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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Thenar Muscle And Transverse Carpal Ligament Relationship, Jeremy Granieri Loss Jan 2019

Thenar Muscle And Transverse Carpal Ligament Relationship, Jeremy Granieri Loss

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The transverse carpal ligament (TCL) acts as a partial origin for the thenar muscles (abductor pollicis brevis (APB), flexor pollicis brevis (FPB), opponens pollicis (OPP)). The attachment between the thenar muscles and TCL implies a relationship between the tissues. The thenar muscles rely on their origins for thumb motion and force production. However, individual thenar origin information is lacking. Further information regarding the anatomical relationship between the individual thenar muscles and TCL may provide insight into thenar muscle function. In addition, the TCL responds to thenar muscle contraction as shown by volar migration of the TCL during various thumb movements ...


Three-Dimensional Human Neural Stem Cell Culture For High-Throughput Assessment Of Developmental Neurotoxicity, Pranav Joshi Jan 2019

Three-Dimensional Human Neural Stem Cell Culture For High-Throughput Assessment Of Developmental Neurotoxicity, Pranav Joshi

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Only a few hundred of compounds, among tens of thousands of commercially available compounds, have been tested for developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) due to the limitations of current guidelines for DNT which are based entirely on in vivo experiments. In vivo studies are highly expensive and time-consuming, which often do not correlate to human outcomes. There is a key gap in our ability to predict in vivo outcomes accurately and robustly using in vitro assays. This is particularly the case for predicting the toxicity of chemicals on the developing human brains. Conventional in vitro assays are typically performed in two-dimensional (2D ...


Modeling Liver Diseases Using Hepatic Cell Microarrays, Alexander David Roth Jan 2018

Modeling Liver Diseases Using Hepatic Cell Microarrays, Alexander David Roth

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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an invasive and aggressive cancer of the liver that arises due to chronic cirrhosis. Research into understanding HCC has focused on two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) technologies to simulate the liver microenvironment and use animal models to model how HCC affects the rest of the body. 3D hydrogel models are desired because they can mimic the transport behavior observed in vivo by structurally mimicking the extracellular matrix (ECM) without the ethical concerns of animal models. However, hydrogels can be toxic to cells and require optimal procedures for appropriate handling. In this study, we created 3D models ...


The Effect Of Cognitive Limb Embodiment On Vascular Physiological Response, Hala Elsir Mustafa Osman Jan 2018

The Effect Of Cognitive Limb Embodiment On Vascular Physiological Response, Hala Elsir Mustafa Osman

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The rubber hand illusion (RHI) is a visual-tactile perceptual illusion commonly used to study body ownership. In this paradigm, a rubber hand is positioned in front of a participant, and the person’s real hand is hidden from sight behind a barrier. When the real hand and the rubber hand are stroked synchronously, individuals perceive the rubber hand as if it were their own; it becomes “embodied.” This illusory experience of body ownership is associated with multimodal integration of touch and vision. From these visual-tactile-cognitive mechanisms, we establish that our hands belong to us when what we see matches what ...


Advanced Manufacturing Of Titanium Alloys For Biomedical Applications, Nicholas C. Mavros Jan 2018

Advanced Manufacturing Of Titanium Alloys For Biomedical Applications, Nicholas C. Mavros

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In metallurgy, Titanium has been a staple for biomedical purposes. Its low toxicity and alloying versatility make it an attractive choice for medical applications. However, studies have shown the difference in elastic modulus between Titanium alloys (116 GPa) and human bone (40-60 GPa) contribute to long term issues with loose hardware fixation. Additionally, long term studies have shown elements such as Vanadium and Aluminum, which are commonly used in Ti-6Al-4V biomedical alloys, have been linked to neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimers and Parkinsons. Alternative metals known to be less toxic are being explored as replacements for alloying elements in Titanium alloys ...


