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1996

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Articles 1 - 30 of 67

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Three-Dimensional Stress Analysis Of The Femur With Prosthetic Hip Stem Utilizing Computed Tomography Scans Of The Femur For Geometry And Material Properties, Thomas J. Lavin Dec 1996

Three-Dimensional Stress Analysis Of The Femur With Prosthetic Hip Stem Utilizing Computed Tomography Scans Of The Femur For Geometry And Material Properties, Thomas J. Lavin

Theses

Three-dimensional finite element stress analyses of the femur with prosthesis hip stem were performed for two cases, one male and one female, using ideally bonded cemented titanium prostheses. Computed tomography data files were used to derive the three-dimensional femur geometry and material properties for each cortical bone element. The maximum shear stress (4.7 MPa) in the cement was greater then the maximum tensile stress and occurred at the cement-bone interface. The tensile stresses in the cement were less then the fatigue strength of the cement. The stress patterns were quite similar for the two cases.

A data analysis program ...


Design Of A Mode Of Delivery For Macrobead Transplantation, Jagdip Desai Dec 1996

Design Of A Mode Of Delivery For Macrobead Transplantation, Jagdip Desai

Theses

The macrobead is a form of a biohybrid artificial pancreas (BAP), which is being developed to treat type 1 diabetes. A hypothetical human transplant would require 125 rat equivalent macrobeads. For intraperitoneal transplantation a mode of delivery that allows the placement of several hundred macrobeads into a basket or pouch type device is required.

In this study, four commercially available materials were studied as possible candidates for creating a pouch. These materials are polyvinyl chloride acrylic copolymer (PVC), polyethersulfone (PES), polyvinylidenedifluoride (PVDF), and polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE). Tubular pouches of each material were designed. They then underwent in vivo biocompatibility and in-vitro ...


Mechanisms Of Cytokine-Mediated Localized Immunoprotection., Nora Sarvetnick Nov 1996

Mechanisms Of Cytokine-Mediated Localized Immunoprotection., Nora Sarvetnick

Journal Articles: Regenerative Medicine

No abstract provided.


Pulsed Transient Tissue Conductivity Measurement, Robert B. Szlavik, Hubert De Bruin Oct 1996

Pulsed Transient Tissue Conductivity Measurement, Robert B. Szlavik, Hubert De Bruin

Biomedical and General Engineering

The authors present an alternative technique for obtaining tissue conductivity as a function of frequency. Pulsed transient tissue impedance measurement differs significantly from other commonly used swept frequency techniques in that the conductivity of a tissue sample can be obtained from a voltage transient response to a current pulse. By obtaining the conductivity across a band of frequencies from a transient measurement, the necessity for direct conductivity measurements at each frequency point is eliminated. Calibration and verification of the technique was carried out by measuring the impedance magnitude and phase of simple RC circuit combinations. The authors present conductivity measurements ...


Spice Compatible Equivalent Circuit Models Of Skeletal Muscle Tissue, Robert B. Szlavik, Hubert De Bruin Oct 1996

Spice Compatible Equivalent Circuit Models Of Skeletal Muscle Tissue, Robert B. Szlavik, Hubert De Bruin

Biomedical and General Engineering

The authors present equivalent circuit models of skeletal muscle tissue for the directions parallel and transverse to the fiber. The parallel model is based on a distributed parameter equivalent circuit approach where the tissue between the electrodes is divided into small segments, each of which is represented by an equivalent circuit. Parameters for the equivalent circuits me calculated from the electrical characteristics of the tissue components and their physical arrangement. The authors compare the conductivity frequency response of the equivalent circuit modelling approach to other models presented in the literature. The advantage to the authors' equivalent circuit approach is that ...


Development Of A Gel Content Analysis Protocol For Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene, Max Harold Jeanty Oct 1996

Development Of A Gel Content Analysis Protocol For Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene, Max Harold Jeanty

Theses

A modified procedure based upon ASTM (D 2765 - 90) to determine the gel content of crosslinked polyethylene plastics was developed. The new procedure was applied to ram extruded Ultra High Molecular Weight (UHMWPE) implant components processed under different manufacturing conditions. This new evaluation tool provides consistent results with greater accuracy and consistency compared to the American Society for the Testing of Materials (ASTM) method. Using the same tool, several relationships between the UHMWPE processing conditions and gel content were established. The amount of gel content is related to the crosslinked material. It has been shown that the more crosslinking present ...


