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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

3-D Silk Fibroin Porous Particles Created By The Ouzo Effect For Biomedical Applications, Ashley Nicole Lamb May 2020

3-D Silk Fibroin Porous Particles Created By The Ouzo Effect For Biomedical Applications, Ashley Nicole Lamb

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Due to its high biocompatibility and biodegradability, silk fibroin – produced from

Bombyx mori (B. mori) cocoons – has been at the forefront of research for many

biomedical application formats: hydrogels, films, microspheres, and porous

sponges/scaffolding, to name a few. For drug delivery, in particular, porous particles are

desirable for their large surface area, uniform and tunable pore structure, and high

porosity. This thesis focuses on the fabrication of porous particles from silk fibroin by the

very interesting Ouzo effect. The Ouzo effect, so named because of the Greek

beverage ouzo, describes the phenomenon of an ethanol + anethole oil solution turning ...


Addressing Present Pitfalls In 3d Printing For Tissue Engineering To Enhance Future Potential, Jesse K. Placone, Bhushan Mahadik, John P. Fisher Feb 2020

Addressing Present Pitfalls In 3d Printing For Tissue Engineering To Enhance Future Potential, Jesse K. Placone, Bhushan Mahadik, John P. Fisher

Physics & Engineering

Additive manufacturing in tissue engineering has significantly advanced in acceptance and use to address complex problems. However, there are still limitations to the technologies used and potential challenges that need to be addressed by the community. In this manuscript, we describe how the field can be advanced not only through the development of new materials and techniques but also through the standardization of characterization, which in turn may impact the translation potential of the field as it matures. Furthermore, we discuss how education and outreach could be modified to ensure end-users have a better grasp on the benefits and limitations ...


Liver Cancer: Current And Future Trends Using Biomaterials, Sue Anne Chew, Stefania Moscato, Sachin George, Bahareh Azimi, Serena Danti Dec 2019

Liver Cancer: Current And Future Trends Using Biomaterials, Sue Anne Chew, Stefania Moscato, Sachin George, Bahareh Azimi, Serena Danti

Health and Biomedical Sciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common type of cancer diagnosed and the second leading cause of death worldwide. Despite advancement in current treatments for HCC, the prognosis for this cancer is still unfavorable. This comprehensive review article focuses on all the current technology that applies biomaterials to treat and study liver cancer, thus showing the versatility of biomaterials to be used as smart tools in this complex pathologic scenario. Specifically, after introducing the liver anatomy and pathology by focusing on the available treatments for HCC, this review summarizes the current biomaterial-based approaches for systemic delivery and implantable tools ...


The Co-Delivery Of Syngeneic Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells And Macrophages On Decellularized Adipose Tissue Bioscaffolds For In Vivo Soft Tissue Regeneration, Hisham A. Kamoun Dec 2019

The Co-Delivery Of Syngeneic Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells And Macrophages On Decellularized Adipose Tissue Bioscaffolds For In Vivo Soft Tissue Regeneration, Hisham A. Kamoun

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Decellularized adipose tissue (DAT) bioscaffolds are a promising platform for the delivery of pro-regenerative cell populations with the goal of promoting adipose tissue regeneration. The current study investigated the effects of seeding DAT bioscaffolds with syngeneic bone marrow-derived macrophages and/or adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) on in vivo soft tissue regeneration. Methods were established to derive the macrophages from MacGreen mice, which were dynamically seeded onto the DAT scaffolds alone or in combination with ASCs. Seeded and unseeded scaffolds were implanted subcutaneously into C57Bl/6 mice. At 2 and 4 weeks, cell infiltration, angiogenesis, and adipogenesis were analyzed through histology ...


Application Of Halloysite Nanotubes In Bone Disease Remediation And Bone Regeneration, Yangyang Luo Oct 2019

Application Of Halloysite Nanotubes In Bone Disease Remediation And Bone Regeneration, Yangyang Luo

Doctoral Dissertations

Customized patient therapy has been a major research focus in recent years. There are two research fields that have made a significant contribution to realizing individualized-based treatment: targeted drug delivery and three-dimensional (3D) printing technology. With benefit from the advances in nanotechnology and biomaterial science, various drug delivery systems have been established to provide precise control of therapeutic agents release in time and space. The emergence of three-dimensional (3D) printing technology enables the fabrication of complicated structures that effectively mimic native tissues and makes it possible to print patient-specific implants. My dissertation research used a clay nanoparticle, halloysite, to develop ...