Neuromuscular Reflex Control For Prostheses And Exoskeletons, Sandra K. Hnat Jan 2018

Neuromuscular Reflex Control For Prostheses And Exoskeletons, Sandra K. Hnat

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Recent powered lower-limb prosthetic and orthotic (P/O) devices aim to restore legged mobility for persons with an amputation or spinal cord injury. Though various control strategies have been proposed for these devices, specifically finite-state impedance controllers, natural gait mechanics are not usually achieved. The goal of this project was to invent a biologically-inspired controller for powered P/O devices. We hypothesize that a more muscle-like actuation system, including spinal reflexes and vestibular feedback, can achieve able-bodied walking and also respond to outside perturbations. The outputs of the Virtual Muscle Reflex (VMR) controller are joint torque commands, sent to the ...


Characterizing The Effects Of High-Intensity Exercise On Balance And Gait Under Dual-Task Conditions In Parkinson’S Disease, El Iva Baron Jan 2018

Characterizing The Effects Of High-Intensity Exercise On Balance And Gait Under Dual-Task Conditions In Parkinson’S Disease, El Iva Baron

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Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by four cardinal motor symptoms including bradykinesia, tremor, rigidity, and postural instability, and non-motor symptoms including cognitive impairment. Daily activities, such as walking and maintaining balance, are impacted due to impairments in motor function, and are further exacerbated with the addition of cognitive loading, or dual-tasking (DT). High-intensity exercise has demonstrated centrally-mediated improvements of PD symptoms, with additional positive effects on overall health. The goal of this project was to identify changes in dynamic balance recovery and gait function under conditions with and without increased cognitive load after a high-intensity exercise ...


High-Throughput Metabolism-Induced Toxicity Assays On A 384-Pillar Plate, Sooyeion Kang Jan 2018

High-Throughput Metabolism-Induced Toxicity Assays On A 384-Pillar Plate, Sooyeion Kang

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The U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the Transform Tox Testing Challenge in 2016 with the goal of developing practical methods that can be integrated into conventional high-throughput screening (HTS) assays to better predict the toxicity of parent compounds and their metabolites in vivo. In response to this need and to retrofit existing HTS assays for assessing metabolism-induced toxicity of compounds, we have developed a 384-pillar plate that is complementary to traditional 384-well plates and ideally suited for culturing human cells in three dimensions (3D) at a microscale. Briefly, human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells in a mixture of ...


Stabilization Of Hypoxia Inducible Factor By Cobalt Chloride Can Alter Renal Transepithelial, Subhra Sankar Nag Jan 2018

Stabilization Of Hypoxia Inducible Factor By Cobalt Chloride Can Alter Renal Transepithelial, Subhra Sankar Nag

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Kidney cyst expansion, stagnant fluid accumulation, and insufficient vascular supply can result in localized chronic ischemia-hypoxia in kidney cysts, as well as in normal renal epithelia adjacent to a cyst. We hypothesize that in normal epithelia near a cyst, the stabilization of Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1a (HIF1a), a major regulator of cellular response to hypoxia, can cause altered paracellular and transcellular transport, transforming a normal absorptive phenotype to a secretory and paracellularly leaky phenotype, leading to cyst expansion. Using 100 µmol/L cobalt chloride (CoCl2), HIF1a was stabilized in cellular nucleus of a mouse cortical collecting duct cell line (mCCD ...


Predictive Simulations Of Gait And Their Application In Prosthesis Design, Anne D. Koelewijin Jan 2018

Predictive Simulations Of Gait And Their Application In Prosthesis Design, Anne D. Koelewijin

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Predictive simulations predict human gait by solving a trajectory optimization problem by minimizing energy expenditure. These simulations could predict the effect of a prosthesis on gait before its use. This dissertation has four aims, to show the application of predictive simulations in prosthesis design and to improve the quality of predictive simulations. Aim 1 was to explain joint moment asymmetry in the knee and hip in gait of persons with a transtibial amputation (TTA gait). Predictive simulations showed that an asymmetric gait required less effort. However, a small effort increase yielded a gait with increased joint moment symmetry and reduced ...


Feasibility Of Using An Equilibrium Point Strategy To Control Reaching Movements Of Paralyzed Arms With Functional Electrical Stimulation, Matthew Huffman Jan 2018

Feasibility Of Using An Equilibrium Point Strategy To Control Reaching Movements Of Paralyzed Arms With Functional Electrical Stimulation, Matthew Huffman

ETD Archive

Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a technology capable of improving the quality of life for those with the loss of limb movement related to spinal cord injuries. Individuals with high-level tetraplegia, in particular, have lost all movement capabilities below the neck. FES has shown promise in bypassing spinal cord damage by sending electrical impulses directly to a nerve or muscle to trigger a desired function. Despite advancements in FES, full-arm reaching motions have not been achieved, leaving patients unable to perform fundamental tasks such as eating and grooming. To overcome the inability in current FES models to achieve multi-joint coordination ...


