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Articles 1 - 30 of 66

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

A Model-Based Approach For Estimation Of Changes In Lumbar Segmental Kinematics Associated With Alterations In Trunk Muscle Forces, Iman Shojaei, Navid Arjmand, Judith R. Meakin, Babak Bazrgari Mar 2018

A Model-Based Approach For Estimation Of Changes In Lumbar Segmental Kinematics Associated With Alterations In Trunk Muscle Forces, Iman Shojaei, Navid Arjmand, Judith R. Meakin, Babak Bazrgari

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications

The kinematics information from imaging, if combined with optimization-based biomechanical models, may provide a unique platform for personalized assessment of trunk muscle forces (TMFs). Such a method, however, is feasible only if differences in lumbar spine kinematics due to differences in TMFs can be captured by the current imaging techniques. A finite element model of the spine within an optimization procedure was used to estimate segmental kinematics of lumbar spine associated with five different sets of TMFs. Each set of TMFs was associated with a hypothetical trunk neuromuscular strategy that optimized one aspect of lower back biomechanics. For each set ...


Walking Speed Differentially Alters Spinal Loads In Persons With Traumatic Lower Limb Amputation, Brad D. Hendershot, Iman Shojaei, Julian C. Acasio, Christopher L. Dearth, Babak Bazrgari Mar 2018

Walking Speed Differentially Alters Spinal Loads In Persons With Traumatic Lower Limb Amputation, Brad D. Hendershot, Iman Shojaei, Julian C. Acasio, Christopher L. Dearth, Babak Bazrgari

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications

Persons with lower limb amputation (LLA) perceive altered motions of the trunk/pelvis during activities of daily living as contributing factors for low back pain. When walking (at a singular speed), larger trunk motions among persons with vs. without LLA are associated with larger spinal loads; however, modulating walking speed is necessary in daily life and thus understanding the influences of walking speed on spinal loads in persons with LLA is of particular interest here. Three-dimensional trunk-pelvic kinematics, collected during level-ground walking at self-selected (SSW) and two controlled speeds (~1.0 and ~1.4 m/s), were obtained for seventy-eight ...


Mechanical Demands On The Lower Back In Patients With Non-Chronic Low Back Pain During A Symmetric Lowering And Lifting Task, Iman Shojaei, Elizabeth G. Salt, Quenten L. Hooker, Babak Bazrgari Mar 2018

Mechanical Demands On The Lower Back In Patients With Non-Chronic Low Back Pain During A Symmetric Lowering And Lifting Task, Iman Shojaei, Elizabeth G. Salt, Quenten L. Hooker, Babak Bazrgari

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications

There is limited information in the literature related to the lower back loading in patients with LBP, particularly those with non-chronic LBP. Toward addressing such a research gap, a case-control study was conducted to explore the differences in lower back mechanical loads between a group of females (n=19) with non-chronic, non-specific LBP and a group of asymptomatic females (n=19). The differences in lower back mechanical loads were determined when participants completed one symmetric lowering and lifting of a 4.5 kg load at their preferred cadence. The axial, shearing, and moment components of task demand at the time ...


White Matter Hyperintensity Associations With Cerebral Blood Flow In Elderly Subjects Stratified By Cerebrovascular Risk, Ahmed A. Bahrani, David K. Powell, Guoqiang Yu, Eleanor S. Johnson, Gregory A. Jicha, Charles D. Smith Apr 2017

White Matter Hyperintensity Associations With Cerebral Blood Flow In Elderly Subjects Stratified By Cerebrovascular Risk, Ahmed A. Bahrani, David K. Powell, Guoqiang Yu, Eleanor S. Johnson, Gregory A. Jicha, Charles D. Smith

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications

Objective: This study aims to add clarity to the relationship between deep and periventricular brain white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and cerebrovascular risk in older persons. Methods: Deep white matter hyperintensity (dWMH) and periventricular white matter hyperintensity (pWMH) and regional gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) blood flow from arterial spin labeling were quantified from magnetic resonance imaging scans of 26 cognitively normal elderly subjects stratified by cerebrovascular disease (CVD) risk. Fluidattenuated inversion recovery images were acquired using a high-resolution 3-dimensional (3-D) sequence that reduced partial volume effects seen with slicebased techniques. Results: dWMHs but not ...


