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Gait

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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Walking For Object Transport: An Examination Of The Coordinative Adaptations To Locomotor, Perceptual, And Manual Task Constraints, Avelino Amado Jan 2019

Walking For Object Transport: An Examination Of The Coordinative Adaptations To Locomotor, Perceptual, And Manual Task Constraints, Avelino Amado

Doctoral Dissertations

The goal of this dissertation was to understand how the intrinsic dynamics of gait adapt to support the performance of an ecologically relevant object transport task. A common object transport task is walking with a cup of water. Because the water can move relatively independent of the cup, the cup and water system is classified as a complex object. To model this task participants carried a cup with a wooden lid placed on top. On the lid there was a circular region with the same circumference as the cup and a ball. The object of the task was to keep ...


Hip And Knee Biomechanics For Transtibial Amputees In Gait, Cycling, And Elliptical Training, Greg Orekhov Dec 2018

Hip And Knee Biomechanics For Transtibial Amputees In Gait, Cycling, And Elliptical Training, Greg Orekhov

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Transtibial amputees are at increased risk of contralateral hip and knee joint osteoarthritis, likely due to abnormal biomechanics. Biomechanical challenges exist for transtibial amputees in gait and cycling; particularly, asymmetry in ground/pedal reaction forces and joint kinetics is well documented and state-of-the-art passive and powered prostheses do not fully restore natural biomechanics. Elliptical training has not been studied as a potential exercise for rehabilitation, nor have any studies been published that compare joint kinematics and kinetics and ground/pedal reaction forces for the same group of transtibial amputees in gait, cycling, and elliptical training. The hypothesis was that hip ...


Inverse Dynamic Analysis Of Acl Reconstructed Knee Joint Biomechanics During Gait And Cycling Using Opensim, Megan V. Pottinger Aug 2018

Inverse Dynamic Analysis Of Acl Reconstructed Knee Joint Biomechanics During Gait And Cycling Using Opensim, Megan V. Pottinger

Master's Theses and Project Reports

ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) injuries of the knee joint alter biomechanics and may cause abnormal loading conditions that place patients at a higher risk of developing osteoarthritis (OA). There are multiple types of ACL reconstruction (ACLR), but all types aim to restore anterior tibial translation and internal tibial rotation following surgery. Analyzing knee joint contact loads provide insight into the loading conditions following ACLR that may contribute to the long-term development of OA. Ten ACLR subjects, who underwent the same reconstruction, performed gait and cycling experiments while kinematic and kinetic data were collected. Inverse dynamic analyses were performed on processed ...


A Metabolic Energy Expenditure Model With A Continuous First Derivative And Its Application To Predictive Simulations Of Gait, Anne D. Koelewijn, Eva Dorschky, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert Jul 2018

A Metabolic Energy Expenditure Model With A Continuous First Derivative And Its Application To Predictive Simulations Of Gait, Anne D. Koelewijn, Eva Dorschky, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert

Antonie J. van den Bogert

Whether humans minimize metabolic energy in gait is unknown. Gradient-based optimization could be used to predict gait without using walking data, but requires a twice di#11;erentiable metabolic energy model. Therefore, the metabolic energy model of Umberger et al. (2003) was adapted to be twice di#11;fferentiable. Predictive simulations of a reaching task and gait were solved using this continuous model and by minimizing e#11;ffort. The reaching task simulation showed that energy minimization predicts unrealistic movements when compared to e#11;ffort minimization. The predictive gait simulations showed that objectives other than metabolic energy are also ...


Walking Speed Differentially Alters Spinal Loads In Persons With Traumatic Lower Limb Amputation, Brad D. Hendershot, Iman Shojaei, Julian C. Acasio, Christopher L. Dearth, Babak Bazrgari Mar 2018

Walking Speed Differentially Alters Spinal Loads In Persons With Traumatic Lower Limb Amputation, Brad D. Hendershot, Iman Shojaei, Julian C. Acasio, Christopher L. Dearth, Babak Bazrgari

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications

Persons with lower limb amputation (LLA) perceive altered motions of the trunk/pelvis during activities of daily living as contributing factors for low back pain. When walking (at a singular speed), larger trunk motions among persons with vs. without LLA are associated with larger spinal loads; however, modulating walking speed is necessary in daily life and thus understanding the influences of walking speed on spinal loads in persons with LLA is of particular interest here. Three-dimensional trunk-pelvic kinematics, collected during level-ground walking at self-selected (SSW) and two controlled speeds (~1.0 and ~1.4 m/s), were obtained for seventy-eight ...