A Synthesis Platform For Temperature Responsive Star Polymers, Schmitt J. Richard Jr. Jan 2018

A Synthesis Platform For Temperature Responsive Star Polymers, Schmitt J. Richard Jr.

ETD Archive

Star polymers are a class of branched polymers comprised of several polymer chains extending from a central point. Star polymers have applications in biopharmaceuticals where they have been proposed to be suitable drug delivery vehicles. Star polymers have traditionally been synthesized through chemical synthesis with added functionality provided by grafting on the arms. This complex synthesis can be simplified by using a biosynthetic approach which enables precise control of molecular weight and composition. This approach is demonstrated using star polymers with arms composed of a temperature responsive protein-based polymer termed elastin-like polypeptide (ELP). Star polymers are characterized based on the ...


C-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Inhibitory Nanotherapeutics For Regenerative Elastic Matrix Repair In Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms, Andrew T. Camardo Jan 2017

C-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Inhibitory Nanotherapeutics For Regenerative Elastic Matrix Repair In Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms, Andrew T. Camardo

ETD Archive

Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are localized expansions of the aorta wall that continue to grow until they reach a critical size and fatally rupture. This growth is driven by the chronic disruption, degradation, and subsequent loss of aortal wall elastic fibers by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) secreted by inflammatory cells recruited to the aorta wall following an injury stimulus, and the inherent inability of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) to naturally repair or regenerate elastic fibers. This leads to a net loss of elastic matrix and the continuing weakening of the aortal wall until eventual rupture. Current treatments seek to reinforce ...


Cathepsin K Targeting Matrix Regenerative Nanoparticles For Small Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair, Jonathan M. Fox Jan 2017

Cathepsin K Targeting Matrix Regenerative Nanoparticles For Small Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair, Jonathan M. Fox

ETD Archive

Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are characterized by the loss of elasticity in the aorta wall leading to a chronic increase in diameter and resulting in rupture. This is due to the lack of regeneration of elastic fibers and chronic proteolytic breakdown of elastic fibers within the aorta mediated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), specifically MMP-2 and -9. Previous studies in our lab have shown cationic amphiphile-surface functionalized poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with doxycycline (DOX) to inhibit MMP activity and stimulate elastic matrix synthesis, effects we attributed to both low doses (< 10 mg/ml) of DOX released and independent effects of cationic amphiphile pendant groups on the NP surface. This promises application of these NPs to arrest or regress AAA growth since high oral DOX dosing inhibits new elastic matrix formation in the AAA wall and has undesirable side effects. In this study, we investigated feasibility of antibody-based active targeting of intravenously infused NPs to the AAA wall. Cathepsin K, a cysteine protease, is a biomarker for AAA and overexpressed in abdominal aortic aneurysm tissue making it an ideal target moiety. We have shown using a covalent conjugation method of modifying the surface of the NPs with a cathepsin K antibody resulted in a more robust antibody attachment which did not affect the DOX release profile. Cathepsin K expression was confirmed to be localized on the cell surface and utilizing cathepsin K Ab-conjugated NPs, we demonstrated an increased NP localization to the cathepsin K overexpressing cells in vitro and ex vivo. Importantly, the DOX-loaded NPs demonstrated pro-elastogenic and anti-proteolytic effects in aneurysmal smooth muscle cells supporting their use as regenerative therapies to arrest and regress AAA growth. Preliminary data has been collected indicating cathepsin K Ab-conjugated NP targeting to AAAs in elastase-injured rat models. The study outcomes support the feasibility of using cathepsin K Ab-conjugated NPs as a targeted therapy for elastic matrix regeneration in AAA tissue and will serve as a basis for already initiated follow up studies to assess NP biodistribution, in situ retention in the AAA wall, and safety as a function of time.