Using A Respiratory Navigator Significantly Reduces Variability When Quantifying Left Ventricular Torsion With Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, Sean M. Hamlet, Christopher M. Haggerty, Jonathan D. Suever, Gregory J. Wehner, Kristin N. Andres, David K. Powell, Richard J. Charnigo, Brandon K. Fornwalt Mar 2017

Using A Respiratory Navigator Significantly Reduces Variability When Quantifying Left Ventricular Torsion With Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, Sean M. Hamlet, Christopher M. Haggerty, Jonathan D. Suever, Gregory J. Wehner, Kristin N. Andres, David K. Powell, Richard J. Charnigo, Brandon K. Fornwalt

Electrical and Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

Background: Left ventricular (LV) torsion is an important indicator of cardiac function that is limited by high inter-test variability (50% of the mean value). We hypothesized that this high inter-test variability is partly due to inconsistent breath-hold positions during serial image acquisitions, which could be significantly improved by using a respiratory navigator for cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) based quantification of LV torsion.

Methods: We assessed respiratory-related variability in measured LV torsion with two distinct experimental protocols. First, 17 volunteers were recruited for CMR with cine displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE) in which a respiratory navigator was used to measure ...


Timing And Magnitude Of Lumbar Spine Contribution To Trunk Forward Bending And Backward Return In Patients With Acute Low Back Pain, Iman Shojaei, Milad Vazirian, Elizabeth G. Salt, Linda R. Van Dillen, Babak Bazrgari Feb 2017

Timing And Magnitude Of Lumbar Spine Contribution To Trunk Forward Bending And Backward Return In Patients With Acute Low Back Pain, Iman Shojaei, Milad Vazirian, Elizabeth G. Salt, Linda R. Van Dillen, Babak Bazrgari

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications

Alterations in the lumbo-pelvic coordination denote changes in neuromuscular control of trunk motion as well as load sharing between passive and active tissues in the lower back. Differences in timing and magnitude aspects of lumbo-pelvic coordination between patients with chronic low back pain (LBP) and asymptomatic individuals have been reported; yet, the literature on lumbo-pelvic coordination in patients with acute LBP is scant. A case-control study was conducted to explore the differences in timing and magnitude aspects of lumbo-pelvic coordination between females with (n=19) and without (n=19) acute LBP. Participants in each group completed one experimental session wherein ...


Comparison Of Lumbo-Pelvic Kinematics During Trunk Forward Bending And Backward Return Between Patients With Acute Low Back Pain And Asymptomatic Controls, Iman Shojaei, Elizabeth G. Salt, Quenten L. Hooker, Linda R. Van Dillen, Babak Bazrgari Jan 2017

Comparison Of Lumbo-Pelvic Kinematics During Trunk Forward Bending And Backward Return Between Patients With Acute Low Back Pain And Asymptomatic Controls, Iman Shojaei, Elizabeth G. Salt, Quenten L. Hooker, Linda R. Van Dillen, Babak Bazrgari

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications

Background—Prior studies have reported differences in lumbo-pelvic kinematics during a trunk forward bending and backward return task between individuals with and without chronic low back pain; yet, the literature on lumbo-pelvic kinematics of patients with acute low back pain is scant. Therefore, the purpose of this study was set to investigate lumbo-pelvic kinematics in this cohort.

Methods—A case-control study was conducted to investigate the differences in pelvic and thoracic rotation along with lumbar flexion as well as their first and second time derivatives between females with and without acute low back pain. Participants in each group completed one ...


Mri Signal Intensity Differentiation Of Brainstem Encephalitis Induced By Enterovirus 71: A Classification Approach For Acute And Convalescence Stages, Hongwu Zeng, Wenxian Huang, Feiqiu Wen, Yonker Wang, Yungen Gan, Weibin Zeng, Ranran Chen, Yanxia He, Zaiyi Liu, Changhong Liang, Kelvin K. L. Wong Feb 2016

Mri Signal Intensity Differentiation Of Brainstem Encephalitis Induced By Enterovirus 71: A Classification Approach For Acute And Convalescence Stages, Hongwu Zeng, Wenxian Huang, Feiqiu Wen, Yonker Wang, Yungen Gan, Weibin Zeng, Ranran Chen, Yanxia He, Zaiyi Liu, Changhong Liang, Kelvin K. L. Wong

Radiology Faculty Publications

Background: The objective of this study is to assess standardized histograms of signal intensities of T1 signal and T2 signal on sagittal view without enhancement during (1) acute stage, and (2) convalescence stage of pediatric patients with Enterovirus 71 related brainstem encephalitis (BE), and with respect to (3) healthy normal.

