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2011

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Articles 1 - 30 of 473

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Enhanced Microbial Utilization Of Recalcitrant Cellulose By An Ex Vivo Cellulosome-Microbe Complex, Chun You, Xiao-Zhou Zhang, Noppadon Sathitsuksanoh, Lee R. Lynd Dec 2011

Enhanced Microbial Utilization Of Recalcitrant Cellulose By An Ex Vivo Cellulosome-Microbe Complex, Chun You, Xiao-Zhou Zhang, Noppadon Sathitsuksanoh, Lee R. Lynd

Open Dartmouth: Published works by Dartmouth faculty

A cellulosome-microbe complex was assembled ex vivo on the surface of Bacillus subtilis displaying a miniscaffoldin that can bind with three dockerin-containing cellulase components: the endoglucanase Cel5, the processive endoglucanase Cel9, and the cellobiohydrolase Cel48. The hydrolysis performances of the synthetic cellulosome bound to living cells, the synthetic cellulosome, a noncomplexed cellulase mixture with the same catalytic components, and a commercial fungal enzyme mixture were investigated on low-accessibility recalcitrant Avicel and high accessibility regenerated amorphous cellulose (RAC). The cellbound cellulosome exhibited 4.5- and 2.3-fold-higher hydrolysis ability than cell-free cellulosome on Avicel and RAC, respectively. The cellulosome-microbe synergy was ...


A Review Of Baobab (Adansonia Digitata) Products: Effect Of Processing Techniques, Medicinal Properties And Uses, Donatien Kabore, Hagrétou Sawadogo-Lingani, Bréhima Diawara, Clarise Compaoré, Mamoudou H. Dicko Prof., Mogens Jacobsen Dec 2011

A Review Of Baobab (Adansonia Digitata) Products: Effect Of Processing Techniques, Medicinal Properties And Uses, Donatien Kabore, Hagrétou Sawadogo-Lingani, Bréhima Diawara, Clarise Compaoré, Mamoudou H. Dicko Prof., Mogens Jacobsen

Pr. Mamoudou H. DICKO, PhD

A general literature review including the effect of processing techniques, medicinal value and uses of baobab tree is reported in this manuscript. Baobab tree has multi-purpose uses, as it produces food and non-food products such as medicines, fuel, timber, fodder. Every part of the baobab tree is reported to be useful. The seeds, leaves, roots, flowers, fruit pulp and bark of baobab are edible. Baobab leaves are used in the preparation of soup. Seeds are used as a thickening agent in soups, but they can be fermented and used as a flavouring agent or roasted and eaten as snacks. The ...


Computer-Aided, Multi-Modal, And Compression Diffuse Optical Studies Of Breast Tissue, David R. Busch Jr Dec 2011

Computer-Aided, Multi-Modal, And Compression Diffuse Optical Studies Of Breast Tissue, David R. Busch Jr

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Diffuse Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy permit measurement of important physiological parameters non-invasively through ~10 cm of tissue. I have applied these techniques in measurements of human breast and breast cancer. My thesis integrates three loosely connected themes in this context: multi-modal breast cancer imaging, automated data analysis of breast cancer images, and microvascular hemodynamics of breast under compression. As per the first theme, I describe construction, testing, and the initial clinical usage of two generations of imaging systems for simultaneous diffuse optical and magnetic resonance imaging. The second project develops a statistical analysis of optical breast data from many spatial ...


Enhancing Meniscus Repair Through Biomaterial Design, Lara Ionescu Silverman Dec 2011

Enhancing Meniscus Repair Through Biomaterial Design, Lara Ionescu Silverman

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The knee meniscus is prone to damage, which leads to pain and inhibits mobility in the joint long term. Due to the minimal vascularity, low cellularity and large mechanical forces imparted on the meniscus with normal use, endogenous repair is limited. Resection of the damaged region of the tissue (meniscectomy) remains the most common treatment for a torn meniscus, but this procedure results in cartilage degradation and other adverse changes in the knee joint. Given the prevalence of meniscus damage, there is thus a pressing need for novel approaches to meniscus repair. To address this issue, this thesis developed in ...


