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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Assessment Of A Markerless Motion Analysis System For Manual Wheelchair Application, Jacob Rammer, Brooke A. Slavens, Joseph Krzak, Jack M. Winters, Susan A. Riedel, Gerald F. Harris Nov 2018

Assessment Of A Markerless Motion Analysis System For Manual Wheelchair Application, Jacob Rammer, Brooke A. Slavens, Joseph Krzak, Jack M. Winters, Susan A. Riedel, Gerald F. Harris

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Background

Wheelchair biomechanics research advances accessibility and clinical care for manual wheelchair users. Standardized outcome assessments are vital tools for tracking progress, but there is a strong need for more quantitative methods. A system offering kinematic, quantitative detection, with the ease of use of a standardized outcome assessment, would be optimal for repeated, longitudinal assessment of manual wheelchair users’ therapeutic progress, but has yet to be offered.

Results

This work evaluates a markerless motion analysis system for manual wheelchair mobility in clinical, community, and home settings. This system includes Microsoft® Kinect® 2.0 sensors, OpenSim musculoskeletal modeling, and an automated ...


Early Term Effects Of Rhbmp-2 On Pedicle Screw Fixation In A Sheep Model: Histomorphometric And Biomechanical Analyses, Jeffrey M. Toth, Mei Wang, Chetan Patel, Akshi Arora Sep 2018

Early Term Effects Of Rhbmp-2 On Pedicle Screw Fixation In A Sheep Model: Histomorphometric And Biomechanical Analyses, Jeffrey M. Toth, Mei Wang, Chetan Patel, Akshi Arora

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Background: The effects of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) on pedicle screw pullout force and its potential to improve spinal fixation have not previously been investigated. rhBMP-2 on an absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) carrier was delivered in and around cannulated and fenestrated pedicle screws in a sheep lumbar spine instability model. Two control groups (empty screw and ACS with buffer) were also evaluated. We hypothesized that rhBMP-2 could stimulate bone growth in and around the cannulated and fenestrated pedicle screws to improve early bone purchase.

Methods: Eight skeletally mature sheep underwent destabilizing laminectomies at L2–L3 and L4–L5 ...


Posterior Cervical Spine Crisscross Fixation: Biomechanical Evaluation, Joseph F. Cusick, Frank A. Pintar, Joseph S. Cheng, Jason I. Lifshutz, Narayan Yoganandan Jun 2018

Posterior Cervical Spine Crisscross Fixation: Biomechanical Evaluation, Joseph F. Cusick, Frank A. Pintar, Joseph S. Cheng, Jason I. Lifshutz, Narayan Yoganandan

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Background

Biomechanical/anatomic limitations may limit the successful implantation, maintenance, and risk acceptance of posterior cervical plate/rod fixation for one stage decompression-fusion. A method of posterior fixation (crisscross) that resolves biomechanical deficiencies of previous facet wiring techniques and not reliant upon screw implantation has been devised. The biomechanical performance of the new method of facet fixation was compared to the traditional lateral mass plate/screw fixation method.

Methods

Thirteen human cadaver spine segments (C2-T1) were tested under flexion-compression loading and four were evaluated additionally under pure-moment load. Preparations were evaluated in a sequence of surgical alterations with intact, laminectomy ...


Promoting Global Clinical Care And Research For Children With Orthopaedic Disabilities Through Motion Analysis Technology, Jacob R. Rammer, Joycie Eulah Abiera, Monica Arroyo, Luis Fernando Caicedo, Karl Canseco, Christopher Constantino, Filipe Haces Garcia, Jorge Gomez, Nikhil T. Kurapati, Mariano Gonzalez Lugo, Terence Miller, Wilfredo Agredo Rodriguez, Carlo Emmanuel Sumpaico, Gerald F. Harris May 2018