Predictive Simulations Of Gait And Their Application In Prosthesis Design, Anne D. Koelewijin Jan 2018

Predictive Simulations Of Gait And Their Application In Prosthesis Design, Anne D. Koelewijin

ETD Archive

Predictive simulations predict human gait by solving a trajectory optimization problem by minimizing energy expenditure. These simulations could predict the effect of a prosthesis on gait before its use. This dissertation has four aims, to show the application of predictive simulations in prosthesis design and to improve the quality of predictive simulations. Aim 1 was to explain joint moment asymmetry in the knee and hip in gait of persons with a transtibial amputation (TTA gait). Predictive simulations showed that an asymmetric gait required less effort. However, a small effort increase yielded a gait with increased joint moment symmetry and reduced ...


A Computational Investigation Of Patient Factors Contributing To Contact Stress Abnormalities In The Dysplastic Hip Joint, Holly Dominique Thomas Dec 2017

A Computational Investigation Of Patient Factors Contributing To Contact Stress Abnormalities In The Dysplastic Hip Joint, Holly Dominique Thomas

Theses and Dissertations

Acetabular dysplasia, a deformity characterized by the presence of a shallow acetabulum inadequately covering the femoral head, alters force transfer through a joint, causing early-onset hip pain and degeneration. Dysplasia is often treated surgically with a periacetabular osteotomy (PAO), which permits multiplanar acetabular reorientation to stabilize the joint and alleviate pain. PAO alters joint mechanics, including contact stress, which can be assessed via computational methods.

This work sought to enhance a discrete element analysis (DEA) model for assessment of the dysplastic hip. The primary focus was on understanding how the gait parameters used to load a DEA model affect the ...


Biplane Fluoroscopy For Hindfoot Motion Analysis During Gait: A Model-Based Evaluation, Janelle A. Cross, Ben Mchenry, Robert C. Molthen, Emily Exten, Taly Gilat-Schmidt, Gerald F. Harris May 2017

Biplane Fluoroscopy For Hindfoot Motion Analysis During Gait: A Model-Based Evaluation, Janelle A. Cross, Ben Mchenry, Robert C. Molthen, Emily Exten, Taly Gilat-Schmidt, Gerald F. Harris

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

The purpose of this study was to quantify the accuracy and precision of a biplane fluoroscopy system for model-based tracking of in vivo hindfoot motion during over-ground gait. Gait was simulated by manually manipulating a cadaver foot specimen through a biplane fluoroscopy system attached to a walkway. Three 1.6-mm diameter steel beads were implanted into the specimen to provide marker-based tracking measurements for comparison to model-based tracking. A CT scan was acquired to define a gold standard of implanted bead positions and to create 3D models for model-based tracking. Static and dynamic trials manipulating the specimen through the capture ...


Segmental Kinematic Analysis Of Planovalgus Feet During Walking In Children With Cerebral Palsy, Karen M. Kruger, Katherine A. Konop, Joseph Krzak, Adam Graf, Haluk Altiok, Peter A. Smith, Gerald F. Harris May 2017

Segmental Kinematic Analysis Of Planovalgus Feet During Walking In Children With Cerebral Palsy, Karen M. Kruger, Katherine A. Konop, Joseph Krzak, Adam Graf, Haluk Altiok, Peter A. Smith, Gerald F. Harris

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Pes planovalgus (flatfoot) is a common deformity among children with cerebral palsy. The Milwaukee Foot Model (MFM), a multi-segmental kinematic foot model, which uses radiography to align the underlying bony anatomy with reflective surface markers, was used to evaluate 20 pediatric participants (30 feet) with planovalgus secondary to cerebral palsy prior to surgery. Three-dimensional kinematics of the tibia, hindfoot, forefoot, and hallux segments are reported and compared to an age-matched control set of typically-developing children. Most results were consistent with known characteristics of the deformity and showed decreased plantar flexion of the forefoot relative to hindfoot, increased forefoot abduction, and ...