Modeling Of Cardiovascular System To Simulate Ventricular Septal Defect, Adarsh Kumar Gupta Oct 1996

Modeling Of Cardiovascular System To Simulate Ventricular Septal Defect, Adarsh Kumar Gupta

Theses

The hemodynamics of the ventricular septa] defect is studied using a mathematical modeling technique. A twelve-compartment windkessel model of cardiovascular system is used to study the hemodynamics of the ventricular septal defect. The VSD is incorporated into the model via a parallel flow from the left to right ventricles (left-to-right shunt). The resistance to flow through the shunt is used to characterize the severity of the defect. Changes in the severity of the shunt flow produces changes in the ratio of pulmonary to systemic flow in the circulation. When the pulmonary to systemic flow ratio is more than 2:1 ...


The In Vitro Evaluation Of Various Biodegradable Composites Used In Internal Fixation Devices, Hui-Chen Hsieh Oct 1996

The In Vitro Evaluation Of Various Biodegradable Composites Used In Internal Fixation Devices, Hui-Chen Hsieh

Theses

In vitro degradation kinetics and mechanical properties of various composites, comprising a polycarbonate (DTE polymer) reinforced with CaP glass fiber, synthetic ceramic and non-ceramic hydroxyapatite (HA-500,OsteoGen HA) were investigated.

They were soaked in the SBF solution with a constant pH of 7.4 at 37°C for 5 days. The DTE/CaP composite degraded in an acid manner such that a large amount of NaOH was required but with a small decrease in calcium ion concentration. By contrast, the DTE/OsteoGen HA composite required comparable amounts of NaOH, but with a concomitantly large decrease in calcium ion concentration. This ...


A Continuous Process For The Conversion Of Vegetable Oils Into Biodiesel, Hossein Noureddini, D Harkey, V Medikonduru Sep 1996

A Continuous Process For The Conversion Of Vegetable Oils Into Biodiesel, Hossein Noureddini, D Harkey, V Medikonduru

Papers in Biomaterials

Over the last few years fatty acid methyl esters have assumed importance as research has intensified on the utilization of vegetable oils and animal fats derivatives from liquid fuels (better known as biodiesel).Traditional batch processing has been an still is the most widely used process for this coversion. New and more efficient processing schemes. for large scale production of biodiesel for fuelfile1 purposes, is a. key for commercialization of biodiesel. In this, study a continuous process for the transesterification of triglycerides to methyl esters was investigated. This process is based a combined high shear and motionless reactor system. The ...


Effective Doses Of Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 In Experimental Spinal Fusion, Harvinder Sandhu, Linda E.A. Kanim, J. Michael Kabo, Jeffrey M. Toth, Erik N. Zeegen, David Liu, Rick B. Delamarter, Edgar G. Dawson Sep 1996

Effective Doses Of Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 In Experimental Spinal Fusion, Harvinder Sandhu, Linda E.A. Kanim, J. Michael Kabo, Jeffrey M. Toth, Erik N. Zeegen, David Liu, Rick B. Delamarter, Edgar G. Dawson

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Study Design Nineteen dogs underwent L4-L5 intertransverse process fusions with either 58 μg, 115 μg, 230 μg, 460 μg, or 920 μg of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 carried by a polylactic acid polymer. A previous study (12 dogs) compared 2300 μg of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2, autogenous iliac bone, and carrier alone in this model. All fusions subsequently were compared.

Objectives To characterize the dose-response relationship of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 in a spinal fusion model.

Summary of Background Data Recombinant osteoinductive morphogens, such as recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2, are effective in vertebrate diaphyseal defect and ...