Optimization And Translation Of Msc-Based Hyaluronic Acid Hydrogels For Cartilage Repair, Isaac E. Erickson Dec 2011

Optimization And Translation Of Msc-Based Hyaluronic Acid Hydrogels For Cartilage Repair, Isaac E. Erickson

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Traumatic injury and disease disrupt the ability of cartilage to carry joint stresses and, without an innate regenerative response, often lead to degenerative changes towards the premature development of osteoarthritis. Surgical interventions have yet to restore long-term mechanical function. Towards this end, tissue engineering has been explored for the de novo formation of engineered cartilage as a biologic approach to cartilage repair. Research utilizing autologous chondrocytes has been promising, but clinical limitations in their yield have motivated research into the potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as an alternative cell source. MSCs are multipotent cells that can differentiate towards a ...


Schwann Cell Proliferation And Macrophage Infiltration Are Evident At Day 14 After Painful Cervical Nerve Root Compression In The Rat, Yu-Wen Chang, Beth A. Winkelstein Dec 2011

Schwann Cell Proliferation And Macrophage Infiltration Are Evident At Day 14 After Painful Cervical Nerve Root Compression In The Rat, Yu-Wen Chang, Beth A. Winkelstein

Departmental Papers (BE)

Although it is known that different types of nerve root insults can produce radicular pain, it is not known whether the neuronal and Schwann cell pathologies in the nerve root vary between inflammation-induced nerve root injury and traumatic compression. This study examined the extent of Wallerian degeneration and associated cellular repair processes in the nerve root in the context of mechanical hyperalgesia resulting from different modes of painful nerve root injury. The C7 dorsal nerve root underwent a transient 10 gram-force compression (10g), inflammation-induced irritation by chromic gut exposure (Cg), or a combination of those stimuli (10g + Cg). Fourteen days ...


Aptamer Functionalized Microcantilever Sensors For Cocaine Detection, Kyungho Kang, Ashish Sachan, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton, Pranav Shrotriya Dec 2011

Aptamer Functionalized Microcantilever Sensors For Cocaine Detection, Kyungho Kang, Ashish Sachan, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton, Pranav Shrotriya

Mechanical Engineering Publications

A cocaine-specific aptamer was used as a receptor molecule in a microcantilever-based surface stress sensor for detection of cocaine molecules. An interferometric technique that relies on measuring differential displacement between two microcantilevers (a sensing/reference pair) was utilized to measure the cocaine/aptamer binding induced surface stress changes. Sensing experiments were performed for different concentrations of cocaine from 25 to 500 μM in order to determine the sensor response as a function of cocaine concentration. In the lower concentration range from 25 to 100 μM, surface stress values increased proportionally to coverage of aptamer/cocaine complexes from 11 to 26 ...


Effect Of Extracellular Matrix (Ecm) Protein Micropatterns On The Behavior Of Human Neuroblastoma Cells, Ishwari Poudel Dec 2011

Effect Of Extracellular Matrix (Ecm) Protein Micropatterns On The Behavior Of Human Neuroblastoma Cells, Ishwari Poudel

Engineering Mechanics Dissertations & Theses

Recent advances in patterning techniques and emerging surface microtechnologies have allowed cell micropatterning to control spatial location of the cells on a surface as well as cell shape, attachment area, and number of contacting neighbor cells. These parameters play important roles in cell cellular behaviors. Cell micropatterning has thus become one of the most important strategies for biomedical applications, such as, tissue engineering, diagnostic immunoassays, lab-on-chip devices, bio-sensing, etc., and cell biology studies as well. For neuronal cells, there have been attempts to distribute neuronal cells on specific patterns to control cell-to-cell interaction. However, there have been very limited understanding ...


A Novel Telecommunications-Based Approach To Mathematical Modeling Of Hiv Infection, Aaron T. Sharp Dec 2011

A Novel Telecommunications-Based Approach To Mathematical Modeling Of Hiv Infection, Aaron T. Sharp

Theses, Dissertations, & Student Research in Computer Electronics & Engineering

It is well known that biological systems utilize communication in some form, one prolific example of this is the propagation of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) in the human body. By modeling HIV infection as a communication system, we hope to gain a unique insight into HIV and biological communication systems in general. Such a model would provide researchers a platform for experimenting and simulating various biological communication systems. We have previously developed a layered communication protocol for interpreting biological communication systems using telecommunications paradigms and will apply said model to HIV proliferation. We will also demonstrate the effectiveness of the ...