Methods: Our subjects were hospitalized between March 2010 and October 2012, and underwent pre- and post-contrast MRI studies. The research question to be answered is whether the comparison of the MRI image intensity histograms and relevant statistical quantification can add new knowledge to the diagnosis of BE patients. So, both ...


Spatio-Temporal Progression Of Cortical Activity Related To Continuous Overt And Covert Speech Production In A Reading Task, Jonathan S. Brumberg, Dean J. Krusienski, Shreya Chakrabarti, Aysegul Gunduz, Peter Brunner, Anthony L. Ritaccio, Gerwin Schalk Jan 2016

Spatio-Temporal Progression Of Cortical Activity Related To Continuous Overt And Covert Speech Production In A Reading Task, Jonathan S. Brumberg, Dean J. Krusienski, Shreya Chakrabarti, Aysegul Gunduz, Peter Brunner, Anthony L. Ritaccio, Gerwin Schalk

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

How the human brain plans, executes, and monitors continuous and fluent speech has remained largely elusive. For example, previous research has defined the cortical locations most important for different aspects of speech function, but has not yet yielded a definition of the temporal progression of involvement of those locations as speech progresses either overtly or covertly. In this paper, we uncovered the spatio-temporal evolution of neuronal population-level activity related to continuous overt speech, and identified those locations that shared activity characteristics across overt and covert speech. Specifically, we asked subjects to repeat continuous sentences aloud or silently while we recorded ...


Noncontact Diffuse Correlation Tomography Of Human Breast Tumor, Lian He, Yu Lin, Chong Huang, Daniel Irwin, Margaret M. Szabunio, Guoqiang Yu Aug 2015

Noncontact Diffuse Correlation Tomography Of Human Breast Tumor, Lian He, Yu Lin, Chong Huang, Daniel Irwin, Margaret M. Szabunio, Guoqiang Yu

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications

Our first step to adapt our recently developed noncontact diffuse correlation tomography (ncDCT) system for three-dimensional (3-D) imaging of blood flow distribution in human breast tumors is reported. A commercial 3-D camera was used to obtain breast surface geometry, which was then converted to a solid volume mesh. An ncDCT probe scanned over a region of interest on the mesh surface and the measured boundary data were combined with a finite element framework for 3-D image reconstruction of blood flow distribution. This technique was tested in computer simulations and in vivo human breasts with low-grade carcinoma. Results from computer simulations ...


3d Thoracoscopic Ultrasound Volume Measurement Validation In An Ex Vivo And In Vivo Porcine Model Of Lung Tumours, V. Hornblower, E. Yu, A. Fenster, J. Battista, R. Malthaner Jul 2015

3d Thoracoscopic Ultrasound Volume Measurement Validation In An Ex Vivo And In Vivo Porcine Model Of Lung Tumours, V. Hornblower, E. Yu, A. Fenster, J. Battista, R. Malthaner

Richard A. Malthaner

The purpose of this study was to validate the accuracy and reliability of volume measurements obtained using three-dimensional (3D) thoracoscopic ultrasound (US) imaging. Artificial "tumours" were created by injecting a liquid agar mixture into spherical moulds of known volume. Once solidified, the "tumours" were implanted into the lung tissue in both a porcine lung sample ex vivo and a surgical porcine model in vivo. 3D US images were created by mechanically rotating the thoracoscopic ultrasound probe about its long axis while the transducer was maintained in close contact with the tissue. Volume measurements were made by one observer using the ...