Calcium Buffering Is Required To Maintain Bone Stiffness In Saline Solution, M. B. Gustafson, R. B. Martin, V. Gibson, D. H. Storms, S. M. Stover, J. Gibeling, L. Griffin Sep 1996

Calcium Buffering Is Required To Maintain Bone Stiffness In Saline Solution, M. B. Gustafson, R. B. Martin, V. Gibson, D. H. Storms, S. M. Stover, J. Gibeling, L. Griffin

Biomedical and General Engineering

This work determined whether mineral dissolution due to prolonged testing or storage of bone s~'imens in normal salint: would alter Lheir elastic modulus. In one experiment, small pieces of equine third metacarpal bone were soaked in normal saline supplemented with varying amounts of CaCI1. Changing Ca ion concentrations in the bath were monitored and the equilibrium concentration was determined. In a second experiment, the elastic moduli of twenty 4 x 10 x 100 mm equine third metacarpal beams were determined non-destructively in four-point bending. Half the beams were then soaked for 10 days in normal saline, and the other ...


In Vitro Fatigue Behavior Of The Equine Third Metacarpus: Remodeling And Microcrack Damage Analysis, R.B. Martin, V.A. Gibson, S.M. Stover, J.C. Gibeling, L.V. Griffin Sep 1996

In Vitro Fatigue Behavior Of The Equine Third Metacarpus: Remodeling And Microcrack Damage Analysis, R.B. Martin, V.A. Gibson, S.M. Stover, J.C. Gibeling, L.V. Griffin

Biomedical and General Engineering

We studied remodeling and microcrack damage in specimens of Thoroughbred racehorse third metacarpal bone that had been subjected to monotonic or fatigue failure. We asked three questions. What effects does mechanical loading have on histologically observable microcrack damage? Are there regional variations in remodeling of the equine cannon bone, and do these variations correlate with mechanical properties? To what extent are remodeling and microcrack damage age-dependent? Machined beams from the medial, lateral, and dorsal cortices were loaded to fracture in four-point bending monotonically, or cyclically at a load initially producing 10,000 microstrain. Specimens were then bulk-stained in basic fuchsin ...


Pancreatic Expression Of Interleukin-4 Abrogates Insulitis And Autoimmune Diabetes In Nonobese Diabetic (Nod) Mice., Regula Mueller, Troy Krahl, Nora Sarvetnick Sep 1996

Pancreatic Expression Of Interleukin-4 Abrogates Insulitis And Autoimmune Diabetes In Nonobese Diabetic (Nod) Mice., Regula Mueller, Troy Krahl, Nora Sarvetnick

Journal Articles: Regenerative Medicine

Diabetes in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice is a T cell-dependent autoimmune disease. The destructive activities of autoreactive T cells have been shown to be tightly regulated by effector molecules. In particular, T helper (Th) 1 cytokines have been linked to diabetes pathogenesis, whereas Th2 cytokines and the cells that release them have been postulated to be protective from disease. To test this hypothesis, we generated transgenic NOD mice that express interleukin (IL) 4 in their pancreatic beta cells under the control of the human insulin promoter. We found that transgenic NOD-IL-4 mice, both females and males, were completely protected from ...


Osteonal Structure In The Equine Third Metacarpus, R. B. Martin, V. A. Gibson, S. M. Stover, J. C. Gibeling, L. V. Griffin Aug 1996

Osteonal Structure In The Equine Third Metacarpus, R. B. Martin, V. A. Gibson, S. M. Stover, J. C. Gibeling, L. V. Griffin

Biomedical and General Engineering

In studying the flexural fatigue properties of the equine third metacarpal (cannon) bone, we previously found that the dorsal region was weaker monotonically, but more fatigue resistant, than the lateral region. Fatigue resistance was associated with fracture surfaces which demonstrated that secondary osteons had “pulled out” of the surrounding matrix; this never happened in lateral specimens. We therefore became interested in the osteonal structure of this bone, and began to study its birefringence patterns in circularly polarized light. We found that the predominant type of secondary osteon was one in which only the outermost few lamellae were circumferential, with the ...