The Economics And Logistics Of The Dual Harvest Of Grain And Biomass In A Single-Pass, Matthew T. Wold Dec 2011

The Economics And Logistics Of The Dual Harvest Of Grain And Biomass In A Single-Pass, Matthew T. Wold

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Significant interest has developed in using cellulosic resources, especially crop residues, to create biofuels. Collecting these residues in a single-pass of the harvester across the field has the potential to be a low cost option. Two models have been developed; the first characterizes the in-field logistics of single-pass crop residue collection, the second the economics. These models allow the user to easily examine a wide variety of both grain-only and single-pass residue collection harvest cases. A variety of possible residue collection cases have been examined, and their effects both on harvester field capacity and harvest cost compared to grain-only harvest ...


Studies On Power Hop Using A Nonlinear Model Of An Agricultural Tractor, Adam B. Flaugh Dec 2011

Studies On Power Hop Using A Nonlinear Model Of An Agricultural Tractor, Adam B. Flaugh

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Power hop is an unstable dynamic phenomenon that is observed on agricultural tractors operating at field working speeds under typical draft loads. This dynamic instability can be identified as a bounce motion preceded by an increasing oscillation in either the pitch or bounce modes. A definite and comprehensive correction or prevention strategy for the control of power hop does not exist. In this work a linear and a nonlinear model of an agricultural tractor were developed. The method of multiple time scales has been employed in the analysis of the nonlinear model. Numerical results have been obtained using Mathematica to ...


Indication Specific Treatment Modalities For Spinal Disorders - A Comprehensive Biomechanical Investigation, Aditya Vikas Ingalhalikar Dec 2011

Indication Specific Treatment Modalities For Spinal Disorders - A Comprehensive Biomechanical Investigation, Aditya Vikas Ingalhalikar

Theses and Dissertations

The cause and best treatment option for mechanical low back pain due to disc degeneration remains unsolved, despite `spinal fusion' being the gold standard of surgical treatment, post conservative care, for a very long time. However, the potential drawbacks of spinal fusion and the ongoing evolution in the understanding of normal and symptomatic spine biomechanics, biology and mechanobiology in conjunction with the advancements in material sciences, and tissue engineering has led to a change in the clinical perspective towards treatment methodologies for spinal disorders. Clinically, a gradual shift in philosophy is being observed from a `one size fits all', i ...


Interfacial Force Field Parameterization Using The Dual Force Field Charmm Program For The Accurate Simulation Of Peptide-Surface Interaction, Nadeem Vellore Dec 2011

Interfacial Force Field Parameterization Using The Dual Force Field Charmm Program For The Accurate Simulation Of Peptide-Surface Interaction, Nadeem Vellore

All Dissertations

Protein adsorption to solid material surfaces is a complex phenomenon and various factors play a role in controlling these processes. Inherent limitations to understand these biological interactions using experimental approaches alone have led to the possibility of exploring these systems using computational molecular simulation methodologies. Before confidence can be placed on these computational protocols, however, rigorous validation of the applicability of these methods to accurately represent protein adsorption processes is needed. In this research, we evaluated the use of all-atom empirical force field (FF) based simulations using the CHARMM simulation program and FF for the study of peptide adsorption processes ...


Characterizing Mechanical Heterogeneity In Cardiovascular Cells, Sandra Deitch Dec 2011

Characterizing Mechanical Heterogeneity In Cardiovascular Cells, Sandra Deitch

All Dissertations

Most tissue-level mechanical models assume homogeneous mechanical properties within a single cell type. However, measurements of cellular mechanical properties show large variability in whole-cell mechanical properties between cells from a single population. This heterogeneity has been observed in many cell populations and with several measurement techniques but the sources are not yet fully understood. Cell mechanical properties are directly related to the composition and organization of the cytoskeleton, which is physically coupled to neighboring cells through adherens junctions and to underlying matrix scaffolds through focal adhesion complexes. As such, we believe that this high level of heterogeneity can be attributed ...


