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Biomedical engineering

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Articles 1 - 30 of 118

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Seeing Eye To Eye: A Machine Learning Approach To Automated Saccade Analysis, Maigh Attre May 2019

Seeing Eye To Eye: A Machine Learning Approach To Automated Saccade Analysis, Maigh Attre

Honors Scholar Theses

Abnormal ocular motility is a common manifestation of many underlying pathologies particularly those that are neurological. Dynamics of saccades, when the eye rapidly changes its point of fixation, have been characterized for many neurological disorders including concussions, traumatic brain injuries (TBI), and Parkinson’s disease. However, widespread saccade analysis for diagnostic and research purposes requires the recognition of certain eye movement parameters. Key information such as velocity and duration must be determined from data based on a wide set of patients’ characteristics that may range in eye shapes and iris, hair and skin pigmentation [36]. Previous work on saccade analysis ...


Biomedical Engineering Or Biomedical Optics: Will The Real Discipline Please Stand Up?, Brian W. Pogue Apr 2019

Biomedical Engineering Or Biomedical Optics: Will The Real Discipline Please Stand Up?, Brian W. Pogue

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

This editorial reflects on the shape of biomedical engineering as a discipline, and its relation to biomedical optics.


Development Of An Astrocyte/Glioma Co-Culture System For Measuring Cellular Dynamics, Urna Kansakar Feb 2019

Development Of An Astrocyte/Glioma Co-Culture System For Measuring Cellular Dynamics, Urna Kansakar

Doctoral Dissertations

Gliomas are brain tumors that primarily arise from glial cells. Gliomas account for 70% of the brain tumors and they are more prevalent in older adults. About 60% of the people with gliomas experience at least one seizure. Brain tumors can grow and metastasize to neighboring areas, thereby destroying normal brain cells. In a brain tumor microenvironment, both malignant cancer cells and healthy brain cells are present. Studies have shown that astrocytes may have a role in tumor growth in the brain. Monocultures cannot evaluate interactions between two cell types and does not accurately represent in vivo conditions. Thus, a ...


Grant Funding Needs Parallel The Start-Up Venture: An Analogy For Translational Research Success, Brian W. Pogue Aug 2018

Grant Funding Needs Parallel The Start-Up Venture: An Analogy For Translational Research Success, Brian W. Pogue

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

This editorial offers some ways to think about how best to position a research group for funding, by examining the parallels between what is needed for translational grants versus industry start-ups.


Foot Stress And Blood Flow Sensing Under High-Loading During Hip Surgery, Katie Paswaters, Esther Chen, Chris Cardenas, Claire Kingston, Brianna Rodebaugh Jun 2018

Foot Stress And Blood Flow Sensing Under High-Loading During Hip Surgery, Katie Paswaters, Esther Chen, Chris Cardenas, Claire Kingston, Brianna Rodebaugh

Mechanical Engineering

The PolyHIPS team was tasked with integrating sensors into Stryker’s hip arthroscopy boot that monitor blood flow and heel slip during hip surgery. During hip arthroscopy, the femur head is distracted from the acetabulum to create space in the joint for the surgeon to operate. This requires the use of up to 200 lbf. In order to maintain this space, the foot is held tightly in the boot. Complications can result from the foot being held too tightly in the boot during the procedure. The most common complication is neuropraxia, or temporary nerve damage. PolyHIPS proposes a solution that ...


3d Printed Force Transducers For In-Vitro Mitral Valve Chordae Tendineae Force Measurements, Hayley Chandler May 2018

3d Printed Force Transducers For In-Vitro Mitral Valve Chordae Tendineae Force Measurements, Hayley Chandler

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Mitral valve surgery is incredibly prevalent in the United States with more than 40,000 mitral valve surgical procedures annually. Improving the imaging techniques used to diagnose these cases requires validation of 3D models through experimental data such as mechanical properties of the tissue. An essential part of this process for the mitral valve is measuring the force experienced by chordae tendineae. This has been achieved with brass force transducers but using a 3D printed design can have many benefits. In this study, 3D printed miniature c-shaped force transducers comparable to previous metal models were designed and created using Solidworks ...