Promoting Global Clinical Care And Research For Children With Orthopaedic Disabilities Through Motion Analysis Technology, Jacob R. Rammer, Joycie Eulah Abiera, Monica Arroyo, Luis Fernando Caicedo, Karl Canseco, Christopher Constantino, Filipe Haces Garcia, Jorge Gomez, Nikhil T. Kurapati, Mariano Gonzalez Lugo, Terence Miller, Wilfredo Agredo Rodriguez, Carlo Emmanuel Sumpaico, Gerald F. Harris

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Human motion analysis is a tool used to understand orthopaedic disabilities in children and to plan and monitor treatment strategies. It enables clinicians to quantitatively describe rehabilitative progress, plan surgeries, and conduct research. While this technology is prevalent in major academic medical centers, access is lacking in many regions throughout the world. This paper presents a novel approach to offer more accessible technology at greatly reduced cost. Current applications are underway in the Philippines, Mexico, and Colombia. Through international partnerships, improvements in clinical care, medical education, and research have been observed.


Stepping Responses To Treadmill Perturbations Vary With Severity Of Motor Deficits In Human Sci, Virginia W. T. Chu, T. George Hornby, Brian Schmit Apr 2018

Stepping Responses To Treadmill Perturbations Vary With Severity Of Motor Deficits In Human Sci, Virginia W. T. Chu, T. George Hornby, Brian Schmit

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

In this study, we investigated the responses to tread perturbations during human stepping on a treadmill. Our approach was to test the effects of perturbations to a single leg using a split-belt treadmill in healthy participants and in participants with varying severity of spinal cord injury (SCI). We recruited 11 people with incomplete SCI and 5 noninjured participants. As participants walked on an instrumented treadmill, the belt on one side was stopped or accelerated briefly during mid to late stance. A majority of participants initiated an unnecessary swing when the treadmill was stopped in mid stance, although the likelihood of ...


Tactile-Star: A Novel Tactile Stimulator And Recorder System For Evaluating And Improving Tactile Perception, Giulia Ballardini, Giorgio Carlini, Robert A. Scheidt, Ilana Nisky, Maura Casadio Apr 2018

Tactile-Star: A Novel Tactile Stimulator And Recorder System For Evaluating And Improving Tactile Perception, Giulia Ballardini, Giorgio Carlini, Robert A. Scheidt, Ilana Nisky, Maura Casadio

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Many neurological diseases impair the motor and somatosensory systems. While several different technologies are used in clinical practice to assess and improve motor functions, somatosensation is evaluated subjectively with qualitative clinical scales. Treatment of somatosensory deficits has received limited attention. To bridge the gap between the assessment and training of motor vs. somatosensory abilities, we designed, developed, and tested a novel, low-cost, two-component (bimanual) mechatronic system targeting tactile somatosensation: the Tactile-STAR—a tactile stimulator and recorder. The stimulator is an actuated pantograph structure driven by two servomotors, with an end-effector covered by a rubber material that can apply two different ...


High-Intensity Variable Stepping Training In Patients With Motor Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury: A Case Series, Carey L. Holleran, Patrick W. Hennessey, Abigail L. Leddy, Gordhan B. Mahtani, Gabrielle Brazg, Brian D. Schmit, T. George Hornby Apr 2018

High-Intensity Variable Stepping Training In Patients With Motor Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury: A Case Series, Carey L. Holleran, Patrick W. Hennessey, Abigail L. Leddy, Gordhan B. Mahtani, Gabrielle Brazg, Brian D. Schmit, T. George Hornby

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Background and Purpose: Previous data suggest that large amounts of high-intensity stepping training in variable contexts (tasks and environments) may improve locomotor function, aerobic capacity, and treadmill gait kinematics in individuals poststroke. Whether similar training strategies are tolerated and efficacious for patients with other acute-onset neurological diagnoses, such as motor incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI), is unknown. Individuals with iSCI potentially have greater bilateral impairments. This case series evaluated the feasibility and preliminary short- and long-term efficacy of highintensity variable stepping practice in ambulatory participants for more than 1 year post-iSCI.