Field-Controlled Electron Transfer And Reaction Kinetics Of The Biological Catalytic System Of Microperoxidase-11 And Hydrogen Peroxide, Yongki Chou, Siu-Tung Yau Dec 2011

Field-Controlled Electron Transfer And Reaction Kinetics Of The Biological Catalytic System Of Microperoxidase-11 And Hydrogen Peroxide, Yongki Chou, Siu-Tung Yau

Electrical Engineering & Computer Science Faculty Publications

Controlled reaction kinetics of the bio-catalytic system of microperoxidase-11 and hydrogen peroxide has been achieved using an electrostatic technique. The technique allowed independent control of 1) the thermodynamics of the system using electrochemical setup and 2) the quantum mechanical tunneling at the interface between microperoxidase-11 and the working electrode by applying a gating voltage to the electrode. The cathodic currents of electrodes immobilized with microperoxidase-11 showed a dependence on the gating voltage in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, indicating a controllable reduction reaction. The measured kinetic parameters of the bio-catalytic reduction showed nonlinear dependences on the gating voltage as the ...


Strider, George Cummings, Brian Kreidle, Ricky Lee, Clark Steen Dec 2011

Strider, George Cummings, Brian Kreidle, Ricky Lee, Clark Steen

Mechanical Engineering

No abstract provided.


Design And Fabrication Of Nanofluidic Systems For Biomolecule Characterizations, Orain Ansel Hibbert Dec 2011

Design And Fabrication Of Nanofluidic Systems For Biomolecule Characterizations, Orain Ansel Hibbert

Theses and Dissertations

Nanofluidic channel systems were designed and fabricated by combining MEMS microfabrication with AFM nanolithography. In the fabrication process flow, photolithography was first utilized to pattern microfluidic channels and reservoirs on a 4" Pyrex substrate. Subsequently, atomic force microscopy (AFM) based nanolithography was used to mechanically fabricate nanochannels to connect the microreservoirs which formed the inlet and outlet of the nanofluidic system. A Tap190 Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC) AFM tip with a force constant of 48 N/m and a radius of less than 15 nm was used as the nanolithography tool. The resultant nanochannel ranges from 20 to 80 µm in ...


Truthmarker: A Tablet-Based Approach For Rapid Image Annotation, Mark Allen Christopher Dec 2011

Truthmarker: A Tablet-Based Approach For Rapid Image Annotation, Mark Allen Christopher

Theses and Dissertations

The development of automated techniques for the analysis of image data is an important and active area of research. To make progress, this research requires annotations of image data to build and validate models used for analysis. Given this requirement, the development of software tools that streamline the collection of annotations would be of great benefit to image analysis researchers. Such tools should meet the following requirements: rapid generation of annotations for large data sets, annotation and data management that is straightforward for users, flexibility for application to many diverse image datasets, configurability to allow the collection of annotations to ...


A Computational Investigation For Potential Improvements, Angela Grujicic Dec 2011

A Computational Investigation For Potential Improvements, Angela Grujicic

All Theses

Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), colloquially known as a concussion, is the most common injury in modern wars. This domination of mTBI is hypothesized to be due to a combination of unconventional explosives and better protection and care of the patients, increasing survivability. While the majority of the body is covered in armor, the head is left relatively unprotected. The current Advanced Combat Helmet (ACH) has been designed to protect the warfighter against ballistic impacts and impacts against a hard surface, with little to no regard to blast loading. Polyureas, a class of microsegregated, elastomeric copolymers, has been shown to ...


'Exploring The Potential Of Using Antimicrobial Peptides And Copper Nanoparticles In Tackling Surgical Site Infections', Sriram Sankar Dec 2011

'Exploring The Potential Of Using Antimicrobial Peptides And Copper Nanoparticles In Tackling Surgical Site Infections', Sriram Sankar

All Theses

Postoperative wound site infections remain a major source of illness with approximately 500,000 infections per year, among an estimated 27 million surgical procedures. Such infections account for approximately one quarter of the estimated 2 million nosocomial infections in the United States which causes about 90,000 deaths each year. More than 70% of the bacteria that causes such infections are resistant to at least one of the antibiotics and result in longer hospitalization; besides requiring second option treatments that may be less effective, more toxic and expensive. Hence, there is a frenetic search for alternatives and in this regard ...