Altering A Runner’S Foot Strike Using A Modified Elliptical Trainer, Daniel Shull Jan 2017

Altering A Runner’S Foot Strike Using A Modified Elliptical Trainer, Daniel Shull

Theses and Dissertations

One possible solution to common running related injuries is to transition runners from a rearfoot strike during initial contact to a midfoot strike. Natural rearfoot strike runners were studied to see if a modified elliptical trainer could be used to alter their running pattern to that of a midfoot strike runner. Their results were compared to subjects who ran on a non-modified elliptical trainer. After training on the modified elliptical trainer, subjects demonstrated a decrease in foot angle at initial contact when attempting to run with a midfoot strike. Training did not affect all kinetic metrics or stride frequency. However ...


The Effects Of Obesity On Resultant Knee Joint Loads For Gait And Cycling, Juan Gutierrez-Franco Jun 2016

The Effects Of Obesity On Resultant Knee Joint Loads For Gait And Cycling, Juan Gutierrez-Franco

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease of cartilage and bone tissue and the most common form of arthritis, accounting for US$ 10.5 billion in hospital charges in 2006. Obesity (OB) has been linked to increased risk of developing knee OA due to increased knee joint loads and varus-valgus misalignment. Walking is recommended as a weight-loss activity but it may increase risk of knee OA as OB gait increases knee loads. Cycling has been proposed as an alternative weight-loss measure, however, lack of studies comparing normal weight (NW) and OB subjects in cycling and gait hinder identification of exercises that ...


An Investigation Of Kinetic Visual Biofeedback On Dynamic Stance Symmetry, Trisha J. Massenzo Jan 2016

An Investigation Of Kinetic Visual Biofeedback On Dynamic Stance Symmetry, Trisha J. Massenzo

Theses and Dissertations

The intent of the following research is to utilize task-specific, constraint-induced therapies and apply towards dynamic training for symmetrical balance. Modifications to an elliptical trainer were made to both measure weight distributions during dynamic stance as well as provide kinetic biofeedback through a man-machine interface. Following a review of the background, which includes research from several decades that are seminal to current studies, a design review is discussed to cover the design of the modified elliptical (Chapter 2).

An initial study was conducted in a healthy sample population in order to determine the best visual biofeedback representation by comparing different ...


Lpcoms: Towards A Low Power Wireless Smart-Shoe System For Gait Analysis In People With Disabilities, Ishmat Zerin Oct 2015

Lpcoms: Towards A Low Power Wireless Smart-Shoe System For Gait Analysis In People With Disabilities, Ishmat Zerin

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Gait analysis using smart sensor technology is an important medical diagnostic process and has many applications in rehabilitation, therapy and exercise training. In this thesis, we present a low power wireless smart-shoe system (LPcomS) to analyze different functional postures and characteristics of gait while walking. We have designed and implemented a smart-shoe with a Bluetooth communication module to unobtrusively collect data using smartphone in any environment. With the design of a shoe insole equipped with four pressure sensors, the foot pressure is been collected, and those data are used to obtain accurate gait pattern of a patient. With our proposed ...


Using Swing Resistance And Assistance To Improve Gait Symmetry In Individuals Post-Stroke, Sheng-Che Yen, Brian D. Schmit, Ming Wu Aug 2015

Using Swing Resistance And Assistance To Improve Gait Symmetry In Individuals Post-Stroke, Sheng-Che Yen, Brian D. Schmit, Ming Wu

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

A major characteristic of hemiplegic gait observed in individuals post-stroke is spatial and temporal asymmetry, which may increase energy expenditure and the risk of falls. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of swing resistance/assistance applied to the affected leg on gait symmetry in individuals post-stroke. We recruited 10 subjects with chronic stroke who demonstrated a shorter step length with their affected leg in comparison to the non-affected leg during walking. They participated in two test sessions for swing resistance and swing assistance, respectively. During the adaptation period, subjects counteracted the step length deviation caused by ...


Biplanar Fluoroscopic Analysis Of In Vivo Hindfoot Kinematics During Ambulation, Janelle Ann Cross Jul 2015

Biplanar Fluoroscopic Analysis Of In Vivo Hindfoot Kinematics During Ambulation, Janelle Ann Cross

Dissertations (2009 -)

The overall goal of this project was to develop and validate a biplanar fluoroscopic system and integrated software to assess hindfoot kinematics. Understanding the motion of the foot and ankle joints may lead to improved treatment methods in persons with foot and ankle pathologies. During gait analysis, skin markers are placed on the lower extremities, which are defined as four rigid-body segments with three joints representing the hip, knee and ankle. This method introduces gross assumptions on the foot and severely limits the analysis of in depth foot mechanics. Multi-segmental models have been developed, but are susceptible to skin motion ...