3d Thoracoscopic Ultrasound Volume Measurement Validation In An Ex Vivo And In Vivo Porcine Model Of Lung Tumours, V. Hornblower, E. Yu, A. Fenster, J. Battista, R. Malthaner Jul 2015

3d Thoracoscopic Ultrasound Volume Measurement Validation In An Ex Vivo And In Vivo Porcine Model Of Lung Tumours, V. Hornblower, E. Yu, A. Fenster, J. Battista, R. Malthaner

Richard A. Malthaner

The purpose of this study was to validate the accuracy and reliability of volume measurements obtained using three-dimensional (3D) thoracoscopic ultrasound (US) imaging. Artificial "tumours" were created by injecting a liquid agar mixture into spherical moulds of known volume. Once solidified, the "tumours" were implanted into the lung tissue in both a porcine lung sample ex vivo and a surgical porcine model in vivo. 3D US images were created by mechanically rotating the thoracoscopic ultrasound probe about its long axis while the transducer was maintained in close contact with the tissue. Volume measurements were made by one observer using the ...


Effects Of Individualized Centrifugation Training On Orthostatic Tolerance In Men And Women, Nandu Goswami, Joyce Evans, Stefan Schneider, Melanie Von Der Wiesche, Edwin Mulder, Andreas Rössler, Helmut Hinghofer-Szalkay, Andrew P. Blaber May 2015

Effects Of Individualized Centrifugation Training On Orthostatic Tolerance In Men And Women, Nandu Goswami, Joyce Evans, Stefan Schneider, Melanie Von Der Wiesche, Edwin Mulder, Andreas Rössler, Helmut Hinghofer-Szalkay, Andrew P. Blaber

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications

AIMS: Exposure to artificial gravity (AG) at different G loads and durations on human centrifuges has been shown to improve orthostatic tolerance in men. However, the effects on women and of an individual-specific AG training protocol on tolerance are not known.

METHODS: We examined the effects of 90 minutes of AG vs. 90 minutes of supine rest on the orthostatic tolerance limit (OTL), using head up tilt and lower body negative pressure until presyncope of 7 men and 5 women. Subjects were placed in the centrifuge nacelle while instrumented and after one-hour they underwent either: 1) AG exposure (90 minutes ...


A Pneumatically Actuated Manipulandum For Neuromotor Control Research, Aaron J Suminski, Kristina Ropella, Robert Scheidt Mar 2015

A Pneumatically Actuated Manipulandum For Neuromotor Control Research, Aaron J Suminski, Kristina Ropella, Robert Scheidt

Robert Scheidt

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques have great potential for identifying which neural structures are involved in the control of goal-directed reaching movements. However, fMRI techniques alone are not capable of probing the neural mechanisms involved in acquisition of novel motor behaviors because such studies require that the moving limb be perturbed in a controlled fashion. We outline a plan to design and develop a non-metallic, pneumatically actuated tool that, along with systems identification techniques and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), will characterize and quantify how the human central nervous system uses sensory information during practice-based motor learning.


Visual Error Augmentation For Enhancing Motor Learning And Rehabilitative Relearning, Yejun Wei, Preeti Bajaj, Robert A. Scheidt, James L. Patton Mar 2015

Visual Error Augmentation For Enhancing Motor Learning And Rehabilitative Relearning, Yejun Wei, Preeti Bajaj, Robert A. Scheidt, James L. Patton

Robert Scheidt

We developed a real-time controller for a 2 degree-of-freedom robotic system using xPC Target. This system was used to investigate how different methods of performance error feedback can lead to faster and more complete motor learning in individuals asked to compensate for a novel visuo-motor transformation (a 30 degree rotation). Four groups of normal human subjects were asked to reach with their unseen arm to visual targets surrounding a central starting location. A cursor tracking hand motion was provided during each reach. For one group of subjects, deviations from the "ideal" compensatory hand movement (i.e. trajectory errors) were amplified ...