Design And Control Of A Powered Rowing Machine With Programmable Impedance, Jose Humberto De La Casas Zolezzi Jan 2017

Design And Control Of A Powered Rowing Machine With Programmable Impedance, Jose Humberto De La Casas Zolezzi

ETD Archive

Due to the rise of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease, research in human performance and physical activity has received increased attention. Rowing machines are used for performance improvements through concentric exercises, however a combination of concentric and eccentric actions is known to improve the effectiveness of training. In this work, a conventional rowing machine was modified to include an electric motor and a robust impedance control system, enabling programmable impedance with concentric and eccentric capabilities. Eccentric exercises are known to contribute significantly to the efficacy of training and to diminish the detrimental effects of humans operating in microgravity for long ...


Decitabine-Loaded Nanogel Treatment To Reverse Cancer Drug Resistance, Samantha A. Cramer Jan 2016

Decitabine-Loaded Nanogel Treatment To Reverse Cancer Drug Resistance, Samantha A. Cramer

ETD Archive

Cancers in which epigenetic changes, such as hypermethylation of DNA, lead to drug resistance cause the cancer to become unresponsive to existing chemotherapeutic treatments. The epigenetic drug – 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine (decitabine, DAC) – is a potent hypomethylating agent, but its effect is transient due to its instability. Previous studies have shown that loading DAC into nanogel significantly enhances its antiproliferative effect (compared to DAC in solution) in drug-resistant breast cancer cells (MCF-7/ADR). Further, the previous studies demonstrated changes in the membrane lipid profile of resistant cells following treatment with DAC either as solution or in nanogels. The objective of the present ...


Design And Production Of A Hydrogel Forming Polypeptide: Engaging High School Students In Protein Design, James K. Deyling Jan 2016

Design And Production Of A Hydrogel Forming Polypeptide: Engaging High School Students In Protein Design, James K. Deyling

ETD Archive

Bioinks are a class of hydrogel that have the potential to be the ink used in the creation of printed organs, connective tissue, and other important structures within the body. One class of material that may be a suitable bioink hydrogel is elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs), which are synthetic biopolymers inspired by the naturally existing connective tissue elastin. ELPs consist of a repeat pentapeptide sequence (GXGVP)n, where X is any of the 20 naturally existing amino acids other than proline. These biomolecules are capable of exhibiting environmental responsiveness when exposed to certain stimulus such as salt concentration, temperature, and pH ...


Solute Partitioning In Elastin-Like Polypeptides: A Foundation For Drug Delivery Applications, Eric Helm Jan 2015

Solute Partitioning In Elastin-Like Polypeptides: A Foundation For Drug Delivery Applications, Eric Helm

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No abstract provided.


Evaluation Of The Performance Of A Downward Flow Inclined Gravity Settler For Algae Dewatering, Dustin D. Bowden Jan 2015

Evaluation Of The Performance Of A Downward Flow Inclined Gravity Settler For Algae Dewatering, Dustin D. Bowden

ETD Archive

With recent concerns over the environmental implications of burning fossil fuels coupled with the depletion of fossil fuel reserves an alternative source of energy isneeded. Algae derived biofuels may be an effective replacement for transportation fuels as they are carbon neutral and have a high area productivity. Algae is superior to terrestrial plants as a biofuel source due to its high oil productivity and efficiency along with the fact that it will not displace food production. Currently the largest obstacle to the implementation of commercial algae to biofuel processes is algae dewatering. The separation of algae from water is difficult ...


Determining The Transport Enhancement Of Sodium Fluorescein In Mechanically-Loaded Canine Tibia, Andrew Joseph Zak Jan 2015

Determining The Transport Enhancement Of Sodium Fluorescein In Mechanically-Loaded Canine Tibia, Andrew Joseph Zak

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Quantitative research concerning the impact of mechanical loading on the transport properties of bone has several critical applications. One such application is the effect of a microgravity environment, where the lack of mechanical forces on bone has been shown to negatively impact both growth and repair. A method has been developed in our lab that can potentially allow for the measurement of the effective permeability of large molecules (i.e., 300-15,000 Da in size) in bone tissue under both unloaded and mechanically loaded conditions. In proof-of-concept experiments, previous students have measured the effective diffusivity of the model solute, sodium ...