Case Series Description: Four participants with iSCI (neurological levels ...


Endogenous Dopamine And Endocannabinoid Signaling Mediate Cocaine-Induced Reversal Of Ampar Synaptic Potentiation In The Nucleus Accumbens Shell, Anna E. Ingebretson, Matthew Hearing, Ethan D. Huffington, Mark J. Thomas Mar 2018

Endogenous Dopamine And Endocannabinoid Signaling Mediate Cocaine-Induced Reversal Of Ampar Synaptic Potentiation In The Nucleus Accumbens Shell, Anna E. Ingebretson, Matthew Hearing, Ethan D. Huffington, Mark J. Thomas

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Repeated exposure to drugs of abuse alters the structure and function of neural circuits mediating reward, generating maladaptive plasticity in circuits critical for motivated behavior. Within meso-corticolimbic dopamine circuitry, repeated exposure to cocaine induces progressive alterations in AMPAR-mediated glutamatergic synaptic transmission. During a 10–14 day period of abstinence from cocaine, AMPAR signaling is potentiated at synapses on nucleus accumbens (NAc) medium spiny neurons (MSNs), promoting a state of heightened synaptic excitability. Re-exposure to cocaine during abstinence, however, rapidly reverses and depotentiates enhanced AMPAR signaling. To understand how re-exposure to cocaine alters AMPAR synaptic transmission, we investigated the roles of ...


Effect Of Sensory Attenuation On Cortical Movement-Related Oscillations, Joseph J. Lee, Brian Schmit Mar 2018

Effect Of Sensory Attenuation On Cortical Movement-Related Oscillations, Joseph J. Lee, Brian Schmit

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

This study examined the impact of induced sensory deficits on cortical, movement-related oscillations measured using electroencephalography (EEG). We hypothesized that EEG patterns in healthy subjects with induced sensory reduction would be comparable to EEG found after chronic loss of sensory feedback. EEG signals from 64 scalp locations were measured from 10 healthy subjects. Participants dorsiflexed their ankle after prolonged vibration of the tibialis anterior (TA). Beta band time frequency decompositions were calculated using wavelets and compared across conditions. Changes in patterns of movement-related brain activity were observed following attenuation of sensory feedback. A significant decrease in beta power of event-related ...


Hyperoxia Causes Mitochondrial Fragmentation In Pulmonary Endothelial Cells By Increasing Expression Of Pro-Fission Proteins, Cui Ma, Andreas M. Beyer, Matthew J. Durand, Anne V. Clough, Daling Zhu, Laura Norwood Toro, Maia Terashvili, Johnathan D. Ebben, R. Blake Hill, Said H. Audi, Meetha Medhora, Elizabeth R. Jacobs Feb 2018

Hyperoxia Causes Mitochondrial Fragmentation In Pulmonary Endothelial Cells By Increasing Expression Of Pro-Fission Proteins, Cui Ma, Andreas M. Beyer, Matthew J. Durand, Anne V. Clough, Daling Zhu, Laura Norwood Toro, Maia Terashvili, Johnathan D. Ebben, R. Blake Hill, Said H. Audi, Meetha Medhora, Elizabeth R. Jacobs

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Objective—We explored mechanisms that alter mitochondrial structure and function in pulmonary endothelial cells (PEC) function after hyperoxia.

Approach and Results—Mitochondrial structures of PECs exposed to hyperoxia or normoxia were visualized and mitochondrial fragmentation quantified. Expression of pro-fission or fusion proteins or autophagy-related proteins were assessed by Western blot. Mitochondrial oxidative state was determined using mito-roGFP. Tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester estimated mitochondrial polarization in treatment groups. The role of mitochondrially derived reactive oxygen species in mt-fragmentation was investigated with mito-TEMPOL and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage studied by using ENDO III (mt-tat-endonuclease III), a protein that repairs mDNA damage. Drp-1 (dynamin-related ...