A Low-Field P-31 Nmr Spectrometer To Measure Bone Mineral In The Human Wrist, Joseph Battocletti, Thomas Meyers, Robert Scheidt Mar 2015

A Low-Field P-31 Nmr Spectrometer To Measure Bone Mineral In The Human Wrist, Joseph Battocletti, Thomas Meyers, Robert Scheidt

Robert Scheidt

Nuclear magnetic resonance phosphorus spectroscopy (NMRS) is a method of measuring the mineral content of bone as a diagnostic tool for osteoporosis. A description is given of the design and construction of a low-field spectrometer for the human wrist. It uses a small-size permanent magnet of neodymium-iron-boron. The questions of whether a low-field spectrometer is sensitive enough to measure the phosphorus mineral content of bone and to what extent the phosphorus in soft tissue affects the measurement of bone mass are discussed


Microscale Magnetic Field Modulation For Enhanced Capture And Distribution Of Rare Circulating Tumor Cells, Peng Chen, Yu-Yen Huang, Kazunori Hoshino, John X.J Zhang Mar 2015

Microscale Magnetic Field Modulation For Enhanced Capture And Distribution Of Rare Circulating Tumor Cells, Peng Chen, Yu-Yen Huang, Kazunori Hoshino, John X.J Zhang

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Immunomagnetic assay combines the powers of the magnetic separation and biomarker recognition and has been an effective tool to perform rare Circulating Tumor Cells detection. Key factors associated with immunomagnetic assay include the capture rate, which indicates the sensitivity of the system, and distributions of target cells after capture, which impact the cell integrity and other biological properties that are critical to downstream analyses. Here we present a theoretical framework and technical approach to implement a microscale magnetic immunoassay through modulating local magnetic field towards enhanced capture and distribution of rare cancer cells. Through the design of a two-dimensional micromagnet ...


Interface Stress In Socket/Residual Limb With Transtibial Prosthetic Suspension Systems During Locomotion On Slopes And Stairs Jan 2015

Interface Stress In Socket/Residual Limb With Transtibial Prosthetic Suspension Systems During Locomotion On Slopes And Stairs

Faculty of Engineering University of Malaya

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the effects of different suspension methods on the interface stress inside the prosthetic sockets of transtibial amputees when negotiating ramps and stairs. DESIGN: Three transtibial prostheses, with a pin/lock system, a Seal-In system, and a magnetic suspension system, were created for the participants in a prospective study. Interface stress was measured as the peak pressure by using the F-socket transducers during stairs and ramp negotiation. RESULTS: Twelve individuals with transtibial amputation managed to complete the experiments. During the stair ascent and descent, the greatest peak pressure was observed in the prosthesis with the ...


Magnetic Resonance Imaging And Histology Correlation In The Neocortex In Temporal Lobe Epilepsy., Maged Goubran, Robert R Hammond, Sandrine De Ribaupierre, Jorge G Burneo, Seyed Mirsattari, David A Steven, Andrew G Parrent, Terry M Peters, Ali R Khan Jan 2015

Magnetic Resonance Imaging And Histology Correlation In The Neocortex In Temporal Lobe Epilepsy., Maged Goubran, Robert R Hammond, Sandrine De Ribaupierre, Jorge G Burneo, Seyed Mirsattari, David A Steven, Andrew G Parrent, Terry M Peters, Ali R Khan

Robarts Imaging Publications

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the histopathological correlates of quantitative relaxometry and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and to determine their efficacy in epileptogenic lesion detection for preoperative evaluation of focal epilepsy.

METHODS: We correlated quantitative relaxometry and DTI with histological features of neuronal density and morphology in 55 regions of the temporal lobe neocortex, selected from 13 patients who underwent epilepsy surgery. We made use of a validated nonrigid image registration protocol to obtain accurate correspondences between in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and histology images.

RESULTS: We found T1 to be a predictor of neuronal density in the neocortical gray matter (GM ...


In Vivo Mri Signatures Of Hippocampal Subfield Pathology In Intractable Epilepsy., Maged Goubran, Boris C Bernhardt, Diego Cantor-Rivera, Jonathan C Lau, Charlotte Blinston, Robert R Hammond, Sandrine De Ribaupierre, Jorge G Burneo, Seyed M Mirsattari, David A Steven, Andrew G Parrent, Andrea Bernasconi, Neda Bernasconi, Terry M Peters, Ali R Khan Jan 2015

In Vivo Mri Signatures Of Hippocampal Subfield Pathology In Intractable Epilepsy., Maged Goubran, Boris C Bernhardt, Diego Cantor-Rivera, Jonathan C Lau, Charlotte Blinston, Robert R Hammond, Sandrine De Ribaupierre, Jorge G Burneo, Seyed M Mirsattari, David A Steven, Andrew G Parrent, Andrea Bernasconi, Neda Bernasconi, Terry M Peters, Ali R Khan

Robarts Imaging Publications

OBJECTIVES: Our aim is to assess the subfield-specific histopathological correlates of hippocampal volume and intensity changes (T1, T2) as well as diff!usion MRI markers in TLE, and investigate the efficacy of quantitative MRI measures in predicting histopathology in vivo.

