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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

A Novel Method To Commercialize Medical Devices Initially Developed At California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo, Christina Grigorian Dec 2020

A Novel Method To Commercialize Medical Devices Initially Developed At California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo, Christina Grigorian

Master's Theses

California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo is a university that encourages students to approach learning hands-on. As such, there is cutting-edge technology being developed by students in all departments on campus. Being that the university possesses an outstanding biomedical engineering department, there are groundbreaking medical devices that students are creating at Cal Poly SLO. These are devices that can better the lives of individuals suffering from ailments or fulfill needs in the medical industry. Subsequently, it is vital that these devices make it out of campus laboratories and into the hands of consumers. In order to move a product ...


An Investigation On The Influences Of Radial Head Hemiarthroplasty Stem Fixation Techniques On Articular Mechanics, Jakub Szmit Nov 2020

An Investigation On The Influences Of Radial Head Hemiarthroplasty Stem Fixation Techniques On Articular Mechanics, Jakub Szmit

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Radial head hemiarthroplasty design has been extensively studied with a focus on utilizing the geometrical characteristics of the native radial dish as a guide of implant placement and design. Although implant design has been studied, optimal radial head implant fixation technique remains unknown. This thesis focused on the effect of stem fit on radiocapitellar contact mechanics, using both finite element and experimental bench-top approaches. Additionally, investigation into the impact of varus/valgus malalignment of the radial head in both the native state and following hemiarthroplasty was conducted. It was found that loose fitting a smooth stem axisymmetric radial head implant ...


Urine Volume Reduction During Long-Duration Cave Exploration By A Light-Weight And Portable Forward Osmosis System, Sebastian Engelhardt, Katey E. Bender, Jörg Vogel, Stephen E. Duirk, Francisco B. Moore, Hazel A. Barton Nov 2020

Urine Volume Reduction During Long-Duration Cave Exploration By A Light-Weight And Portable Forward Osmosis System, Sebastian Engelhardt, Katey E. Bender, Jörg Vogel, Stephen E. Duirk, Francisco B. Moore, Hazel A. Barton

International Journal of Speleology

The preservation of caves is a challenge during long-duration cave expeditions where human waste can add significant nitrogen to the cave ecosystem. Since the removal of urine that accumulates during a multi-day caving trip is not always feasible due to weight and volume constraints, a light-weight and portable filtration system that is capable of reducing urine volume would be desirable. In this study we tested the Aquaporin Inside hollow fiber membrane in a forward osmosis (FO) setup to evaluate its capability to reduce urine volume while rejecting nitrogenous compounds using different draw solution chemistries and water recovery rates. As a ...


The Effect Of Joint Alignment After A Wrist Injury On Joint Mechanics And Osteoarthritis Development, Puneet Kaur Ranota Nov 2020

The Effect Of Joint Alignment After A Wrist Injury On Joint Mechanics And Osteoarthritis Development, Puneet Kaur Ranota

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Wrist injuries are common and can lead to the development of post-traumatic osteoarthritis. For example, one major complication after a wrist fracture, is when the fractured bone heals in a mal-aligned position, called malunion. It has been assumed that a malunion after wrist fractures alters joint congruency and mechanics leading to the development of post-traumatic osteoarthritis and poor functional outcomes. It is unclear whether anatomical restoration is a key component for the management of wrist injuries and to limit the progression of post-traumatic osteoarthritis. However, the mechanistic pathways between joint structure (and mal-alignment) and patient outcomes, such as the development ...


Comparison Of Machine Learning Models: Gesture Recognition Using A Multimodal Wrist Orthosis For Tetraplegics, Charlie Martin Aug 2020

Comparison Of Machine Learning Models: Gesture Recognition Using A Multimodal Wrist Orthosis For Tetraplegics, Charlie Martin

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

Many tetraplegics must wear wrist braces to support paralyzed wrists and hands. However, current wrist orthoses have limited functionality to assist a person’s ability to perform typical activities of daily living other than a small pocket to hold utensils. To enhance the functionality of wrist orthoses, gesture recognition technology can be applied to control mechatronic tools attached to a novel fabricated wrist brace. Gesture recognition is a growing technology for providing touchless human-computer interaction that can be particularly useful for tetraplegics with limited upper-extremity mobility. In this study, three gesture recognition models were compared—two dynamic time-warping models and ...


Computational Modeling Of The Human Brain For Mtbi Prediction And Diagnosis, Yanir Levy Aug 2020

Computational Modeling Of The Human Brain For Mtbi Prediction And Diagnosis, Yanir Levy

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Sports related concussions and mild traumatic brain injuries have seen an increase in frequency over the past decade. The creation of highly biofidelic computational head models is an important step in understanding the mechanisms of these mild brain injuries and preventing them. Hence, the purpose of this research is to combine state-of-the-art computational models, brain imaging modalities and traditional head injury assessment protocols to simulate and predict the brains responses during traumatic head impacts. A novel, atlas-based, parcellated axon fiber embedded head model was developed which allows for in-depth analysis of the brain’s structural connectome tracts for injury diagnosis ...