Motor Output Variability Impairs Driving Ability In Older Adults: Reply To Stinchcombe, Dickerson, Weaver, And Bedard, Evangelos A. Christou, Basma Yacoubi, Changki Kim, Hwasil Moon, Tanya Onushko, Neha Lodha Feb 2018

Motor Output Variability Impairs Driving Ability In Older Adults: Reply To Stinchcombe, Dickerson, Weaver, And Bedard, Evangelos A. Christou, Basma Yacoubi, Changki Kim, Hwasil Moon, Tanya Onushko, Neha Lodha

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Driving is a complex skill, as indicated by Stinchcombe and colleagues in their letter. It requires the integration of sensory inputs, cognitive processing, and motor execution. Although our title is broad, we clearly indicate that our findings only address a single component of driving, namely reactive driving. We also indicate that these findings are based on a simulated task and recommend that future studies should examine the contribution of motor output variability to on-road driving performance (see Considerations in the Discussion section). Thus, we share the consideration of Stinchcombe and colleagues that the current results only address a small portion ...


Evaluation Of Motion Artifact Metrics For Coronary Ct Angiography, Hongfeng Ma, Eric Gros, Aniko Szabo, Scott G. Baginski, Zachary R. Laste, Naveen M. Kulkarni, Darin Okerlund, Tal Gilat Schmidt Feb 2018

Evaluation Of Motion Artifact Metrics For Coronary Ct Angiography, Hongfeng Ma, Eric Gros, Aniko Szabo, Scott G. Baginski, Zachary R. Laste, Naveen M. Kulkarni, Darin Okerlund, Tal Gilat Schmidt

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Purpose

This study quantified the performance of coronary artery motion artifact metrics relative to human observer ratings. Motion artifact metrics have been used as part of motion correction and best‐phase selection algorithms for Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography (CCTA). However, the lack of ground truth makes it difficult to validate how well the metrics quantify the level of motion artifact. This study investigated five motion artifact metrics, including two novel metrics, using a dynamic phantom, clinical CCTA images, and an observer study that provided ground‐truth motion artifact scores from a series of pairwise comparisons.

Method

Five motion artifact metrics ...


Optimizing Within-Subject Experimental Designs For Jica Of Multi-Channel Erp And Fmri, Jain Mangalathu-Arumana, Einat Liebenthal, Scott A. Beardsley Jan 2018

Optimizing Within-Subject Experimental Designs For Jica Of Multi-Channel Erp And Fmri, Jain Mangalathu-Arumana, Einat Liebenthal, Scott A. Beardsley

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

No abstract provided.


Opioids Delay Healing Of Spinal Fusion: A Rabbit Posterolateral Lumbar Fusion Model, Nikhil Jain, Khaled Himed, Jeffrey M. Toth, Karen C. Briley, Frank M. Phillips, Safdar N. Khan Jan 2018

Opioids Delay Healing Of Spinal Fusion: A Rabbit Posterolateral Lumbar Fusion Model, Nikhil Jain, Khaled Himed, Jeffrey M. Toth, Karen C. Briley, Frank M. Phillips, Safdar N. Khan

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Background Context

Opioid use is prevalent in the management of pre- and postoperative pain in patients undergoing spinal fusion. There is evidence that opioids downregulate osteoblasts in vitro, and a previous study found that morphine delays the maturation and remodeling of callus in a rat femur fracture model. However, the effect of opioids on healing of spinal fusion has not been investigated before. Isolating the effect of opioid exposure in humans would be limited by the numerous confounding factors that affect fusion healing. Therefore, we have used a well-established rabbit model to study the process of spinal fusion healing that ...