Increasing Drug Delivery Efficacy Of Drug-Coated Balloons, Alexander Galan, Eric Bidinger, Franco Godoy, Shrusti Patel Apr 2018

Increasing Drug Delivery Efficacy Of Drug-Coated Balloons, Alexander Galan, Eric Bidinger, Franco Godoy, Shrusti Patel

Senior Theses

Peripheral artery disease (PAD), the narrowing of peripheral arteries located in areas such as the arms and legs, is a common disease that affects 12% to 20% of people over 65. Numerous therapies have been developed to treat PAD, the most recent technology being drug-coated balloons. Drug-coated balloons release drugs, such as Paclitaxel (PTX), into the arterial wall during balloon angioplasty to locally treat PAD. Current levels of drug transfer from the balloon to the vascular endothelium are at a low 10%-18%. Our Biomedical Engineering Senior Design project aims to increase drug delivery of drug-coated balloons by manipulating the ...


Development Of High Resolution Tools For Investigating Cardiac Arrhythmia Dynamics, Christopher Reed Gloschat Aug 2017

Development Of High Resolution Tools For Investigating Cardiac Arrhythmia Dynamics, Christopher Reed Gloschat

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Every year 300,000 Americans die due to sudden cardiac death. There are many pathologies, acquired and genetic, that can lead to sudden cardiac death. Regardless of the underlying pathology, death is frequently the result of ventricular tachycardia and/or fibrillation (VT/VF). Despite decades of research, the mechanisms of ventricular arrhythmia initiation and maintenance are still incompletely understood.

A contributing factor to this lack of understanding is the limitations of the investigative tools used to study VT/VF. Arrhythmias are organ level phenomena that are governed by cellular interactions and as such, near cellular levels of resolution are needed ...


Three-Dimensional Microfluidic Tumor Vascular Model For Investigating Breast Cancer Metastasis, Anastasiia Vasiukhina, Brian H. Jun, Luis Solorio, Pavlos P. Vlachos Aug 2017

Three-Dimensional Microfluidic Tumor Vascular Model For Investigating Breast Cancer Metastasis, Anastasiia Vasiukhina, Brian H. Jun, Luis Solorio, Pavlos P. Vlachos

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Metastasis is one of the primary reasons for the high mortality rates in female patients diagnosed with breast cancer. It involves the migration of cancer cells into the circulatory system allowing for the dissemination of cancer cells in distal tissues. Understanding the major processes that occur in cells and tissues during metastasis can help improve currently existing therapeutic methods. In order to understand such mechanisms, developing physiologically relevant tissue models is crucial. Advancements in microfluidics have led to the fabrication of 3D culture models with shear stress gradients and flow control that can recapitulate aspects of the tumor microenvironment in ...


Microfluidic Cantilever Detects Bacteria And Measures Their Susceptibility To Antibiotics In Small Confined Volumes, Hashem Etayash, M. F. Khan, Kamaljit Kaur, Thomas Thundat Oct 2016

Microfluidic Cantilever Detects Bacteria And Measures Their Susceptibility To Antibiotics In Small Confined Volumes, Hashem Etayash, M. F. Khan, Kamaljit Kaur, Thomas Thundat

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

In the fight against drug-resistant bacteria, accurate and high-throughput detection is essential. Here, a bimaterial microcantilever with an embedded microfluidic channel with internal surfaces chemically or physically functionalized with receptors selectively captures the bacteria passing through the channel. Bacterial adsorption inside the cantilever results in changes in the resonance frequency (mass) and cantilever deflection (adsorption stress). The excitation of trapped bacteria using infrared radiation (IR) causes the cantilever to deflect in proportion to the infrared absorption of the bacteria, providing a nanomechanical infrared spectrum for selective identification. We demonstrate the in situ detection and discrimination of Listeria monocytogenes at a ...