Anti-Crispr Proteins: Applications In Genome Engineering, Jooyoung Lee Jul 2020

Anti-Crispr Proteins: Applications In Genome Engineering, Jooyoung Lee

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats and CRISPR-associated proteins (CRISPR-Cas) constitute a bacterial and archaeal adaptive immune system. The ongoing arms race between prokaryotic hosts and their invaders such as phages led to the emergence of anti-CRISPR proteins as countermeasures against the potent antiviral defense. Since the first examples of anti-CRISPRs were shown in a subset of CRISPR-Cas systems, we endeavored to uncover these naturally-occurring inhibitors that inactivate different types of CRISPR-Cas systems. In the first part of my thesis, we have identified and characterized Type II anti-CRISPR proteins that inactivate several Cas9 orthologs. We share mechanistic insights into anti-CRISPR ...


Automatic Detection Of Dynamic And Static Activities Of The Older Adults Using A Wearable Sensor And Support Vector Machines, Jian Zhang, Rahul Soangra, Thurmon E. Lockhart Jul 2020

Automatic Detection Of Dynamic And Static Activities Of The Older Adults Using A Wearable Sensor And Support Vector Machines, Jian Zhang, Rahul Soangra, Thurmon E. Lockhart

Physical Therapy Faculty Articles and Research

Although Support Vector Machines (SVM) are widely used for classifying human motion patterns, their application in the automatic recognition of dynamic and static activities of daily life in the healthy older adults is limited. Using a body mounted wireless inertial measurement unit (IMU), this paper explores the use of an SVM approach for classifying dynamic (walking) and static (sitting, standing and lying) activities of the older adults. Specifically, data formatting and feature extraction methods associated with IMU signals are discussed. To evaluate the performance of the SVM algorithm, the effects of two parameters involved in SVM algorithm—the soft margin ...


3d Architectural Analysis Of Neurons, Astrocytes, Vasculature & Nuclei In The Motor And Somatosensory Murine Cortical Columns, Jared Leichner Jul 2020

3d Architectural Analysis Of Neurons, Astrocytes, Vasculature & Nuclei In The Motor And Somatosensory Murine Cortical Columns, Jared Leichner

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Characterization of the complex cortical structure of the brain at a cellular level is a fundamental goal of neuroscience which can provide a better understanding of both normal function as well as disease state progression. Many challenges exist however when carrying out this form of analysis. Immunofluorescent staining is a key technique for revealing 3-dimensional structure, but subsequent fluorescence microscopy is limited by the quantity of simultaneous targets that can be labeled and intrinsic lateral and isotropic axial point-spread function (PSF) blurring during the imaging process in a spectral and depth-dependent manner. Even after successful staining, imaging and optical deconvolution ...


Septal Closure Device, Olivia N. Welch, Hillal H. Jarrar, Kai Harrison Jun 2020

Septal Closure Device, Olivia N. Welch, Hillal H. Jarrar, Kai Harrison

Biomedical Engineering

The septal closure device was designed to seal defects in the atrial septum. To fully seal an atrial defect, the device was designed to consist of two circular seals to cover the defect in both the right and left atria, attached with a central rod. The materials were chosen for compressibility (for ease of insertion), biocompatibility, and tissue ingrowth. A CAD model was drafted in SolidWorks. Key customer requirements include ease of implantation (specifications: adjustable sizing and clear directions for use), physician controlled (specifications: short implantation time and compatibility with current catheter/scope techniques), and a long lifetime (specifications: materials ...


Investigation Of Experimental Variation Of Bovine Sphingomyelin As A Novel Ingredient For Ultraviolet Protection, Esther Chen Jun 2020

Investigation Of Experimental Variation Of Bovine Sphingomyelin As A Novel Ingredient For Ultraviolet Protection, Esther Chen

Master's Theses

Skin cancer is a prevalent disease that globally affects 2-3 million people per year [1]. This number is expected to grow tenfold as depletion of the ozone layer contributes to harsher rays reaching Earth’s surface [2]. A common way to protect against those ultraviolet waves is to apply sunscreen, however, recent reports call into question the safety of some active ingredients as they can enter through the skin into the bloodstream [3]. This thesis aims to investigate an alternative solution that uses bovine sphingomyelin (BSM) as photoprotective solution against UV irradiation.

In order to evaluate the effectiveness of BSM ...


Exploring Attacks And Defenses In Additive Manufacturing Processes: Implications In Cyber-Physical Security, Nicholas Deily May 2020

Exploring Attacks And Defenses In Additive Manufacturing Processes: Implications In Cyber-Physical Security, Nicholas Deily

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Many industries are rapidly adopting additive manufacturing (AM) because of the added versatility this technology offers over traditional manufacturing techniques. But with AM, there comes a unique set of security challenges that must be addressed. In particular, the issue of part verification is critically important given the growing reliance of safety-critical systems on 3D printed parts. In this thesis, the current state of part verification technologies will be examined in the con- text of AM-specific geometric-modification attacks, and an automated tool for 3D printed part verification will be presented. This work will cover: 1) the impacts of malicious attacks on ...