A Student-Centered Learning Approach To Design For Manufacturability: Meeting The Needs Of An Often- Forgotten Customer, Jay R. Goldberg, David Rank Jan 2018

A Student-Centered Learning Approach To Design For Manufacturability: Meeting The Needs Of An Often- Forgotten Customer, Jay R. Goldberg, David Rank

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

A hands-on learning module was implemented at Marquette University in 2012 to teach biomedical engineering students about basic manufacturing processes, lean manufacturing principles, and design for manufacturability. It incorporates active and student-centered learning as part of in-class assembly line simulations. Since then, it has evolved from three class periods to five. The module begins with two classroom presentations on manufacturing operations and electronics design, assembly, and testing. Students then participate in an in-class assembly line simulation exercise where they build and test an actual product per written work instructions. They reflect on this experience and suggest design and process changes ...


Optimizing Filter-Probe Diffusion Weighting In The Rat Spinal Cord For Human Translation, Matthew D. Budde, Nathan P. Skinner, L. Tugan Muftuler, Brian D. Schmit, Shekar N. Kurpad Dec 2017

Optimizing Filter-Probe Diffusion Weighting In The Rat Spinal Cord For Human Translation, Matthew D. Budde, Nathan P. Skinner, L. Tugan Muftuler, Brian D. Schmit, Shekar N. Kurpad

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

No abstract provided.


The Temporal Expression Of Adipokines During Spinal Fusion, Sohrab Virk, Alicia L. Bertone, Hayam Hamaz Hussein, Jeffrey M. Toth, Mari Kaido, Safdar Khan Dec 2017

The Temporal Expression Of Adipokines During Spinal Fusion, Sohrab Virk, Alicia L. Bertone, Hayam Hamaz Hussein, Jeffrey M. Toth, Mari Kaido, Safdar Khan

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Background Context

Adipokines are secreted by white adipose tissue and have been associated with fracture healing. Our goal was to report the temporal expression of adipokines during spinal fusion in an established rabbit model.

Purpose

Our goal was to report the temporal expression of adipokines during spinal fusion in an established rabbit model.

Study Design

The study design included a laboratory animal model.

Methods

New Zealand white rabbits were assigned to either sham surgery (n=2), unilateral posterior spinal fusion (n=14), or bilateral posterior spinal fusion (n=14). Rabbits were euthanized 1–6 and 10 weeks out from surgery ...


Macroscopic Anisotropic Bone Material Properties In Children With Severe Osteogenesis Imperfecta, Carolyne Albert, John Jameson, Sergey Tarima, Peter Smith, Gerald Harris Nov 2017

Macroscopic Anisotropic Bone Material Properties In Children With Severe Osteogenesis Imperfecta, Carolyne Albert, John Jameson, Sergey Tarima, Peter Smith, Gerald Harris

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Children with severe osteogenesis imperfecta(OI) typically experience numerous fractures and progressive skeletal deformities over their lifetime. Recent studies proposed finite element models to assess fracture risk and guide clinicians in determining appropriate intervention in children with OI, but lack of appropriate material property inputs remains a challenge. This study aimed to characterize macroscopic anisotropic cortical bone material properties and investigate relationships with bone density measures in children with severe OI. Specimens were obtained from tibial or femoral shafts of nine children with severe OI and five controls. The specimens were cut into beams, characterized in bending, and imaged by ...


Robotic Resistance Treadmill Training Improves Locomotor Function In Children With Cerebral Palsy: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study, Ming Wu, Janis Kim, Deborah J. Gaebler-Spira, Brian D. Schmit, Pooja Arora Nov 2017

Robotic Resistance Treadmill Training Improves Locomotor Function In Children With Cerebral Palsy: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study, Ming Wu, Janis Kim, Deborah J. Gaebler-Spira, Brian D. Schmit, Pooja Arora

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Objective

To determine whether applying controlled resistance forces to the legs during the swing phase of gait may improve the efficacy of treadmill training as compared with applying controlled assistance forces in children with cerebral palsy (CP).

Design

Randomized controlled study.

Setting

Research unit of a rehabilitation hospital.

Participants

Children with spastic CP (N=23; mean age, 10.6y; range, 6–14y; Gross Motor Function Classification System levels, I–IV).