Kinematic Foot Types In Youth With Equinovarus Secondary To Hemiplegia, Joseph Krzak, Daniel M. Corcos, Diane L. Damiano, Adam Graf, Donald Hedeker, Peter A. Smith, Gerald F. Harris Jan 2015

Kinematic Foot Types In Youth With Equinovarus Secondary To Hemiplegia, Joseph Krzak, Daniel M. Corcos, Diane L. Damiano, Adam Graf, Donald Hedeker, Peter A. Smith, Gerald F. Harris

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Background

Elevated kinematic variability of the foot and ankle segments exists during gait among individuals with equinovarus secondary to hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP). Clinicians have previously addressed such variability by developing classification schemes to identify subgroups of individuals based on their kinematics.

Objective

To identify kinematic subgroups among youth with equinovarus secondary to CP using 3-dimensional multi-segment foot and ankle kinematics during locomotion as inputs for principal component analysis (PCA), and K-means cluster analysis.

Methods

In a single assessment session, multi-segment foot and ankle kinematics using the Milwaukee Foot Model (MFM) were collected in 24 children/adolescents with equinovarus ...


Robotic Resistance/Assistance Training Improves Locomotor Function In Individuals Poststroke: A Randomized Controlled Study, Ming Wu, Jill M. Landry, Janis Kim, Brian D. Schmit, Sheng-Che Yen, Jillian Macdonald May 2014

Robotic Resistance/Assistance Training Improves Locomotor Function In Individuals Poststroke: A Randomized Controlled Study, Ming Wu, Jill M. Landry, Janis Kim, Brian D. Schmit, Sheng-Che Yen, Jillian Macdonald

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Objective

To determine whether providing a controlled resistance versus assistance to the paretic leg at the ankle during treadmill training will improve walking function in individuals poststroke.

Design

Repeated assessment of the same patients with parallel design and randomized controlled study between 2 groups.

Setting

Research units of rehabilitation hospitals.

Participants

Patients (N=30) with chronic stroke.

Intervention

Subjects were stratified based on self-selected walking speed and were randomly assigned to the resistance or assistance training group. For the resistance group, a controlled resistance load was applied to the paretic leg at the ankle to resist leg swing during treadmill ...


Vicon Motion System, Arezoo Eshraghi Mar 2014

Vicon Motion System, Arezoo Eshraghi

AREZOO ESHRAGHI

No abstract provided.


Cv, Arezoo Eshraghi Feb 2014

Cv, Arezoo Eshraghi

AREZOO ESHRAGHI

No abstract provided.


P&O, Arezoo Eshraghi Dec 2013

P&O, Arezoo Eshraghi

AREZOO ESHRAGHI

No abstract provided.


Personal Navigation Via High-Resolution Gait-Corrected Inertial Measurement Units, Özkan Bebek, Michael A. Suster, Srihari Rajgopal, Michael J. Fu, Xuemei Huang, M. Cenk Çavu¸So˘Glu,, Darrin J. Young, Mehran Mehregany, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert, Carlos H. Mastrangelo Dec 2013

Personal Navigation Via High-Resolution Gait-Corrected Inertial Measurement Units, Özkan Bebek, Michael A. Suster, Srihari Rajgopal, Michael J. Fu, Xuemei Huang, M. Cenk Çavu¸So˘Glu,, Darrin J. Young, Mehran Mehregany, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert, Carlos H. Mastrangelo

Antonie J. van den Bogert

In this paper, a personal micronavigation system that uses high-resolution gait-corrected inertial measurement units is presented. The goal of this paper is to develop a navigation system that uses secondary inertial variables, such as velocity, to enable long-term precise navigation in the absence of Global Positioning System (GPS) and beacon signals. In this scheme, measured zerovelocity duration from the ground reaction sensors is used to reset the accumulated integration errors from accelerometers and gyroscopes in position calculation. With the described system, an average position error of 4 m is achieved at the end of half-hour walks.