Monoclonal Antibody Assay And Kit For Detecting Metal Cations In Body Fluids, Randall R. Carlson, Jay S. Stout, Dwane E. Wylie, Fred W. Wagner, Malcolm Riddell Jul 1996

Monoclonal Antibody Assay And Kit For Detecting Metal Cations In Body Fluids, Randall R. Carlson, Jay S. Stout, Dwane E. Wylie, Fred W. Wagner, Malcolm Riddell

Staff Publications: Biological Process Development Facility

The invention provides method and kits for detecting a metallic cation in a sample of a body fluid. The preferred method and kits include the use of at least two different types of antibodies having different specificities. In the preferred method, the sample of body fluid can be contacted with an effective amount of a capture antibody specific for a naturally occurring polypeptide that can bind the metallic cation to form a first antigen-antibody complex. An effective amount of an antibody specific for an epitope on a metallic cation-naturally occurring polypeptide complex or an antibody specific for a metallic cation ...


A Review Of Prosthetic Interface Stress Investigations, Barbara Silver-Thorn, John W. Steege, Dudley S. Childress Jul 1996

A Review Of Prosthetic Interface Stress Investigations, Barbara Silver-Thorn, John W. Steege, Dudley S. Childress

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Over the last decade, numerous experimental and numerical analyses have been conducted to investigate the stress distribution between the residual limb and prosthetic socket of persons with lower limb amputation. The objectives of these analyses have been to improve our understanding of the residual limb/prosthetic socket system, to evaluate the influence of prosthetic design parameters and alignment variations on the interface stress distribution, and to evaluate prosthetic fit. The purpose of this paper is to summarize these experimental investigations and identify associated limitations. In addition, this paper presents an overview of various computer models used to investigate the residual ...


Parametric Analysis Using The Finite Element Method To Investigate Prosthetic Interface Stresses For Persons With Trans-Tibial Amputation, Barbara Silver-Thorn, Dudley S. Childress Jul 1996

Parametric Analysis Using The Finite Element Method To Investigate Prosthetic Interface Stresses For Persons With Trans-Tibial Amputation, Barbara Silver-Thorn, Dudley S. Childress

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

A finite element (FE) model of the below-knee residual limb and prosthetic socket was created to investigate the effects of parameter variations on the interface stress distribution during static stance. This model was based upon geometric approximations of anthropometric residual limb geometry. The model was not specific to an individual with amputation, but could be scaled to approximate the limb of a particular subject. Parametric analyses were conducted to investigate the effects of prosthetic socket design and residual limb geometry on the residual limb/prosthetic socket interface stresses. Behavioral trends were illustrated via sensitivity analysis.

The results of the parametric ...


Il-10 Is Necessary And Sufficient For Autoimmune Diabetes In Conjunction With Nod Mhc Homozygosity., Myung-Shik Lee, Regula Mueller, Linda S. Wicker, Laurence B. Peterson, Nora Sarvetnick Jun 1996

Il-10 Is Necessary And Sufficient For Autoimmune Diabetes In Conjunction With Nod Mhc Homozygosity., Myung-Shik Lee, Regula Mueller, Linda S. Wicker, Laurence B. Peterson, Nora Sarvetnick

Journal Articles: Regenerative Medicine

Contrary to expectations based on in vitro experiments, we previously found that pancreatic IL-10 did not inhibit autoimmune diabetes but accelerated it in an MHC-dependent manner. Therefore, the ability of IL-10 to overcome the absence of all non-MHC diabetes susceptibility (Idd) alleles was studied in transgenic mice expressing pancreatic IL-10 backcrossed to B10.H2g7 congenic mice, which have no Idd alleles other than NOD MHC (H2g7). IL-10 transgenic backcross 1 (BC1) mice with H2g7/g7 haplotype developed clear-cut insulitis and diabetes, but neither transgenic mice with the H2g/b haplotype nor nontransgenic BC1 mice did so. Further implicating IL-10 in ...


Measurement Of The Electroencephalogram (Eeg) Coherence, Atmospheric Noise, And Schumann Resonances In Group Meditation, Douglas A. Newandee May 1996

Measurement Of The Electroencephalogram (Eeg) Coherence, Atmospheric Noise, And Schumann Resonances In Group Meditation, Douglas A. Newandee

Theses

Electrical activity in the human body was investigated using EEG and ECG measurements while subjects remained with eyes open, eyes closed and in a meditation state. During these measurements, additional antennas were attached to the equipment to record atmospheric noise and signal activity simultaneously. The obtained data was analyzed and various observations were made. Processed data based on antenna signals clearly showed the presence of man-made signals, having narrow spectral widths that could be treated as atmospheric noise in the frequency range up to 50 Hz. In addition, signals clustered around 7.8, 14.1, 20.3, 26.4, and ...


