival, Kaileen Shevchuk

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The purpose of this project is to synthesize and characterize perfluorocarbon modified methacrylamide chitosan (MACF) microgels produced with the use of a capillary-based microfluidic device. Since cell survival and development is highly related to particles physical properties, analysis of microgels set out to determine the particle’s physical properties. I hypothesize that the viscosity of the MACF polymer as well as the amount of photo initiator influence the physical properties of synthesized particles and as a result can generate particles with various features for cell culture in terms of shape, size, charge and swelling abilities. This hypothesis was validated through ...


Towards The Rational Design And Application Of Polymers For Gene Therapy: Internalization And Intracellular Fate, Landon Alexander Mott Jan 2019

Towards The Rational Design And Application Of Polymers For Gene Therapy: Internalization And Intracellular Fate, Landon Alexander Mott

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Gene therapy is an approach for the treatment of acquired cancers, infectious disease, degenerative disease, and inherited genetic indications. Developments in the fields of immunotherapies and CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing are revitalizing the efforts to move gene therapy to the forefront of modern medicine. However, slow progress and poor clinical outcomes have plagued the field due to regulatory and safety concerns associated with the flagship delivery vector, the recombinant virus. Immunogenicity and poor transduction in certain cell types severely limits the utility of viruses as a delivery agent of nucleic acids. As a result, significant efforts are being made to ...


Modification Of Lipid Microenvironments On Solid Support Structures For Use In Transmembrane Protein Assays, William J. Houlihan Jan 2019

Modification Of Lipid Microenvironments On Solid Support Structures For Use In Transmembrane Protein Assays, William J. Houlihan

Dissertations and Theses

Gamma-Secretase (γ-secretase) is a transmembrane protease of increasing interest, which has been shown to have significant connections to both cancer and Alzheimer’s disease. γ-secretase cleaves both Notch-1, a transmembrane signaling protein, and Amyloid precursor protein (APP), a transmembrane protein whose cleavage may result in the formation of β-amyloid plaques in the brain. Notch-1 and APP are widely studied proteins that have substantial impacts on the development and proliferation of cancer and Alzheimer’s disease, respectively. Notch-1 partakes in the signaling of apoptosis in damaged and mutated cells, thus its cleavage by γ-secretase within the plasma membrane has ramifications on ...


Performance Enhancement Of Human Motion Based Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters, Iman Izadgoshasb Jan 2019

Performance Enhancement Of Human Motion Based Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters, Iman Izadgoshasb

Theses

Harvesting electricity from human motions using piezoelectric materials is attracting the attention of many researchers in recent years. These harvesters can potentially power portable electronic devices without the need of external power sources.

The aim of this thesis was to improve the efficiency of piezoelectric energy harvesting from human motions. To achieve this, optimising orientation of piezoelectric cantilever beam investigated; the new mechanism consisting of double pendulum system was studied and finally the new shape design of cantilever was proposed to generate multi resonance peaks. These achievements may help to improve the efficiency of piezoelectric energy harvesters in the future.


The Transcriptional Response Of Phanerochaete Chrysosporium And Trametes Versicolor To Growth On Stems Of Helianthus Argophyllus (Silverleaf Sunflower), Nadh Hamoud Alsubaie Jan 2019

The Transcriptional Response Of Phanerochaete Chrysosporium And Trametes Versicolor To Growth On Stems Of Helianthus Argophyllus (Silverleaf Sunflower), Nadh Hamoud Alsubaie

Masters Theses

Traditional physicochemical and physicomechanical pretreatment technologies have improved the deconstruction of lignocellulose, but often require high energy inputs and added chemical reagents. Recent studies have demonstrated the use of white-rot fungi as alternative biological pretreatment agents that can mitigate these concerns. Although, white-rot fungi have been shown to grow on a variety of non-woody substrates, they have not been explored with respect to sunflower, which has the potential to provide raw materials for both biodiesel and bioethanol. In the present study, Silverleaf sunflower stems (Helianthus argophyllus) were used as substrates for the white-rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor, and ...


Chemically Modified Monolayer Surfaces Influence Valvular Interstitial Cell Attachment And Differentiation For Heart Valve Tissue Engineering, Matthew N. Rush Dec 2018

Chemically Modified Monolayer Surfaces Influence Valvular Interstitial Cell Attachment And Differentiation For Heart Valve Tissue Engineering, Matthew N. Rush

Nanoscience and Microsystems ETDs

As a cell mediated-process, valvular heart disease (VHD) results in significant morbidity and mortality world-wide. In the US alone, valvular heart disease VHD is estimated to affect 2.5% of the population with a disproportionate impact on an increasing elderly populous. It is well understood that the primary driver for valvular calcification is the differentiation of valvular interstitial cells (VICs) into an osteoblastic-like phenotype. However, the factors leading to the onset of osteoblastic-like VICs (obVICs) and resulting calcification are not fully understood and a more complete characterization of VIC differentiation and phenotypic change is required before treatment of valve disease ...


How Crosslinking Mechanisms Of Methacrylated Gellan Gum Hydrogels Alter Macrophage Phenotype, Zhuqing Li, Kaitlin M. Bratlie Dec 2018

How Crosslinking Mechanisms Of Methacrylated Gellan Gum Hydrogels Alter Macrophage Phenotype, Zhuqing Li, Kaitlin M. Bratlie

Materials Science and Engineering Publications

In tissue engineering scaffolds, macrophages play a critical role in determining the host response to implanted biomaterials. Macrophage phenotype is dynamic throughout the host response, and a balance of phenotypes is essential for timely progression from injury to proper wound healing. Therefore, it is important to predict how materials will modulate the response of macrophages. In this study, we investigated the effect of methacrylated gellan gum hydrogels on macrophage phenotype and proliferation with the ultimate goal of improving rational design of biomedical implants. Naïve, along with classically and alternatively activated RAW 264.7 macrophages were seeded on methacrylated gellan gum ...