Simulation Of Lower Limb Axial Arterial Length Change During Locomotion, Melissa D. Young, Matthew C. Streicher, Richard J. Beck, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert, Azita Tajaddini, Brian L. Davis Dec 2013

Simulation Of Lower Limb Axial Arterial Length Change During Locomotion, Melissa D. Young, Matthew C. Streicher, Richard J. Beck, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert, Azita Tajaddini, Brian L. Davis

Antonie J. van den Bogert

The effect of external forces on axial arterial wall mechanics has conventionally been regarded as secondary to hemodynamic influences. However, arteries are similar to muscles in terms of the manner in which they traverse joints, and their three-dimensional geometrical requirements for joint motion. This study considers axial arterial shortening and elongation due to motion of the lower extremity during gait, ascending stairs, and sitting-to-standing motion. Arterial length change was simulated by means of a graphics based anatomic and kinematic model of the lower extremity. This model estimated the axial shortening to be as much as 23% for the femoropopliteal arterial ...


Dynamic Balance Control During Treadmill Walking In Chronic Stroke Survivors, Eric Richard Walker Oct 2013

Dynamic Balance Control During Treadmill Walking In Chronic Stroke Survivors, Eric Richard Walker

Dissertations (2009 -)

Maintaining dynamic balance is an important component of walking function that is likely impaired in chronic stroke survivors, evidenced by an increased prevalence of falls. Dynamic balance control requires maintaining the center of mass (COM) within the base of support during movement. During walking, dynamic balance control is achieved largely by modifying foot placement to adjust the base of support. However, chronic stroke survivors have difficulty with both precision control of foot placement, as well as reduced control of COM movement. The objective of this dissertation was to characterize dynamic balance control strategies during walking in chronic stroke survivors. Additionally ...


Effect Of Tilt Sensor Versus Heel Loading On Neuroprosthesis Stimulation Reliability And Timing For Individuals Post-Stroke During Level And Non- Level Treadmill Walking, M. Barbara Silver-Thorn Oct 2013

Effect Of Tilt Sensor Versus Heel Loading On Neuroprosthesis Stimulation Reliability And Timing For Individuals Post-Stroke During Level And Non- Level Treadmill Walking, M. Barbara Silver-Thorn

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Study background: Non-level walking may adversely affect stimulation of neuroprostheses as initial programming is performed during level walking. The objectives of this study were to assess stimulation reliability of tilt and heel sensor-based neuroprosthesis stimulation during level and non-level walking, examine stimulation initiation and termination timing during level and non-level walking, and determine whether heel or tilt sensor-based stimulation control is more robust for non-level ambulation. Methods: Eight post-stroke individuals with drop foot who were able to actively ambulate within the community were selected for participation. Each subject acclimated to the neuroprosthesis and walked on a treadmill randomly positioned in ...


Hir Prosthetics Research Group Achievements: Road To Success, Arezoo Eshraghi May 2013

Hir Prosthetics Research Group Achievements: Road To Success, Arezoo Eshraghi

AREZOO ESHRAGHI

No abstract provided.


Magnetic Suspension System, Arezoo Eshraghi May 2013

Magnetic Suspension System, Arezoo Eshraghi

AREZOO ESHRAGHI

No abstract provided.


Iranian Elites, Arezoo Eshraghi Apr 2013

Iranian Elites, Arezoo Eshraghi

AREZOO ESHRAGHI

No abstract provided.


Induced Damping And Its Relationship To Beneficial Energy Harvesting In Dielectric Elastomers With Application To Walking, Heather L. Lai Jan 2013

Induced Damping And Its Relationship To Beneficial Energy Harvesting In Dielectric Elastomers With Application To Walking, Heather L. Lai

Wayne State University Dissertations

This dissertation presents a novel, interdisciplinary research which addresses the potential of applying soft polymeric materials to strategically harvest biomechanical energy in a beneficial manner for use as a viable, low power source for on-board electronics. Of particular interest are electroactive polymers (EAP), which unlike other types of electromechanical smart materials such as piezoelectric ceramics, which are often brittle, have low elastic modulus and can exhibit large strains without substantial stress generations. One type of EAP, the dielectric elastomer (DE), which utilizes electrostatic forces built up across the dielectric polymer to convert between electrical and mechanical energy, is employed in ...


O&P, Arezoo Eshraghi Oct 2012

O&P, Arezoo Eshraghi

AREZOO ESHRAGHI

No abstract provided.


Upper Limb Orthoses, Arezoo Eshraghi Oct 2012

Upper Limb Orthoses, Arezoo Eshraghi

AREZOO ESHRAGHI

No abstract provided.