Comparison Of Different Signal Processing Algorithms To Extract The Respiration Waveform From The Ecg, David J. Caggiano May 1996

Comparison Of Different Signal Processing Algorithms To Extract The Respiration Waveform From The Ecg, David J. Caggiano

Theses

Power spectral analysis of heart rate variability is a powerful tool to measure the activity of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system noninvasively. To determine the parasympathetic activity, the frequency of respiration must be known. However, during ambulatory studies, the frequency of respiration is not acquired. To alleviate this problem, methods have been proposed in the past to derive the respiration from the ECG. Unfortunately, these previous methods are unreliable if the subject's breathing rate is uncontrolled. In this study, four methods to derive the respiration waveform from the electrocardiogram (ECG) were developed. Two leads of ECG ...


A Mathematical Model Of Cardiovascular System With Feedback Control, Jiayu Gu May 1996

A Mathematical Model Of Cardiovascular System With Feedback Control, Jiayu Gu

Theses

A mathematical model of human cardiovascular system is presented in this study. The closed-loop model is composed of twenty compartments which includes the left and right ventricles, and the systemic and pulmonary circulations. Two physiologic feedback control mechanisms, autoregulation of blood flow and baroreceptor reflex regulation of arterial pressure, are incorporated in the model. Autoregulation acts by changing local resistance to blood flow through metabolic and myogenic mechanisms, thereby insuring a match between oxygen supply and demand for any tissue or organ. Baroreceptors act through neural pathways to alter heart rate, contractility and peripheral resistance in order to return sudden ...


Validation Of A Mathematical Model Of The Human Walking Cycle Using Parameter Identification Methods, Robert Mccann May 1996

Validation Of A Mathematical Model Of The Human Walking Cycle Using Parameter Identification Methods, Robert Mccann

Theses

A mathematical model of the swing phase, toe-off and heel strike is presented in this paper and is mathematically represented as a two dimensional, simple coupled pendulum system with three degrees of freedom. Lagange equations of motion are used to solve this highly idealized system. The model consists of three segments which represent the stance leg, thigh and shank. During the swing phase it is assumed that the only external forces acting on the system are gravity and viscous dissipative terms proportional to joint angular velocities. It is assumed that muscle forces act only to establish the initial limb segment ...


A New Concept In Artificial Ligament And Tendons Modeling : Finite Element Analysis, Miroslaw Sokol May 1996

A New Concept In Artificial Ligament And Tendons Modeling : Finite Element Analysis, Miroslaw Sokol

Theses

Reconstruction of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) has been a major focus in sports medicine for over twenty years. Severe or unrepairable damage of the ACL due to sport injury is a major problem faced by orthopedic surgeons and engineers. To successfully replace or reconstruct an injured ACL, the mechanical properties as well as the dimensional limitation of the material used must be similar to the biological ligaments. Although excessive literature describes experimental investigation on the mechanical property and clinical application of the ligament material, there is no analytical study that describes strains, stresses, and endurance in the bone/ligament ...


Method For Reducing The Generation Of Wear Particulates From An Implant, David A. Pienkowski May 1996

Method For Reducing The Generation Of Wear Particulates From An Implant, David A. Pienkowski

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Patents

A method is provided for reducing the amount of wear particulates generated by a total joint orthopaedic implant. The implant consists of two matched articulating components. The method includes the steps of placing the total joint orthopaedic implant in a fluid bath and articulating the implant in the fluid bath for at least 1,000 cycles. The articulation may be performed in three stages. In the first, the implant is articulated under a load of substantially 0.1-500 Newtons with sliding speeds of substantially 0.01-0.5 meters per second. During a second stage the articulation takes place under a ...