Characterization Of Nano-Cellulose Based Composites For Biomedical Applications, Mitchell P. Chesley Aug 2019

Characterization Of Nano-Cellulose Based Composites For Biomedical Applications, Mitchell P. Chesley

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The number of orthopedic surgeries performed globally has steadily increased over the past decade due to the standardization of procedures as well as technological advancements. During this time orthopedic devices have been composed predominantly of metals, such as Titanium, Vanadium, Molybdenum, and Stainless steel, as well as their alloys, due to the high strength and durability of these materials. However, metals may, in fact, be suboptimal for orthopedic devices. For example, metals exhibit Young’s modulus much greater than the surrounding bone, inducing localized stress-shielding promoting cortical atrophy, which can lead to osteoporosis. In recent years polymers have been successfully ...


Design, Construction And Application Of A Home-Built, Two-Photon Microscope, William P. Breeding Aug 2019

Design, Construction And Application Of A Home-Built, Two-Photon Microscope, William P. Breeding

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Two-photon microscopy (TPM) is a powerful, versatile imaging modality for the study of biological systems. This thesis overviews the relevant physics involved in TPM, design considerations and process of constructing a home-built, two-photon microscope, and provides a set of procedures to operate the system. Furthermore, this work explores several applications of TPM through the study of single-cell metabolism and imaging the cellular-material interface. Explored in particular depth was the imaging of cellulose nanofiber (CNF) materials, with the goal of understanding the three-dimensional nature of fibroblast cell growth when embedded within the materials. This work uncovered several optical properties of CNF ...


Investigation Of The Effect Of Age On Regenerative Outcomes Following Treatment Of Volumetric Muscle Loss Injuries, John Taehwan Kim Aug 2019

Investigation Of The Effect Of Age On Regenerative Outcomes Following Treatment Of Volumetric Muscle Loss Injuries, John Taehwan Kim

Theses and Dissertations

Volumetric muscle loss (VML) is a traumatic injury in skeletal muscle resulting in the bulk loss of more than 20% of the muscle’s volume. Included in the bulk loss of muscle is the skeletal muscle niche comprised of nerve bundles, vasculature, local progenitor cells, basal lamina, and muscle fibers, overwhelming innate repair mechanisms. The hallmark of VML injury is the excessive accumulation of non-contractile, fibrotic tissue and permanent functional deficits. Though predominant in the younger demographic, the elderly population is also captured within VML injuries. There are many factors that change with aging in skeletal muscle that may further ...


Two And Three-Dimensional Models For Material And Cells Interaction, Nam H. Nguyen May 2019

Two And Three-Dimensional Models For Material And Cells Interaction, Nam H. Nguyen

Doctoral Dissertations

Three-dimensional (3D) cell spheroid model has been long considered a better model to mimic in vivo physiology compared to two-dimensional (2D) cell culture model. Traditional 2D cell models provide a simple, convenient and quick technique for drug screening but fail to simulate the complexity and heterogeneity of cells in the in vivo environment. The last few decades have remarked substantial progress toward the advancement of three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures as systems which better mimic cellcell and cell-matrix interaction in the in vivo physiology. Nowadays, 3D cell models have been emerging, not only as an important approach in drug discovery and ...


Improved Orthopaedic Repairs Through Mechanically Optimized, Adhesive Biomaterials, Stephen Wheeler Linderman May 2019

Improved Orthopaedic Repairs Through Mechanically Optimized, Adhesive Biomaterials, Stephen Wheeler Linderman

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Despite countless surgical advances over the last several decades refining surgical approaches, repair techniques, and tools to treat tendon and tendon-to-bone injuries, we are still left with repair solutions that rely on fairly crude underlying mechanical principles. Musculoskeletal soft tissues have evolved to transfer high loads by optimizing stress distribution profiles across the tissue at each length scale. However, instead of mimicking these natural load transfer mechanisms, conventional suture approaches are limited by high load transfer across only a small number of anchor points within tissue. This leads to stress concentrations at anchor points that often cause repair failure as ...