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We correlated in vivo volumetry, T2 signal, quantitative T1 mapping, as well as diffusion MRI parameters with histological features of hippocampal sclerosis in a subfield-specific manner. We made use of on an advanced co-registration pipeline that provided a seamless integration of preoperative 3 T MRI with postoperative histopathological data, on which metrics of cell loss and gliosis were ...


Registration Of In-Vivo To Ex-Vivo Mri Of Surgically Resected Specimens: A Pipeline For Histology To In-Vivo Registration., Maged Goubran, Sandrine De Ribaupierre, Robert R Hammond, Catherine Currie, Jorge G Burneo, Andrew G Parrent, Terry M Peters, Ali R Khan Jan 2015

Registration Of In-Vivo To Ex-Vivo Mri Of Surgically Resected Specimens: A Pipeline For Histology To In-Vivo Registration., Maged Goubran, Sandrine De Ribaupierre, Robert R Hammond, Catherine Currie, Jorge G Burneo, Andrew G Parrent, Terry M Peters, Ali R Khan

Robarts Imaging Publications

BACKGROUND: Advances in MRI have the potential to improve surgical treatment of epilepsy through improved identification and delineation of lesions. However, validation is currently needed to investigate histopathological correlates of these new imaging techniques. The purpose of this work is to develop and evaluate a protocol for deformable image registration of in-vivo to ex-vivo resected brain specimen MRI. This protocol, in conjunction with our previous work on ex-vivo to histology registration, completes a registration pipeline for histology to in-vivo MRI, enabling voxel-based validation of novel and existing MRI techniques with histopathology.

NEW METHOD: A combination of image-based and landmark-based 3D ...


Quantitative Relaxometry And Diffusion Mri For Lateralization In Mts And Non-Mts Temporal Lobe Epilepsy., Ali R Khan, Maged Goubran, Sandrine De Ribaupierre, Robert R Hammond, Jorge G Burneo, Andrew G Parrent, Terry M Peters Mar 2014

Quantitative Relaxometry And Diffusion Mri For Lateralization In Mts And Non-Mts Temporal Lobe Epilepsy., Ali R Khan, Maged Goubran, Sandrine De Ribaupierre, Robert R Hammond, Jorge G Burneo, Andrew G Parrent, Terry M Peters

Robarts Imaging Publications

We developed novel methodology for investigating the use of quantitative relaxometry (T1 and T2) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for lateralization in temporal lobe epilepsy. Patients with mesial temporal sclerosis confirmed by pathology (N=8) and non-MTS unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy (N=6) were compared against healthy controls (N=19) using voxel-based analysis restricted to the anterior temporal lobes, and laterality indices for each MRI metric (T1, T2, fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity, axial and radial diffusivities) were computed based on the proportion of significant voxels on each side. The diffusivity metrics were the most lateralizing MRI metrics in MTS ...


An Imaging-Based Platform For High-Content, Quantitative Evaluation Of Therapeutic Response In 3d Tumour Models, Jonathan P. Celli, Imran Rizvi, Adam R. Blanden, Iqbal Massodi, Iqbal Massodi, Michael D. Glidden, Brian Pogue, Tayyaba Hasan Jan 2014

An Imaging-Based Platform For High-Content, Quantitative Evaluation Of Therapeutic Response In 3d Tumour Models, Jonathan P. Celli, Imran Rizvi, Adam R. Blanden, Iqbal Massodi, Iqbal Massodi, Michael D. Glidden, Brian Pogue, Tayyaba Hasan

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

While it is increasingly recognized that three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models recapitulate drug responses of human cancers with more fidelity than monolayer cultures, a lack of quantitative analysis methods limit their implementation for reliable and routine assessment of emerging therapies. Here, we introduce an approach based on computational analysis of fluorescence image data to provide high-content readouts of dose-dependent cytotoxicity, growth inhibition, treatment-induced architectural changes and size-dependent response in 3D tumour models. We demonstrate this approach in adherent 3D ovarian and pancreatic multiwell extracellular matrix tumour overlays subjected to a panel of clinically relevant cytotoxic modalities and appropriately designed controls ...