Time And Temperature Dependent Surface Tension Measurements Of Responsive Protein-Based Polymer Surfactant Solutions, Hakan Celik Jan 2015

Time And Temperature Dependent Surface Tension Measurements Of Responsive Protein-Based Polymer Surfactant Solutions, Hakan Celik

ETD Archive

A three-armed star elastin-like polypeptide (ELP-foldon) has thermoreversible character which exhibits phase separation above a transition temperature (Tt) in physiologic salt concentrations. At lower salt concentration, the ELP-foldon behaves like a thermoresponsive surfactant, exhibiting micelle formation above its Tt. The purpose of this study is characterize the surfactant behavior of the ELP-foldon at air-liquid interface by measuring the surface tension. The surface tension is measured as a function of time for different ELP concentrations from 10 nM to 50 ℗æM and over range of temperatures from 25 to 35 ℗¿ using the axisymmetric drop shape analysis (ADSA). The ADSA is a ...


Characterization Of Highly Concentrated Elastin-Like Polypeptide Solutions: Rheometric Properties And Phase Separation Analysis, Kevin Michael Otto Jan 2015

Characterization Of Highly Concentrated Elastin-Like Polypeptide Solutions: Rheometric Properties And Phase Separation Analysis, Kevin Michael Otto

ETD Archive

Elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) are environmentally responsive biopolymers. These protein based polymers are specific in that they exhibit phase separation in response to a number of stimuli. Some of these stimuli include temperature, light, and pH. There are a large number of factors to consider when designing ELP constructs that allow for control of the transitioning behavior, some of which include amino acid sequences, protein concentration, salt concentration, and the polymer chain length. Elastin-like polypeptides are soluble in water at low temperatures, however, upon an increase in temperature, the proteins become insoluble in water and phase separate. This point of temperature ...


Validation Of An Accelerometry Based Method Of Human Gait Analysis, Obinna Nwanna Jan 2014

Validation Of An Accelerometry Based Method Of Human Gait Analysis, Obinna Nwanna

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Gait analysis is the quantification of locomotion. Understanding the science behind the way we move is of interest to a wide variety of fields. Medical professionals might use gait analysis to track the rehabilitation progress of a patient. An engineer may want to design wearable robotics to augment a human operator. Use cases even extend into the sport and entertainment industries. Typically, a gait analysis is performed in a highly specialized laboratory containing cumbersome expensive equipment. The process is tedious and requires specially trained operators. Continued development of small and cheap inertial measurement units (IMUs) over an alternative to current ...


Computation Of Fifteen Thermodynamic Properties Along Arbitrary Paths From Fundamental Equations Of State Correlations, Prashanth Krishnamoorthy Jan 2014

Computation Of Fifteen Thermodynamic Properties Along Arbitrary Paths From Fundamental Equations Of State Correlations, Prashanth Krishnamoorthy

ETD Archive

In this work, a set of fifteen thermodynamic properties for thirty pure compounds has been estimated using fundamental equations of state (FEOS). A computer program was written which allows to input any two of four fundamental thermodynamic properties entropy, pressure, temperature and density to fix a state point and then use the FEOS to generate any other property at that given state. The program further applies the FEOS to trace thermodynamic processes like isochoric, isobaric, isenthalpic, isothermal and isentropic state changes to find the final state of the compound. The program subsequently displays the initial, final and intermediate state points ...


Design Of Recombinant Tenebrio Molitor Antifreeze Protein For Purification Using Elastin-Like Polypeptide Tag, Joongseok Oh Jan 2014

Design Of Recombinant Tenebrio Molitor Antifreeze Protein For Purification Using Elastin-Like Polypeptide Tag, Joongseok Oh

ETD Archive

Fusion protein technologies can aid to improve solubility of recombinant protein from microorganisms and help recombinant protein purification. Elastin-like polypeptides (ELP) as a fusion tag can be utilized to facilitate the purification of recombinant proteins because ELP can provide its thermally responsive behavior to ELP tagged proteins. An ELP tag can be used as the purification carrier through inverse transition cycling (ITC), which is a simple and non chromatographic separation process. The purification through ITC can reduce cost and can be quickly performed compared to other purification methods. However, we further considered ELP tag removal because it may possibly hinder ...