3d Microfibrous Scaffolds Selectively Promotes Proliferation And Glial Differentiation Of Adult Neural Stem Cells: A Platform To Tune Cellular Behavior In Neural Tissue Engineering, Bhavika B. Patel, Farrokh Sharifi, Daniel P. Stroud, Reza Montazami, Nicole N. Hashemi, Donald S. Sakaguchi Feb 2019

3d Microfibrous Scaffolds Selectively Promotes Proliferation And Glial Differentiation Of Adult Neural Stem Cells: A Platform To Tune Cellular Behavior In Neural Tissue Engineering, Bhavika B. Patel, Farrokh Sharifi, Daniel P. Stroud, Reza Montazami, Nicole N. Hashemi, Donald S. Sakaguchi

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Biomaterials are essential for the development of innovative biomedical and therapeutic applications. Biomaterials‐based scaffolds can influence directed cell differentiation to improve cell‐based strategies. Using a novel microfluidics approach, poly (ε‐caprolactone) (PCL), is used to fabricate microfibers with varying diameters (3–40 µm) and topographies (straight and wavy). Multipotent adult rat hippocampal stem/progenitor cells (AHPCs) are cultured on 3D aligned PCL microfibrous scaffolds to investigate their ability to differentiate into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. The results indicate that the PCL microfibers significantly enhance proliferation of the AHPCs compared to control, 2D planar substrates. While the AHPCs maintained ...


Characterization Of In-Vivo Damage In Implantable Cardiac Devices And The Lead Residual Properties, Anmar Mahdi Salih Jan 2019

Characterization Of In-Vivo Damage In Implantable Cardiac Devices And The Lead Residual Properties, Anmar Mahdi Salih

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

Approximately, 92.1 million patients in the US suffer from cardiovascular diseases with an estimated healthcare cost of over $300 billion; out of which at least one million patients have Cardiac Implantable Electronics Devices (CIED). CIED represented by pacemakers, Implantable Cardioversion Defibrillator (ICD), and Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT) are exposed to in-vivo damage. These damages are complex and composed on multiple levels and present challenges while assessing their combined extent. Since 2004, more than one hundred recalls were reported for cardiac devices. ICD devices had the majority with 40.8% recalls, pacemaker recall percentage was 14.5%, CRT recall percentage ...


Biodegradable And Biocompatible Silk Fibroin For Optical Applications, Corey Bryce Malinowski Dec 2018

Biodegradable And Biocompatible Silk Fibroin For Optical Applications, Corey Bryce Malinowski

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

This study presents nanopatterned silk fibroin films that were fabricated using soft lithography and nanoimprinting to replicate patterns from diffraction gratings. These film’s optics were analyzed based on their light scattering potential as well as their transmittance and transmission haze using a laser light, spectrometer, and UV-Vis spectrophotometer, respectively. The patterned fibroin films all displayed similar light scattering patterns to their master patterns with some transmission haze. When using the spectrometer to measure samples, those made without any nanostructure displayed transmission of 90% and over, while those with patterns depended on the structure used. The denser a structure, like ...


Towards An In Vitro Model Of Testing Osteoblast Cellular Towards An In Vitro Model Of Testing Osteoblast Cellular Function In Contact With Various Surfaces, Raheleh Miralami Dec 2018

Towards An In Vitro Model Of Testing Osteoblast Cellular Towards An In Vitro Model Of Testing Osteoblast Cellular Function In Contact With Various Surfaces, Raheleh Miralami

Theses & Dissertations

Past studies have shown that the success of total joint replacements depends on the biocompatibility of orthopaedic materials, which can be improved by modifying the implant surface. However, the exact roles of these modifications and their effective mechanisms are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a model system to investigate the impact of nano-structured surfaces, produced by the ion beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) technique, on biomarkers of osteointegration using an in vitro model. The IBAD technique was employed to deposit zirconium oxide (ZrO2), Titanium oxide (TiO2), and Titanium (Ti) nano-films on glass or ...


Biophysical Features Of The Extracellular Matrix Direct Breast Cancer Metastasis, Alyssa Schwartz Nov 2018

Biophysical Features Of The Extracellular Matrix Direct Breast Cancer Metastasis, Alyssa Schwartz

Doctoral Dissertations

Breast cancer is plagued by two key clinical challenges; drug resistance and metastasis. Most work to date probes these events on an extremely rigid plastic surface, which recapitulates few aspects of these processes in humans. A malignant cell first resides in breast tissue, then likely travels to the bone, brain, liver, or lung, each of which has a distinct mechanical and biochemical profile. Cells transmit mechanical forces into intracellular tension and biochemical signaling events, and here we hypothesize that this mechanotransduction influences drug response, growth, and migration.

To probe the impact of extracellular matrix on drug resistance, we defined a ...