Engineering And Perception, Maribel Vazquez Sep 2016

Engineering And Perception, Maribel Vazquez

Open Educational Resources

An introductory seminar to High School and Freshman-Level Undergraduates that describes how several Biomedical Engineering innovations have been motivated by our senses of sight, sound, smell, taste and touch.


Compressive Sensing Framework For Mass Spectrometry Data Analysis, Khalfalla Ahmad Kh. Awedat Apr 2016

Compressive Sensing Framework For Mass Spectrometry Data Analysis, Khalfalla Ahmad Kh. Awedat

Dissertations

Mass Spectrometry (MS) data is ideal for identifying unique bio-signatures of diseases. However, the high dimensionality of MS data hinders any promising MS-based proteomics development. The goal of this dissertation is to develop an accurate classification tool by employing compressive sensing (CS). Not only can CS significantly reduce MS data dimensionality, but it also will allow for full reconstruction of original data. The framework developed in this work is based on using L2 and a mixed L2-L1 norms, allowing an overdetermined system to be resolved. The results show that the L2- based algorithm with regularization terms has a better performance ...


Design Of A Drug Delivery System Through The Gastrointestinal Tract, Kaixin Chen, Adel Husayni, Kayvon Mobarakeh, Ankit Soni Jan 2016

Design Of A Drug Delivery System Through The Gastrointestinal Tract, Kaixin Chen, Adel Husayni, Kayvon Mobarakeh, Ankit Soni

Capstone Design Expo Posters

Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) afflicts an estimated 5.3 million individuals and is the sixth leading cause of death in America. The drug delivery method of interest is an orally administered sustained-release delivery system that addresses the needs of the associated patient population. By augmenting drug delivery with a higher effective payload per dose compared to current methods, drug efficacy and bioavailability would improve. This will result in a decrease of the overall cost for medication as a greater percentage of the administered drug will be viable.

This design addresses the release of AD drug from the drug delivery system ...


Catheter Attachment Device For Prevention Of Urinary Tract Infection, Ashleigh Mccormick, Brittany Allen, Karolina Stumbraite, Kevin Ball Jan 2016

Catheter Attachment Device For Prevention Of Urinary Tract Infection, Ashleigh Mccormick, Brittany Allen, Karolina Stumbraite, Kevin Ball

Capstone Design Expo Posters

Hospital-acquired infections are costly occurrences that cause patients physical discomfort, have dangerous immune consequences, and cost healthcare providers hundreds of millions of dollars every year in liability fees and negligence charges. Catheter associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) are the most common class of hospital-acquired infection, affecting over half a million patients in U.S. hospitals alone every year.The CAUTI-Guard team has designed a silver-coated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) plug device that helps prevent CAUTI through its action as a physical and chemical block. The device slides along standard urinary catheters and helps block the migration of infectious material into the urethra ...


Improved Device For Passive Foot Dorsiflexion For Prevention Of Dvt, Stephen Vinoba, Nigal Shah, Shreya Vatsala, Jawahar Baddula Jan 2016

Improved Device For Passive Foot Dorsiflexion For Prevention Of Dvt, Stephen Vinoba, Nigal Shah, Shreya Vatsala, Jawahar Baddula

Capstone Design Expo Posters

Postoperative patients are often too fatigued to walk around and often lay in bed for extended periods of time. This could lead to the development of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). DVT is a condition where blood accumulates in the veins instead of being pushed back to the heart. This can cause the formation of blood clots that can eventually lead to pulmonary embolism resulting in death. DVT is a condition that affects about 900,000 people in the United States. Since it is such a prevalent condition, it is important to develop methods of prevention for this condition.

The aim ...