Interventions

Participants were randomly assigned to receive controlled assistance (n=11) or resistance (n=12) loads applied to the legs at the ankle. Participants underwent robotic treadmill training 3 times ...


Sagittal Subtalar And Talocrural Joint Assessment During Ambulation With Controlled Ankle Movement (Cam) Boots, Ben Mchenry, Emily L. Exten, Janelle A. Cross, Karen M. Kruger, Brian Law, Jessica M. Fritz, Gerald F. Harris Nov 2017

Sagittal Subtalar And Talocrural Joint Assessment During Ambulation With Controlled Ankle Movement (Cam) Boots, Ben Mchenry, Emily L. Exten, Janelle A. Cross, Karen M. Kruger, Brian Law, Jessica M. Fritz, Gerald F. Harris

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Background: The purpose of the current study was to determine sagittal plane talocrural and subtalar kinematic differences between barefoot and controlled ankle movement (CAM) boot walking. This study used fluoroscopic images to determine talar motion relative to tibia and calcaneal motion relative to talus.

Methods: Fourteen male subjects (mean age 24.1 ± 3.5 years) screened for normal gait were tested. A fluoroscopy unit was used to collect images at 200 Hz during stance. Sagittal motion of the talocrural and subtalar joints were analyzed barefoot and within short and tall CAM boots.

Results: Barefoot talocrural mean maximum plantar and dorsiflexion ...


Treating A 20 Mm Hg Gradient Alleviates Myocardial Hypertrophy In Experimental Aortic Coarctation, David C. Wendell, Ingeborg Friehs, Margaret M. Samyn, Leanne Harmann, John F. Ladisa Oct 2017

Treating A 20 Mm Hg Gradient Alleviates Myocardial Hypertrophy In Experimental Aortic Coarctation, David C. Wendell, Ingeborg Friehs, Margaret M. Samyn, Leanne Harmann, John F. Ladisa

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Background

Children with coarctation of the aorta (CoA) can have a hyperdynamic and remodeled left ventricle (LV) from increased afterload. Literature from an experimental model suggests the putative 20 mm Hg blood pressure gradient (BPG) treatment guideline frequently implemented in CoA studies may permit irreversible vascular changes. LV remodeling from pressure overload has been studied, but data are limited following correction and using a clinically representative BPG.

Materials and methods

Rabbits underwent CoA at 10 weeks to induce a 20 mm Hg BPG using permanent or dissolvable suture thereby replicating untreated and corrected CoA, respectively. Cardiac function was evaluated at ...


Protection By Inhaled Hydrogen Therapy In A Rat Model Of Acute Lung Injury Can Be Tracked In Vivo Using Molecular Imaging, Said H. Audi, Elizabeth R. Jacobs, Xiao Zhang, Amadou K.S. Camara, Ming Zhao, Meetha M. Medhora, Benjamin Michael Rizzo, Anne V. Clough Oct 2017

Protection By Inhaled Hydrogen Therapy In A Rat Model Of Acute Lung Injury Can Be Tracked In Vivo Using Molecular Imaging, Said H. Audi, Elizabeth R. Jacobs, Xiao Zhang, Amadou K.S. Camara, Ming Zhao, Meetha M. Medhora, Benjamin Michael Rizzo, Anne V. Clough

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Inhaled hydrogen gas (H2) provides protection in rat models of human acute lung injury (ALI). We previously reported that biomarker imaging can detect oxidative stress and endothelial cell death in vivo in a rat model of ALI. Our objective was to evaluate the ability of 99mTc-hexamethylpropyleneamineoxime (HMPAO) and 99mTc-duramycin to track the effectiveness of H2 therapy in vivo in the hyperoxia rat model of ALI. Rats were exposed to room air (normoxia), 98% O2 + 2% N2 (hyperoxia) or 98% O2 + 2% H2 (hyperoxia+H2) for up to 60 h. In vivo ...