Fabrication And Evaluation Of Poly(Lactic Acid), Chitosan, And Tricalcium Phosphate Biocomposites For Guided Bone Regeneration, Srikanthan Ramesh, Lisa Lungaro, Dimitrios Tsikritsis, Eric Weflen, Iris V. Rivero Aug 2018

Fabrication And Evaluation Of Poly(Lactic Acid), Chitosan, And Tricalcium Phosphate Biocomposites For Guided Bone Regeneration, Srikanthan Ramesh, Lisa Lungaro, Dimitrios Tsikritsis, Eric Weflen, Iris V. Rivero

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Publications

This study presents and evaluates an approach for fabricating poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/chitosan (CS)/tricalcium phosphate (TCP) electrospun scaffolds for guided bone regeneration, a dental procedure that uses membranes to direct and delineate regions of osteogenesis. Biomaterials were pre‐processed using cryomilling, a solid‐state grinding technique that facilitates the generation of powdered biocomposites conducive to electrospinning. X‐ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the generation of cryomilled blends consisting of PLA, CS, and TCP. Results from the differential scanning calorimetry showed an upward shift in glass transition temperature and an increase in crystallinity with the inclusion of TCP reinforcing the ...


Determining The Effect Of Locally Delivered Bioactive Modulators On Macrophage Activation At The Implantation Site Of Different Biomaterials In Rats, Kamel Alkhatib Aug 2018

Determining The Effect Of Locally Delivered Bioactive Modulators On Macrophage Activation At The Implantation Site Of Different Biomaterials In Rats, Kamel Alkhatib

Theses and Dissertations

Altering the foreign body reaction by targeting macrophages has been of interest in the biomaterials field to improve the integration of longevity of implanted biomedical devices. The objective of this dissertation was to study the effect of locally delivered bioactive modulators on macrophage activation at the implantation site of different biomaterials in rats. Iloprost, a prostacyclin analog, was tested for its ability to direct macrophages to their pro-wound healing phenotype after the implantation of microdialysis probe in the subcutaneous space of male Sprague Dawley rats. This study showed that iloprost can shift macrophage activation states in vivo to the pro-wound ...


Advances In Controlling Differentiation Of Adult Stem Cells For Peripheral Nerve Regeneration, Metin Uz, Suprem R. Das, Shaowei Ding, Donald S. Sakaguchi, Jonathan C. Claussen, Surya Mallapragada Jul 2018

Advances In Controlling Differentiation Of Adult Stem Cells For Peripheral Nerve Regeneration, Metin Uz, Suprem R. Das, Shaowei Ding, Donald S. Sakaguchi, Jonathan C. Claussen, Surya Mallapragada

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Adult stems cells, possessing the ability to grow, migrate, proliferate, and transdifferentiate into various specific phenotypes including, neuronal or glial cell types, constitute a great asset for biomedical applications involving peripheral nerve regeneration. Adult stem cell plasticity, in particular their ability to undergo transdifferentiation, is sensitive to various cellto- cell interactions and external stimuli involving the interactions with physical, mechanical and chemical cues within their microenvironment. Various studies have employed different techniques for transdifferentiating adult stem cells from distinct sources into specific lineages (e.g., glial cells and neurons). These techniques include using chemical and/or electrical induction as well ...


Recent Approaches In Designing Bioadhesive Materials Inspired By Mussel Adhesive Protein, Pegah Kord Forooshani, Bruce P. Lee Mar 2018

Recent Approaches In Designing Bioadhesive Materials Inspired By Mussel Adhesive Protein, Pegah Kord Forooshani, Bruce P. Lee

Bruce Lee

Marine mussels secret protein-based adhesives, which enable them to anchor to various surfaces in a saline, intertidal zone. Mussel foot proteins (Mfps) contain a large abundance of a unique, catecholic amino acid, Dopa, in their protein sequences. Catechol offers robust and durable adhe-sion to various substrate surfaces and contributes to the curing of the adhesive plaques. In this article, we review the unique features and the key functionalities of Mfps, catechol chemistry, and strategies for preparing catechol-functionalized poly- mers. Specifically, we reviewed recent findings on the contributions of various features of Mfps on interfacial binding, which include coacervate formation, surface ...


Decellularized Matrices Effect On The Adaptive Immune Response, Kegan Sowers Jan 2018

Decellularized Matrices Effect On The Adaptive Immune Response, Kegan Sowers

Theses and Dissertations

Decellularized extracellular matrices have been a growing area of interest in the biomedical engineering fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.As these materials move toward clinical applications, the immune response to these materials will be a driving force toward their success in clinical approaches. Fully digested decellularized matrix constructs derived from porcine liver, muscle and lung were created to test the adaptive immune response. Hydrogel characterization ensured that the materials had relatively similar stiffness levels to reduce variability, and in vitro studies were conducted. Each individual construct as well as a gelatin control were plated with a co-culture of ...