Stationary Wavelet Transform For Under-Sampled Mri Reconstruction., Mohammad H Kayvanrad, A Jonathan Mcleod, John S H Baxter, Charles A Mckenzie, Terry M Peters Jan 2014

Stationary Wavelet Transform For Under-Sampled Mri Reconstruction., Mohammad H Kayvanrad, A Jonathan Mcleod, John S H Baxter, Charles A Mckenzie, Terry M Peters

Robarts Imaging Publications

In addition to coil sensitivity data (parallel imaging), sparsity constraints are often used as an additional lp-penalty for under-sampled MRI reconstruction (compressed sensing). Penalizing the traditional decimated wavelet transform (DWT) coefficients, however, results in visual pseudo-Gibbs artifacts, some of which are attributed to the lack of translation invariance of the wavelet basis. We show that these artifacts can be greatly reduced by penalizing the translation-invariant stationary wavelet transform (SWT) coefficients. This holds with various additional reconstruction constraints, including coil sensitivity profiles and total variation. Additionally, SWT reconstructions result in lower error values and faster convergence compared to DWT. These concepts ...


Detection Of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Using Support Vector Machines In Multi-Parametric Quantitative Mr Imaging., Diego Cantor-Rivera, Ali R Khan, Maged Goubran, Seyed M Mirsattari, Terry M Peters Jan 2014

Detection Of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Using Support Vector Machines In Multi-Parametric Quantitative Mr Imaging., Diego Cantor-Rivera, Ali R Khan, Maged Goubran, Seyed M Mirsattari, Terry M Peters

Robarts Imaging Publications

The detection of MRI abnormalities that can be associated to seizures in the study of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a challenging task. In many cases, patients with a record of epileptic activity do not present any discernible MRI findings. In this domain, we propose a method that combines quantitative relaxometry and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with support vector machines (SVM) aiming to improve TLE detection. The main contribution of this work is two-fold: on one hand, the feature selection process, principal component analysis (PCA) transformations of the feature space, and SVM parameterization are analyzed as factors constituting a classification ...


Interactions Of Peptide Triazole Thiols With Env Gp120 Induce Irreversible Breakdown And Inactivation Of Hiv-1 Virions, Arangassery Bastian, Mark Contarino, Lauren D. Bailey, Rachna Aneja, Diogo Rodrigo Magalhaes Moreira, Kevin Freedman, Karyn Mcfadden, Caitlin Duffy, Ali Emileh Dec 2013

Interactions Of Peptide Triazole Thiols With Env Gp120 Induce Irreversible Breakdown And Inactivation Of Hiv-1 Virions, Arangassery Bastian, Mark Contarino, Lauren D. Bailey, Rachna Aneja, Diogo Rodrigo Magalhaes Moreira, Kevin Freedman, Karyn Mcfadden, Caitlin Duffy, Ali Emileh

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Background: We examined the underlying mechanism of action of the peptide triazole thiol, KR13 that has been shown previously to specifically bind gp120, block cell receptor site interactions and potently inhibit HIV-1 infectivity.

Results: KR13, the sulfhydryl blocked KR13b and its parent non-sulfhydryl peptide triazole, HNG156, induced gp120 shedding but only KR13 induced p24 capsid protein release. The resulting virion post virolysis had an altered morphology, contained no gp120, but retained gp41 that bound to neutralizing gp41 antibodies. Remarkably, HIV-1 p24 release by KR13 was inhibited by enfuvirtide, which blocks formation of the gp41 6-helix bundle during membrane fusion, while ...