Open Source Software For Automatic Detection Of Cone Photoreceptors In Adaptive Optics Ophthalmoscopy Using Convolutional Neural Networks, David Cunefare, Leyuan Fang, Robert F. Cooper, Alfredo Dubra, Joseph Carroll, Sina Farsiu Jul 2017

Open Source Software For Automatic Detection Of Cone Photoreceptors In Adaptive Optics Ophthalmoscopy Using Convolutional Neural Networks, David Cunefare, Leyuan Fang, Robert F. Cooper, Alfredo Dubra, Joseph Carroll, Sina Farsiu

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Imaging with an adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) enables direct visualization of the cone photoreceptor mosaic in the living human retina. Quantitative analysis of AOSLO images typically requires manual grading, which is time consuming, and subjective; thus, automated algorithms are highly desirable. Previously developed automated methods are often reliant on ad hoc rules that may not be transferable between different imaging modalities or retinal locations. In this work, we present a convolutional neural network (CNN) based method for cone detection that learns features of interest directly from training data. This cone-identifying algorithm was trained and validated on separate data ...


Inter-Joint Coordination Deficits Revealed In The Decomposition Of Endpoint Jerk During Goal-Directed Arm Movement After Stroke, Jozsef Laczko, Robert A. Scheidt, Lucia Simo, Davide Piovesan Jul 2017

Inter-Joint Coordination Deficits Revealed In The Decomposition Of Endpoint Jerk During Goal-Directed Arm Movement After Stroke, Jozsef Laczko, Robert A. Scheidt, Lucia Simo, Davide Piovesan

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

It is well documented that neurological deficits after stroke can disrupt motor control processes that affect the smoothness of reaching movements. The smoothness of hand trajectories during multi-joint reaching depends on shoulder and elbow joint angular velocities and their successive derivatives as well as on the instantaneous arm configuration and its rate of change. Right-handed survivors of unilateral hemiparetic stroke and neurologically-intact control participants held the handle of a two-joint robot and made horizontal planar reaching movements. We decomposed endpoint jerk into components related to shoulder and elbow joint angular velocity, acceleration, and jerk. We observed an abnormal decomposition pattern ...


Quantitative Optical Measurement Of Mitochondrial Superoxide Dynamics In Pulmonary Artery Endothelial Cells, Zahra Ghanian, Girija G. Konduri, Said H. Audi, Amadou K.S. Camara, Mahsa Ranji Jun 2017

Quantitative Optical Measurement Of Mitochondrial Superoxide Dynamics In Pulmonary Artery Endothelial Cells, Zahra Ghanian, Girija G. Konduri, Said H. Audi, Amadou K.S. Camara, Mahsa Ranji

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

No abstract provided.


The Arm Movement Detection (Amd) Test: A Fast Robotic Test Of Proprioceptive Acuity In The Arm, Leigh A. Mrotek, Maria Bengtson, Tina M. Stoeckmann, Lior Botzer, Claude Ghez, John Mcguire, Robert A. Scheidt Jun 2017

The Arm Movement Detection (Amd) Test: A Fast Robotic Test Of Proprioceptive Acuity In The Arm, Leigh A. Mrotek, Maria Bengtson, Tina M. Stoeckmann, Lior Botzer, Claude Ghez, John Mcguire, Robert A. Scheidt

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Background

We examined the validity and reliability of a short robotic test of upper limb proprioception, the Arm Movement Detection (AMD) test, which yields a ratio-scaled, objective outcome measure to be used for evaluating the impact of sensory deficits on impairments of motor control, motor adaptation and functional recovery in stroke survivors.

Methods

Subjects grasped the handle of a horizontal planar robot, with their arm and the robot hidden from view. The robot applied graded force perturbations, which produced small displacements of the handle. The AMD test required subjects to respond verbally to queries regarding whether or not they detected ...