The Efficacy Of Bionate As An Articulating Surface For Joint Hemiarthroplasty, Sarah Dedecker Dec 2016

The Efficacy Of Bionate As An Articulating Surface For Joint Hemiarthroplasty, Sarah Dedecker

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Hemiarthroplasty procedures replace the diseased side of the joint with an implant to maximize bone preservation while maintaining more native anatomy than a total joint replacement. Even though hemiarthroplasty procedures have been clinically successful, they cause progressive cartilage damage over time due to the use of relatively stiff metallic implant materials. This work investigates the role of low moduli implant material on implant-cartilage contact mechanics and early in vitro cartilage wear. A finite element simulation was developed to assess the effect of low moduli implants in the range of 0.015-0.288 GPa on contact mechanics. Higher contact area and ...


Recent Approaches In Designing Bioadhesive Materials Inspired By Mussel Adhesive Protein, Pegah Kord Forooshani, Bruce P. Lee Oct 2016

Recent Approaches In Designing Bioadhesive Materials Inspired By Mussel Adhesive Protein, Pegah Kord Forooshani, Bruce P. Lee

Department of Biomedical Engineering Publications

Marine mussels secret protein-based adhesives, which enable them to anchor to various surfaces in a saline, intertidal zone. Mussel foot proteins (Mfps) contain a large abundance of a unique, catecholic amino acid, Dopa, in their protein sequences. Catechol offers robust and durable adhe-sion to various substrate surfaces and contributes to the curing of the adhesive plaques. In this article, we review the unique features and the key functionalities of Mfps, catechol chemistry, and strategies for preparing catechol-functionalized poly- mers. Specifically, we reviewed recent findings on the contributions of various features of Mfps on interfacial binding, which include coacervate formation, surface ...


Alginate Hydrogels As Three-Dimensional Scaffolds For In Vitro Culture Models Of Growth Plate Cartilage Development And Porcine Embryo Elongation, Taylor D. Laughlin Jul 2016

Alginate Hydrogels As Three-Dimensional Scaffolds For In Vitro Culture Models Of Growth Plate Cartilage Development And Porcine Embryo Elongation, Taylor D. Laughlin

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

The establishment of in vitro culture models utilizes tissue engineering principles to design functional mimics of in vivo environments in vitro. Advantages for the use of in vitro culture models include ethical alleviation of animal models for therapeutic testing, cost efficiency, and a greater ability to study specific mechanisms via a systematic, ground-up approach to development. In this thesis, alginate hydrogels are utilized in the development of in vitro culture models of porcine embryo elongation and growth plate cartilage development. First, the effect of scaffold and modifications to the scaffold were explored in both projects. In order to modulate cell-scaffold ...


Enabling Studies To Optimize Biomaterials For The Treatment Of Myocardial Infarction, Eva Adriana Romito Jun 2016

Enabling Studies To Optimize Biomaterials For The Treatment Of Myocardial Infarction, Eva Adriana Romito

Theses and Dissertations

The canonical mechanism of wound healing is disrupted following a myocardial infarction (MI), manifesting as an unregulated response that negatively impacts left ventricular (LV) function. This mechanism, termed post-MI remodeling, culminates in an outcome that favors progression to a systolic heart failure state and death for the patient. Therapeutic approaches following the occurrence of a MI are designed to modulate the natural remodeling process and mitigate the loss of cardiac function. The mechanics and structure of the healing infarct have been the focus of numerous pre-clinical and clinical investigations, leading to the impending clinical introduction of material injections as a ...


Calcium Phosphate As A Key Material For Socially Responsible Tissue Engineering, Vuk Uskoković, Victoria M. Wu Jun 2016

Calcium Phosphate As A Key Material For Socially Responsible Tissue Engineering, Vuk Uskoković, Victoria M. Wu

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Socially responsible technologies are designed while taking into consideration the socioeconomic, geopolitical and environmental limitations of regions in which they will be implemented. In the medical context, this involves making therapeutic platforms more accessible and affordable to patients in poor regions of the world wherein a given disease is endemic. This often necessitates going against the reigning trend of making therapeutic nanoparticles ever more structurally complex and expensive. However, studies aimed at simplifying materials and formulations while maintaining the functionality and therapeutic response of their more complex counterparts seldom provoke a significant interest in the scientific community. In this review ...