Mineral Uptake Rates And Yield Coefficients Of The Green Microalgae Scenedesmus Dimorphus, Grace N. Mahfouz Jan 2014

Mineral Uptake Rates And Yield Coefficients Of The Green Microalgae Scenedesmus Dimorphus, Grace N. Mahfouz

ETD Archive

The need for renewable sources of energy has become critical as fossil fuel resources, which include oil, coal, and natural gas, are known to contribute to climate change and will eventually be depleted. Biofuels that originate from the fat of plants, animals, microalgae, and bacteria are an attractive alternative. Microalgae, in particular, are strong candidates for biofuel production since they have a high growth rate and lipid content (up to 50 in some species). The goal of this research was to optimize 3N-BBM+V recipe (Bold Basal Medium with 3-fold Nitrogen and Vitamins) in an effort of reducing the amount ...


A Psa Process For An Oxygen Concentrator, Aaron A. Moran Jan 2014

A Psa Process For An Oxygen Concentrator, Aaron A. Moran

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Oxygen is used in a variety of chemical processes and for medical purposes throughout the world. Pressure swing adsorption (PSA) has become a viable alternative to cryogenic distillation for the separation of oxygen from air with the development of advanced adsorbents like zeolites. PSA processes are inherently complex because it is a dynamic process. Efficient operation of a PSA process is necessary in order to utilize the capacity of the adsorbent as much as possible and reduce the power requirements of the process.In this thesis, a novel zeolite adsorbent was utilized in a PSA process for oxygen generation with ...


Human Hair Keratin Protein, Hair Fibers And Hydroxyapatite (Ha) Composite Scaffold For Bone Tissue Regeneration, Samuel Siyum Jan 2014

Human Hair Keratin Protein, Hair Fibers And Hydroxyapatite (Ha) Composite Scaffold For Bone Tissue Regeneration, Samuel Siyum

ETD Archive

The field of tissue engineering aims at promoting the regeneration of tissues or replacement of failing or malfunctioning tissue by means of combining a scaffold material, adequate cells and bioactive molecules. Different materials have been proposed for use as three-dimensional porous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering procedures. Among them, polymers of natural origin are one of the most attractive options mainly due to their similarities with the extracellular matrix (ECM), chemical versatility as well as typically good biological performance. In this study, two biocompatible composite scaffolds were developed from natural polymer by tissue engineering approach and tested in vitro. The ...


Potential Optimal Gait Performance Of Mauch S-N-S Prosthetic Knee Configurations As Predicted By Dynamic Modeling, Chih-Hao Chien Jan 2014

Potential Optimal Gait Performance Of Mauch S-N-S Prosthetic Knee Configurations As Predicted By Dynamic Modeling, Chih-Hao Chien

ETD Archive

Patients with prosthetic legs routinely suffer from abnormal gait patterns which can cause health issues and eventually lower the quality of their lives. Despite the half-century advance in the technology of prosthetic knees, from the purely mechanical to microprocessor controlled systems, patient testing suggests that very little progress has been made in the quality of the kinetics and kinematics of amputee gait. Moreover, the cost of microprocessor controlled prosthetic knees may be 10 times more than the purely mechanical knees. While prosthetic knees have become more complex and expensive, it is not proven that the prosthetic knee is a central ...


Benefits Of Nitric Oxide Cues To Matrix Synthesis By Healthy And Aneurysmal Human Smooth Muscle Cells Within 3d Cocultures, Phillip Simmers Jan 2014

Benefits Of Nitric Oxide Cues To Matrix Synthesis By Healthy And Aneurysmal Human Smooth Muscle Cells Within 3d Cocultures, Phillip Simmers

ETD Archive

Vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and aneurysms are characterized by the over-proliferation and migration of aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) within the vessel wall, leading to compromise in cell-cell and cell-matrix signaling pathways. Recent tissue engineering approaches to regulate SMC over-proliferation and enhance healthy ECM synthesis showed promise, but resulted in low crosslinking efficiency and matrix deposition yields. In this study, the benefits of exogenous nitric oxide cues, delivered from S-Nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), to cell proliferation and matrix deposition by adult human aortic SMCs (HA-SMCs) within 3D biomimetic cultures have been explored. The first experiment ...