Effect Of Screw Configuration And Speed On Rtd And Expansion Of Rice Extrudate, Siew-Yoong Lee, Kathryn L. Mccarthy May 1996

Effect Of Screw Configuration And Speed On Rtd And Expansion Of Rice Extrudate, Siew-Yoong Lee, Kathryn L. Mccarthy

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

The influence of screw configuration and screw speed on the residence time distribution and product expansion was determined for rice meal processed in a corotating twin screw extruder. Screw speed had strong effect on the E(t)- and F(t)-diagrams, with the mean residence time varying inversely with screw speed from 206 s to 256 s. the F-diagram was modeled by the combination of perfect mixing and plug flow. the P estimates, which express the fraction of material in plug flow, varied inversely with screw speed from 0.41 to 0.55 for the operating conditions in this study ...


Development Of A Bovine X Chromosome Linkage Group And Painting Probes To Assess Cattle, Sheep, And Goat X Chromosome Segment Homologies., Sakthikumar Ambady, F.Abel Ponce Leon, Gregory Hawkins, Steven Kappes, Michael Bishop, James Robl, Craig Beattle Apr 1996

Development Of A Bovine X Chromosome Linkage Group And Painting Probes To Assess Cattle, Sheep, And Goat X Chromosome Segment Homologies., Sakthikumar Ambady, F.Abel Ponce Leon, Gregory Hawkins, Steven Kappes, Michael Bishop, James Robl, Craig Beattle

Sakthikumar Ambady

The X chromosome linkage group is conserved in placental mammals. However, X chromosome morphological differences, due to internal chromosome rearrangements, exist among mammalian species. We have developed bovine chromosome painting probes for Xp and Xq to assess segment homologies between the submetacentric bovine X chromosome and the acrocentric sheep and goat X chromosomes. These painting probes and their corresponding DNA libraries were developed by chromosome micromanipulation, DNA micropurification, microcloning, and PCR amplification. The bovine Xp painting probe identified an interstitially located homologous segment in the sheep and goat Xq region, most probably resulting from chromosome inversion. Ten type II (microsatellite ...


Improved Conversion Of Plant Oils And Animal Fats Into Biodiesel And Co-Product , Praveen R. Muniyappa, Scott C. Brammer, Hossein Noureddini Apr 1996

Improved Conversion Of Plant Oils And Animal Fats Into Biodiesel And Co-Product , Praveen R. Muniyappa, Scott C. Brammer, Hossein Noureddini

Papers in Biomaterials

Increased environmental awareness and depletion of resources are driving to develop alternative fuel from renewable resources that are environmentally more acceptable. Esters of fatty acids (bio-diesel, derived from the transesterification vegetable oils, have properties similar to components of peh-oleior~. based diesel fuel Cost has been a major factor slowing the commercializatio of bio-diesel! Glycerol is the coproduct of the esterification process. In this work the feasibility of the glyc-erol of vegetable oil. with crude glycerol derived from the transesterification of the vegetable oils and animal fats was studied. Utilization of the crude co-product of the biodiesel process was investi-gated for ...


Scanning Local‐Acceleration Microscopy, Nancy Burnham, A. Kulik, G. Gremaud, P. Gallo, F. Oulevey Feb 1996

Scanning Local‐Acceleration Microscopy, Nancy Burnham, A. Kulik, G. Gremaud, P. Gallo, F. Oulevey

Nancy A. Burnham

By adapting a scanning force microscope to operate at frequencies above the highest tip–sample resonance, the sensitivity of the microscope to materials’ properties is greatly enhanced. The cantilever’s behavior in response to high‐frequency excitation from a transducer underneath the sample is fundamentally different than to its low‐frequency response. In this article, the motivations, instrumentation, theory, and first results for this technique are described.


Materials’ Properties Measurements: Choosing The Optimal Scanning Probe Microscope Configuration, Nancy Burnham, G Gremaud, A Kulik, P Gallo, F Oulevey Feb 1996

Materials’ Properties Measurements: Choosing The Optimal Scanning Probe Microscope Configuration, Nancy Burnham, G Gremaud, A Kulik, P Gallo, F Oulevey

Nancy A. Burnham

Rheological models are used to represent different scanning probe microscope configurations. The solutions for their static and dynamic behavior are found and used to analyze which scanning probe microscope configuration is best for a given application. We find that modulating the sample at high frequencies results in the best microscope behavior for measuring the stiffness of rigid materials, and that by modulating the tip at low frequencies and detecting the motion of the tip itself (not its position relative to the tip holder) should be best for studying compliant materials in liquids.


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