Course Of Illness And The Development Of Vascular Disease In Individuals With Bipolar Disorder, Jess G. Fiedorowicz Dec 2011

Course Of Illness And The Development Of Vascular Disease In Individuals With Bipolar Disorder, Jess G. Fiedorowicz

Theses and Dissertations

For over a century, there have been suggestions of a link between what is currently called bipolar disorder and cardiovascular mortality. In the contemporary epidemiological literature, this risk has been confirmed and approximates twice that expected based on age and gender. To date, however, this information has come primarily from clinical samples, which carry considerable risk of selection bias. The studies contained in this dissertation sought to assess this relationship using methods less vulnerable to selection bias and to determine the role that course of illness and treatments for illness may play in the development of vascular disease. In a ...


Large Population Evaluation Of Contact Stress Exposure In Articular Joints For Prediction Of Osteoarthritis Onset And Progression, Andrew M. Kern Dec 2011

Large Population Evaluation Of Contact Stress Exposure In Articular Joints For Prediction Of Osteoarthritis Onset And Progression, Andrew M. Kern

Theses and Dissertations

Contact stress exposure is thought to play a significant role in many aspects of joint degradation and pathology. Effective and accurate contact stress computation in native or pathological subject specific joints is an important tool in determining the role of contact stress in OA onset and worsening as well as eventually developing and monitoring interventions to prevent joint degradation. In the past FEA modeling has allowed for studies to be completed which relate contact stress exposure human ankle joint to the presence of radiographic OA. While promising, contact FEA for subject specific models is significantly limited by the number of ...


Biomechanical Effects Of Multi-Level Laminoplasty And Laminectomy: An Experimental And Finite Element Investigation, Swathi Kode Dec 2011

Biomechanical Effects Of Multi-Level Laminoplasty And Laminectomy: An Experimental And Finite Element Investigation, Swathi Kode

Theses and Dissertations

Cervical spondylotic myelopathy is the most common spinal cord disorder in persons over 55 years of age in North America and perhaps in the world. Surgical options are broadly classified into two categories namely, anterior and posterior approaches. This study focuses on the posterior based approach (i.e. laminectomy or laminoplasty) which is considered when multiple levels of the spine have to be decompressed or when most of the cord compression results from posterior pathological conditions. The external and internal behavior of the spine after laminoplasty and laminectomy has been evaluated using both experimental and computational methods. Computationally, a validated ...


Simulating Ingress And Egress Motion For Heavy Earthmoving Machines, Hyun Jung Kwon Dec 2011

Simulating Ingress And Egress Motion For Heavy Earthmoving Machines, Hyun Jung Kwon

Theses and Dissertations

Design of heavy earthmoving equipment is based primarily on feedback from drivers. Most design studies on ingress and egress focus on the motion itself and rely heavily on experimental data. This process requires physical construction of expensive (in terms of time and money) mockups before any feedback can be obtained. Post-feedback design changes and the analysis of those changes are again expensive processes. Although the design of heavy vehicles requires consideration of human safety and comfort, very little attention has been given to simulating ingress and egress movement for these vehicles. This thesis describes the development of a virtual model ...


Electrical Coupling Between Micropatterned Cardiomyocytes And Stem Cells, Zhen Ma Dec 2011

Electrical Coupling Between Micropatterned Cardiomyocytes And Stem Cells, Zhen Ma

All Dissertations

To understand how stem cells functionally couple with native cardiomyocytes is crucial for cell-based therapies to restore the loss of cardiomyocytes that occurs during heart infarction and other cardiac diseases. Due to the complexity of the in vivo environment, our knowledge of cell coupling is heavily dependent on cell-culture models. However, conventional in vitro studies involve undefined cell shapes and random length of cell-cell contacts in addition to the presence of multiple homotypic and heterotypic contacts between interacting cells. Thus, it has not been feasible to study electrical coupling corresponding to isolated specific types of cell contact modes.
To address ...