Mri Hip Joint Traction Device, Rawan Alfadly, Carla Gomez, Sara Um Jan 2016

Mri Hip Joint Traction Device, Rawan Alfadly, Carla Gomez, Sara Um

Capstone Design Expo Posters

Radiologists commonly use contrast agents to improve resolution and acuity when employing MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging). Introducing MRI contrast agents to the tissue in the innermost part of the femoroacetabular joint is extremely difficult because the anatomy prevents the contrast agents from infiltrating those surfaces. Therefore, getting the ideal image resolution and making diagnosis of the hip is difficult. The objective was to design a product that would successfully distract one hip joint while also stabilizing the patient’s pelvis to improve visualization so that physicians are able to better diagnose the hip. The deliverables included a preliminary model that ...


Small Animal Thermal Support Device: Thermoregulation System For Scireq Flexivent Chamber, Alexander Dickey, Ashkhan Hojati, Matthew James, Kathleen Vermillera Jan 2016

Small Animal Thermal Support Device: Thermoregulation System For Scireq Flexivent Chamber, Alexander Dickey, Ashkhan Hojati, Matthew James, Kathleen Vermillera

Capstone Design Expo Posters

During ventilation induced lung injury (VILI) experiments, anesthetized mice lose the ability to regulate their core body temperature. Without maintaining homeostasis, the experimental data may be compromised due to changes in the rodent’s internal functions. Traditional heating techniques utilize a water circulation heating system that is unable to fit inside flexiVent ventilator testing chambers. The objective of this project is to design and build an automatic thermoregulatory feedback system to regulate the core body temperature of a mouse inside individual testing chambers throughout the duration of the experiment. The project deliverables include a functioning prototype that achieves safe and ...


Pulmonary Patency Stent, Kranthidhar Bathula, Suraj Kandalam, Akhil Kolluri, Roshni Malik Jan 2016

Pulmonary Patency Stent, Kranthidhar Bathula, Suraj Kandalam, Akhil Kolluri, Roshni Malik

Capstone Design Expo Posters

Patients with malignancies in the central airways often experience significant breathing difficulties due to occlusion of the airways. One common palliative treatment option for this is a stent placement procedure. While patients often experience immediate symptom relief, long term use can result in the formation of granulation tissue, causing restenosis of the airway. The objective of this project is to design and prototype a modification to the Boston Scientific Ultraflex partially-covered stent in order to reduce granulation tissue and maintain airway patency. Deliverables include the detailed design, a working prototype, and supporting data. The main product specifications include effectiveness in ...


Minimizing Loss Of Balance And Falls With Personal Walkers, Michael Berger, Galen Kellner, David Le, Anthony Renninger Jan 2016

Minimizing Loss Of Balance And Falls With Personal Walkers, Michael Berger, Galen Kellner, David Le, Anthony Renninger

Capstone Design Expo Posters

Falls within the Older Adult community lead to roughly 734,000 hospital admissions annually with 87% attributed to walker use. In order to reduce the amount of falls due to walker use our objective was to create a system that detects an increased likelihood of a fall occurring, notifies the user of improper positioning, and can intervene by application of an automatic braking system to stabilize the walker; effectively training the user to have a more proper walking form and posture reducing the risk of a fall. In order to accomplish this goal, final deliverables included a working prototype and ...


Sensing Movement In Endotracheal Tubes, Mary Anisa Kannan, Krista Powell, Navami Ravindra, Tiffany Wong Jan 2016

Sensing Movement In Endotracheal Tubes, Mary Anisa Kannan, Krista Powell, Navami Ravindra, Tiffany Wong

Capstone Design Expo Posters

The objective of this project was to develop a device that would better secure endotracheal tubes (ETT), measure unwanted displacement, and notify caretakers when a dangerous amount of displacement has occurred. The project deliverables were as follows: a detailed design, a prototype, and a final demonstration of the prototype which shows successful ability to carry out the objectives stated above. The device needs to be small in size, expensive, flexible to allow for regular cleaning, yet strong enough to withstand stress. The final design consists of a small bite block holder and head straps to secure the device. The device ...