Identity And Function Of A Cardiac Mitochondrial Small Conductance Ca2+-Activated K+ Channel Splice Variant, Meiying Yang, Amadou K. S. Camara, Mohammed Aldakkak, Wai-Meng Kwok, David F. Stowe Jun 2017

Identity And Function Of A Cardiac Mitochondrial Small Conductance Ca2+-Activated K+ Channel Splice Variant, Meiying Yang, Amadou K. S. Camara, Mohammed Aldakkak, Wai-Meng Kwok, David F. Stowe

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

We provide evidence for location and function of a small conductance, Ca2+-activated K+ (SKCa) channel isoform 3 (SK3) in mitochondria (m) of guinea pig, rat and human ventricular myocytes. SKCa agonists protected isolated hearts and mitochondria against ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury; SKCa antagonists worsened IR injury. Intravenous infusion of a SKCa channel agonist/antagonist, respectively, in intact rats was effective in reducing/enhancing regional infarct size induced by coronary artery occlusion. Localization of SK3 in mitochondria was evidenced by Western blot of inner mitochondrial membrane, immunocytochemical staining of cardiomyocytes, and immunogold labeling of isolated ...


Erratum To: Supplemental Vibrotactile Feedback Control Of Stabilization And Reaching Actions Of The Arm Using Limb State And Position Error Encodings, Alexis Krueger, Psiche Giannoni, Valay Shah, Maura Casadio, Robert A. Scheidt May 2017

Erratum To: Supplemental Vibrotactile Feedback Control Of Stabilization And Reaching Actions Of The Arm Using Limb State And Position Error Encodings, Alexis Krueger, Psiche Giannoni, Valay Shah, Maura Casadio, Robert A. Scheidt

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

The original article contained omissions mistakenly carried forward by the Production department handling this journal; these omissions related to missing ‘λ’ symbols throughout the article body, thus inaccurately representing the meaning of the associated text.

The article has now been updated to include these symbols in the appropriate sections of text to accurately reflect the conveyed implications.


Supplemental Vibrotactile Feedback Control Of Stabilization And Reaching Actions Of The Arm Using Limb State And Position Error Encodings, Alexis Krueger, Psiche Giannoni, Valay Shah, Maura Casadio, Robert A. Scheidt May 2017

Supplemental Vibrotactile Feedback Control Of Stabilization And Reaching Actions Of The Arm Using Limb State And Position Error Encodings, Alexis Krueger, Psiche Giannoni, Valay Shah, Maura Casadio, Robert A. Scheidt

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Deficits of kinesthesia (limb position and movement sensation) commonly limit sensorimotor function and its recovery after neuromotor injury. Sensory substitution technologies providing synthetic kinesthetic feedback might re-establish or enhance closed-loop control of goal-directed behaviors in people with impaired kinesthesia.


Assessment Of Kinematics And Electromyography Following Arthroscopic Single-Tendon Rotator Cuff Repair, Jessica M. Fritz, Ryan R. Inawat, Brooke A. Slavens, John R. Mcguire, Dean W. Ziegler, Sergey S. Tarima, Steven I. Grindel, Gerald F. Harris May 2017

Assessment Of Kinematics And Electromyography Following Arthroscopic Single-Tendon Rotator Cuff Repair, Jessica M. Fritz, Ryan R. Inawat, Brooke A. Slavens, John R. Mcguire, Dean W. Ziegler, Sergey S. Tarima, Steven I. Grindel, Gerald F. Harris

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Background

The increasing demand for rotator cuff (RC) repair patients to return to work as soon as they are physically able has led to exploration of when this is feasible. Current guidelines from our orthopedic surgery clinic recommend a return to work at 9 weeks postoperation. To more fully define capacity to return to work, the current study was conducted using a unique series of quantitative tools. To date, no study has combined 3-dimensional (3D) motion analysis with electromyography (EMG) assessment during activities of daily living (ADLs), including desk tasks, and commonly prescribed rehabilitation exercise.

Objective

To apply a quantitative ...