Elastin Like Polypeptides As Drug Delivery Vehicles In Regenerative Medicine Applications, Alex Leonard Mar 2016

Elastin Like Polypeptides As Drug Delivery Vehicles In Regenerative Medicine Applications, Alex Leonard

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Elastin like polypeptides (ELPs) are a class of naturally derived biomaterials that are non-immunogenic, genetically encodable, and biocompatible making them ideal for a variety of biomedical applications, ranging from drug delivery to tissue engineering. Also, ELPs undergo temperature-mediated inverse phase transitioning, which allows them to be purified in a relatively simple manner from bacterial expression hosts. Being able to genetically encode ELPs allows for the incorporation of bioactive peptides and functionalization of ELPs. This work utilizes ELPs for regenerative medicine and drug delivery.

The goal of the first study was to synthesize a biologically active epidermal growth factor-ELP (EGF-ELP) fusion ...


Bioactive Poly(Beta-Amino Ester) Biomaterials For Treatment Of Infection And Oxidative Stress, Andrew L. Lakes Jan 2016

Bioactive Poly(Beta-Amino Ester) Biomaterials For Treatment Of Infection And Oxidative Stress, Andrew L. Lakes

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Polymers have deep roots as drug delivery tools, and are widely used in clinical to private settings. Currently, however, numerous traditional therapies exist which may be improved through use of polymeric biomaterials. Through our work with infectious and oxidative stress disease prevention and treatment, we aimed to develop application driven, enhanced therapies utilizing new classes of polymers synthesized in-house. Applying biodegradable poly(β-amino ester) (PBAE) polymers, covalent-addition of bioactive substrates to these PBAEs avoided certain pitfalls of free-loaded and non-degradable drug delivery systems. Further, through variation of polymer ingredients and conditions, we were able to tune degradation rates, release profiles ...


Effect Of Hemiarthroplasty Implant Contact Geometry And Material On Early Cartilage Wear, Alana Khayat Sep 2015

Effect Of Hemiarthroplasty Implant Contact Geometry And Material On Early Cartilage Wear, Alana Khayat

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Hemiarthroplasty is a minimally invasive, cost-effective alternative to total arthroplasty in joints of the upper limb. Though these procedures reduce patient morbidity while restoring joint kinematics, their longevity is limited by wear of the adjacent cartilage. This work investigates the roles of contact geometry and implant stiffness on cartilage wear with the aim of elucidating the mechanics that contribute to cartilage damage. An in vitro study examined the influence of implant geometry on cartilage wear using a pin-on-plate wear simulator. A significant decrease in volumetric wear was observed as contact area increased, which suggests that maximizing contact area should be ...


Harnessing Notch Signaling For Biomaterial Scaffold-Based Bone Regeneration, Helena P. Lysandrou, Chunhui Jiang, Naagarajan Narayanan, Shihuan Kuang, Meng Deng Aug 2015

Harnessing Notch Signaling For Biomaterial Scaffold-Based Bone Regeneration, Helena P. Lysandrou, Chunhui Jiang, Naagarajan Narayanan, Shihuan Kuang, Meng Deng

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Bone fracture has recently become prevalent, especially with an increasingly aging population. Current bone grafts procedures, including autografts and allografts, are hindered by multiple factors, such as limited supplies and inconsistent bone healing. Scaffold-based bone tissue engineering emerges as a prospective strategy to aid in bone regeneration through delivery of growth factors such as bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs). However, the use of BMPs suffers from several drawbacks such as protein instability and immunogenicity. Therefore, there exists a great need for the development of novel therapies to promote bone healing. Notch signaling, a pathway critical for cell-fate determination has been shown ...


Biodegradable Nano-Hybrid Polymer Composite Networks For Regulating Cellular Behavior, Charles Henley Sprague Aug 2015

Biodegradable Nano-Hybrid Polymer Composite Networks For Regulating Cellular Behavior, Charles Henley Sprague

Masters Theses

Photo-crosslinkable polymeric biomaterials have emerged in the field of biomedical research to promote tissue regeneration. For example, scaffolds that can be crosslinked and hardened in situ have been known to make suitable implant alternatives. Since injectable and photo-crosslinkable biomaterials offer the advantage of being minimally invasive, they have emerged to compete with autografts, a current highly invasive method to repair diseased tissue. A series of novel photo-crosslinkable, injectable, and biodegradable nano-hybrid polymers consisting of poly(ε-caprolactone fumarate) (PCLF) and polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) has been synthesized in our laboratory via polycondensation. To engineer the material properties of the nano-hybrid networks ...