Image Registration Of Ex-Vivo Mri To Sparsely Sectioned Histology Of Hippocampal And Neocortical Temporal Lobe Specimens., Maged Goubran, Cathie Crukley, Sandrine De Ribaupierre, Terence M Peters, Ali R Khan Dec 2013

Image Registration Of Ex-Vivo Mri To Sparsely Sectioned Histology Of Hippocampal And Neocortical Temporal Lobe Specimens., Maged Goubran, Cathie Crukley, Sandrine De Ribaupierre, Terence M Peters, Ali R Khan

Robarts Imaging Publications

Intractable or drug-resistant epilepsy occurs in up to 30% of epilepsy patients, with many of these patients undergoing surgical excision of the affected brain region to achieve seizure control. Recent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences and analysis techniques have the potential to detect abnormalities not identified with diagnostic MRI protocols. Prospective studies involving pre-operative imaging and collection of surgically-resected tissue provide a unique opportunity for verification and tuning of these image analysis techniques, since direct comparison can be made against histopathology, and can lead to better prediction of surgical outcomes and potentially less invasive procedures. To carry out MRI and ...


Dopaminergic Modulation Of Memory And Affective Processing In Parkinson Depression, Lee X. Blonder, John T. Slevin, Richard J. Kryscio, Catherine A. Martin, Anders H. Andersen, Charles D Smith, Frederick A. Schmitt Nov 2013

Dopaminergic Modulation Of Memory And Affective Processing In Parkinson Depression, Lee X. Blonder, John T. Slevin, Richard J. Kryscio, Catherine A. Martin, Anders H. Andersen, Charles D Smith, Frederick A. Schmitt

Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy Center Faculty Publications

Depression is common in Parkinson's disease and is associated with cognitive impairment. Dopaminergic medications are effective in treating the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease; however, little is known regarding the effects of dopaminergic pharmacotherapy on cognitive function in depressed Parkinson patients. This study examines the neuropsychological effects of dopaminergic pharmacotherapy in Parkinsonian depression. We compared cognitive function in depressed and non-depressed Parkinson patients at two time-points: following overnight withdrawal and after the usual morning regimen of dopaminergic medications. A total of 28 non-demented, right-handed patients with mild to moderate idiopathic Parkinson's disease participated. Ten of these patients ...


Simultaneous Measurement Of Deep Tissue Blood Flow And Oxygenation Using Noncontact Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy Flow-Oximeter, Ting Li, Yu Lin, Yu Shang, Lian He, Chong Huang, Margaret M. Szabunio, Guoqiang Yu Feb 2013

Simultaneous Measurement Of Deep Tissue Blood Flow And Oxygenation Using Noncontact Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy Flow-Oximeter, Ting Li, Yu Lin, Yu Shang, Lian He, Chong Huang, Margaret M. Szabunio, Guoqiang Yu

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications

We report a novel noncontact diffuse correlation spectroscopy flow-oximeter for simultaneous quantification of relative changes in tissue blood flow (rBF) and oxygenation (Δ[oxygenation]). The noncontact probe was compared against a contact probe in tissue-like phantoms and forearm muscles (n = 10), and the dynamic trends in both rBF and Δ[oxygenation] were found to be highly correlated. However, the magnitudes of Δ[oxygenation] measured by the two probes were significantly different. Monte Carlo simulations and phantom experiments revealed that the arm curvature resulted in a significant underestimation (~-20%) for the noncontact measurements in Δ[oxygenation], but not in rBF. Other ...


Scanning In Situ Spectroscopy Pplatform For Imaging Surgical Breast Tissue Specimens, Venkataramanan Krishnaswamy, Ashley M. Laughney, Wendy A. Wells, Keith D. Paulsen, Brian W. Pogue Jan 2013

Scanning In Situ Spectroscopy Pplatform For Imaging Surgical Breast Tissue Specimens, Venkataramanan Krishnaswamy, Ashley M. Laughney, Wendy A. Wells, Keith D. Paulsen, Brian W. Pogue

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

A non-contact localized spectroscopic imaging platform has been developed and optimized to scan 1 x 1 cm² square regions of surgically resected breast tissue specimens with ~150-micron resolution. A color corrected, image-space telecentric scanning design maintained a consistent sampling geometry and uniform spot size across the entire imaging field. Theoretical modeling in ZEMAX allowed estimation of the spot size, which is equal at both the center and extreme positions of the field with ~5% variation across the designed waveband, indicating excellent color correction. The spot sizes at the center and an extreme field position were also measured experimentally using the ...