A Novel Free Form Femoral Cutting Guide, Wesley Andrew Underwood Dec 2011

A Novel Free Form Femoral Cutting Guide, Wesley Andrew Underwood

Masters Theses

Knee arthoplasty is a common procedure that requires the removal of damaged bone and cartilage from the distal femur so that a reconstructive implant may be installed. Traditionally, a five planar resection has been accomplished with a universal cutting box and navigated with either metal jigs or optically tracked computer navigation systems. Free form, or curved, resections have been made possible with surgical robots which control the resection pathway and serve as the navigation system. The free form femoral cutting guide serves as a non powered framework to guide a standard surgical drill along an anatomically defined pathway, resulting in ...


Comparative Study On Posture And Its Influences On Horizontal Ground Reaction Forces Generated By Muscles: Implications For Crouch Gait, Hoa Xuan Hoang Dec 2011

Comparative Study On Posture And Its Influences On Horizontal Ground Reaction Forces Generated By Muscles: Implications For Crouch Gait, Hoa Xuan Hoang

Masters Theses

Crouch gait decreases walking efficiency due to the increased knee and hip flexion during the stance phase of gait. Crouch gait is generally considered to be disadvantageous for patients with cerebral palsy; however, a crouched posture may afford biomechanical advantages that lead some patients to adopt a crouch gait.

To investigate one possible advantage of crouch gait, a musculoskeletal model created in OpenSim was placed in 15 different postures from upright to severe crouch during initial, middle, and final stance of the gait cycle. A series of optimizations were performed for each posture to maximize ground reaction forces for the ...


Development Of A Dynamic In Vitro Model Of A Stented Blood Vessel To Evaluate The Effects Of Stent Strut Material Selection And Surface Coating On Smooth Muscle Cell Response, Bradley Winn Dec 2011

Development Of A Dynamic In Vitro Model Of A Stented Blood Vessel To Evaluate The Effects Of Stent Strut Material Selection And Surface Coating On Smooth Muscle Cell Response, Bradley Winn

All Dissertations

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in The United States and Europe, accounting for approximately half of all deaths. The most common form of cardiovascular disease is atherosclerosis, which is characterized by the formation of fatty atheromatous plaques that can grow to occlude the vessel lumen, thus causing ischemia distal to the occlusion. This is commonly treated using balloon angioplasty, which is usually done in conjunction with the deployment of a stent. Stent deployment helps hold the vessel open following the local injury caused by balloon inflation and prevents elastic recoil and subsequent negative remodeling. Stenting has been ...


Implementation Of Medicinal Leech Preparation To Investigate The Connection Between The Motor Neuron And Muscle Fiber Via Sharp Electrode Electrophysiology, Chandra Nikole Miller Dec 2011

Implementation Of Medicinal Leech Preparation To Investigate The Connection Between The Motor Neuron And Muscle Fiber Via Sharp Electrode Electrophysiology, Chandra Nikole Miller

Master's Theses

There are forty registered organophosphates in the United States and they range from pesticides and insecticides to nerve agents or neurotoxins such as sarin. Organophosphates (OP’s) have been used in chemical warfare for years and tend to lead to death due to an attack on the nervous system. Chemical assays and mass microscopy have been used to assess the concentration of OP’s in the environment, but both methods require the body to metabolize the OP first, which can be detrimental to the victim. It is crucial to come up with a method to investigate and detect these neurotoxins ...


Seasonal And Anatomical Variation In Compact Bone Remodeling In The Adult Sheep, Joseph Calcagno Dec 2011

Seasonal And Anatomical Variation In Compact Bone Remodeling In The Adult Sheep, Joseph Calcagno

Master's Theses

ABSTRACT

SEASONAL AND ANATOMICAL VARIATION IN COMPACT BONE REMODELING IN THE ADULT SHEEP

Joseph Calcagno

In order to determine whether ovine compact bone is suitable for study of osteoporosis, the remodeling parameters of the untreated animal must be fully characterized. Ovine compact bone is an attractive large animal model due to its similarities in size and bone remodeling to humans. However hormonal, exercise, and dietary changes due to seasonal changes can cause treatment effects to be hidden or superimposed on existing changes in the bone. In order to determine if any seasonal or anatomical variation occurred in the compact bone ...