Marsupialization Catheter, Hamdi Abdeen, Ananya Mishra, Lucas Olson, Jacqueline Pinderski Jan 2016

Marsupialization Catheter, Hamdi Abdeen, Ananya Mishra, Lucas Olson, Jacqueline Pinderski

Capstone Design Expo Posters

A significant issue among oral and maxillofacial surgeons is the treatment of cysts within the jaw. Cysts develop at random and in most cases asymptomatically. Therefore, they may reach enormous sizes before being diagnosed. Large cysts can cause severe damage to teeth and the surrounding bone. Doctors treat small cysts by surgically removing them. However, this approach is not ideal for large cysts due to the risk of surgical complications, the high expenses incurred, and the fact that it is often undesired by the patient. Current treatments include surgically opening the cyst and either suturing the tissue open or placing ...


Suture Trainer: Improving Tissue Handling Technique, Albara Elshaer, Sindora Baddam, Veronica Peterkin, Millie Shah Jan 2016

Suture Trainer: Improving Tissue Handling Technique, Albara Elshaer, Sindora Baddam, Veronica Peterkin, Millie Shah

Capstone Design Expo Posters

Tissue handling is fundamental to performing mechanical tasks of suturing and surgery on live humans and animals. While the mechanics of suturing can be taught, there is no available simulation product designed to specifically teach tissue handling skills. It is important as a future medical professional to gain better tissue handling skills in order to prevent unnecessary injury to the tissue via scarring. The suture trainer focuses on providing feedback in order to standardize tissue handling technique in order to prevent poor habits from developing. Our project deliverables included a model, working prototype, and test data collected from practicing physicians ...


A Tilting System For Powered Wheelchairs, Liam Cornwall, Brandon Heath, Justin Mcdaniel, Alexander Stevenson Jan 2016

A Tilting System For Powered Wheelchairs, Liam Cornwall, Brandon Heath, Justin Mcdaniel, Alexander Stevenson

Capstone Design Expo Posters

The objective of our project is to create a wheelchair platform that can tilt a power wheelchair and its user back into a nearhorizontal position. The purpose of this is to allow a dentist to work on the patient in the manner and position with which they are most accustomed.

The device currently used by our sponsor, The Virginia Home, is the Versatilt platform. The Versatilt is capable of lifting a maximum weight of 750 lbs. and tilting patients back, up to 65 degrees. However, the platform is too small to accept the power wheelchairs used by the majority of ...


Iv Pole For Cardiac Surgery, Sindhu Marampudi, Natalie Noll, Madison Nowak, Rachel Wilbur Jan 2016

Iv Pole For Cardiac Surgery, Sindhu Marampudi, Natalie Noll, Madison Nowak, Rachel Wilbur

Capstone Design Expo Posters

IV lines and pumps need to be transported from the operating room to patient recovery with the patient after cardiac procedures. During this process, the weight of the IV pumps and the small wheels on the IV pole can cause the IV pole to become unbalanced and fall or bend due to the load. Due to a decrease in slack in IV lines to minimize IV line tangling, when an IV pole falls, this can result in the IV lines being torn out of the patient that can lead to blood loss and other injuries. In addition, IV bags and ...


Low Cost Sterilization, Karima Abutaleb, Mahreen Azam, Eric Lara, Sarah Tracy Jan 2016

Low Cost Sterilization, Karima Abutaleb, Mahreen Azam, Eric Lara, Sarah Tracy

Capstone Design Expo Posters

The lack of proper surgical tool sterilization is an increasing issue in developing countries. Inadequate sterilization leads to disease transmission, infection and even death. While autoclaves, the current golden standard for sterilization, are effective, they are often rendered useless after breaking as the cost to repair and maintain them is incredibly high. This leads to the dependence on insufficient techniques such as the use of diluted bleach. Diluted bleach, while effective for disinfection, leads to the destruction of surgical tools over time, does not destroy spores, and is unsustainable, as it loses potency over time which leads to its otherwiseunnecessary ...


Prediction Device To Reduce Falls In The Elderly, Keegan Zacharie, Aaron Corbin, Joseph Switzer Jan 2016

Prediction Device To Reduce Falls In The Elderly, Keegan Zacharie, Aaron Corbin, Joseph Switzer

Capstone Design Expo Posters

Complications arising from accidental falls are one of the leading causes of death among the elderly, with over 25,000 fatalities annually in the U.S.; a third of the elder population falls each year and a fifth of falls cause serious injury. We intended to mitigate these risks by producing a device capable of anticipating falls using biostatistical data.

Deliverables for our design included: An integrated accelerometer and pulse monitor to assess changes in motion and the physiological state of the wearer, a programmed algorithm capable of processing this data, and a mount to attach components to the patient ...


Plasticity Of The Cortical Representation Of Finger Extensors Induced By Paired Associative Stimulation, Ian Anthony Gerard Lafond Dec 2015

Plasticity Of The Cortical Representation Of Finger Extensors Induced By Paired Associative Stimulation, Ian Anthony Gerard Lafond

Dissertations

This dissertation first explored associative plasticity of the human motor cortical representation with the use of noninvasive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) paired with peripheral electrical stimulation. Paired Associative Stimulation (PAS) has grown in popularity because of its potential clinical applications. PAS techniques are used in combination with electromyography (EMG) measurements to study cortical excitability and features of hand movement. This work focuses on a cohesive approach to answer central questions about: the ideal mechanism to facilitate cortical plasticity via PAS, the interaction between the behavior performed and type of stimulation delivered to the targeted cortical network and the effects of ...


A Case Study: Data Management In Biomedical Engineering, Glenn Gaudette, Donna Kafel Dec 2015

A Case Study: Data Management In Biomedical Engineering, Glenn Gaudette, Donna Kafel

Glenn R. Gaudette

In a biomedical engineering lab at Worcester Polytechnic Institute, co-author Dr. Glenn R. Gaudette and his research team are investigating the effects of stem cell therapy on the regeneration of function in damaged cardiac tissue in laboratory rats. Each instance of stem cell experimentation on a rat yields hundreds of data sets that must be carefully captured, documented and securely stored so that the data will be easily accessed and retrieved for papers, reports, further research, and validation of findings, while meeting NIH guidelines for data sharing. After a brief introduction to the bioengineering field and stem cell research, this ...


New Design Of Nasogastric Decompression Tube That Incorporates A Self-Cleaning Brushing Mechanism, Nichole Abla, Lindsay Rucker, Paige Schroder May 2015

New Design Of Nasogastric Decompression Tube That Incorporates A Self-Cleaning Brushing Mechanism, Nichole Abla, Lindsay Rucker, Paige Schroder

Senior Theses

Many hospitalized patients require the removal of secretions that accumulate in the stomach and must be removed by a nasogastric tube, which unfortunately clogs often. This project outlines the redesign of the nasogastric tube that will ideally prevent nasogastric tube clogging by incorporating a brush mechanism and a contracting tip mechanism, to act as preventative measures against clogging.


3d Printing In Healthcare, Caleb Branch May 2015

3d Printing In Healthcare, Caleb Branch

The Review: A Journal of Undergraduate Student Research

Technology is everywhere. Technology surrounds every aspect of 21st century life. It is in the cell phones we use, the cars we drive, and even the food we eat. A large portion of modern technology used is taken for granted and overlooked. Despite this, some technology fields continue to grow. Biomedical engineering, specifically 3D printing’s applications to healthcare, has been often overlooked until. Regardless of its status in the mainstream, 3D printing is prosperous in healthcare and its future looks bright. This piece analyzes 3D printing in healthcare. It hones in on the finer details of each specific ...