Implementation Of A Computer-Vision System As A Supportive Diagnostic Tool For Parkinson’S Disease, Diego Machado Reyes May 2020

Implementation Of A Computer-Vision System As A Supportive Diagnostic Tool For Parkinson’S Disease, Diego Machado Reyes

Honors Theses

Parkinson’s disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, affecting nearly 1 million people in the US and it is predicted that the number will keep increasing. Parkinson’s disease is difficult to diagnose due to its similarity with other diseases that share the parkinsonian symptoms and the subjectivity of its assessment, thus increasing the probabilities of misdiagnosis. Therefore, it is relevant to develop diagnostic tools that are quantitatively based and monitoring tools to improve the patient’s quality of life. Computer-based assessment systems have shown to be successful in this field through diverse approaches that can be classified ...


From Branches To Fibers - Investigating F-Actin Networks With Biochemistry And Mathematical Modeling, Melissa Riddle May 2020

From Branches To Fibers - Investigating F-Actin Networks With Biochemistry And Mathematical Modeling, Melissa Riddle

Senior Honors Projects, 2020-current

F-actin networks have different structures throughout the cell depending on their location or mechanical role. For example, at the leading edge of a migrating cell, F-actin is organized in a region called the lamellipodia as a branched network responsible for pushing the membrane outwards. Behind the lamellipodia is a lamellar actin network where focal adhesions and stress fibers originate, and then within the cell cortex, actin is arranged in a gel-like network. Stress fibers are an important organization of F-actin and how they arise from either the branched lamellipodia network or the gel-like cortex network is poorly understood. Our approach ...


Ml-Medic: A Preliminary Study Of An Interactive Visual Analysis Tool Facilitating Clinical Applications Of Machine Learning For Precision Medicine, Laura Stevens, David Kao, Jennifer Hall, Carsten Görg, Kaitlyn Abdo, Erik Linstead May 2020

Ml-Medic: A Preliminary Study Of An Interactive Visual Analysis Tool Facilitating Clinical Applications Of Machine Learning For Precision Medicine, Laura Stevens, David Kao, Jennifer Hall, Carsten Görg, Kaitlyn Abdo, Erik Linstead

Engineering Faculty Articles and Research

Accessible interactive tools that integrate machine learning methods with clinical research and reduce the programming experience required are needed to move science forward. Here, we present Machine Learning for Medical Exploration and Data-Inspired Care (ML-MEDIC), a point-and-click, interactive tool with a visual interface for facilitating machine learning and statistical analyses in clinical research. We deployed ML-MEDIC in the American Heart Association (AHA) Precision Medicine Platform to provide secure internet access and facilitate collaboration. ML-MEDIC’s efficacy for facilitating the adoption of machine learning was evaluated through two case studies in collaboration with clinical domain experts. A domain expert review was ...


Theoretical Applicability Of Crispr-Mediated Exon Skipping In Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, Andrew Greek May 2020

Theoretical Applicability Of Crispr-Mediated Exon Skipping In Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, Andrew Greek

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) affects approximately 1 in 5,000 males. DMD results from genetic mutations within the gene that interrupts the open reading frame and prematurely truncates the protein. From a non-functional dystrophin protein, DMD results in serious muscle weakening and muscle wasting ultimately leading to death around the age of 26. In some cases of muscular dystrophy, a mutation can occur in areas of the gene that are less essential. In Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), these mutations cause less significant consequences in phenotype as the dystrophin protein is still semi-functional. With gene editing techniques, it may be possible ...


Synthetic Lethality In Pediatric Brain Cancer Cells By Optimized Plga Nanoparticles And Drug Combinations, Megan Ruckman, Megan Otte, Forrest Kievit Apr 2020

Synthetic Lethality In Pediatric Brain Cancer Cells By Optimized Plga Nanoparticles And Drug Combinations, Megan Ruckman, Megan Otte, Forrest Kievit

UCARE Research Products

Here we test drugs effectiveness to inhibit various DNA repair pathways with the purpose of sensitizing cancer cells to radiotherapy. We work on optimizing delivery of DNA repair pathway inhibiting drugs by the use of PLGA nanoparticles.


Development Of Gaussian Learning Algorithms For Early Detection Of Alzheimer's Disease, Chen Fang Mar 2020

Development Of Gaussian Learning Algorithms For Early Detection Of Alzheimer's Disease, Chen Fang

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia affecting 10% of the population over the age of 65 and the growing costs in managing AD are estimated to be $259 billion, according to data reported in the 2017 by the Alzheimer's Association. Moreover, with cognitive decline, daily life of the affected persons and their families are severely impacted. Taking advantage of the diagnosis of AD and its prodromal stage of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), an early treatment may help patients preserve the quality of life and slow the progression of the disease, even though the underlying ...


Left Atrial Appendage Printing Process, Areli Reyes, Brandon James Mukai, Mia Noelle Von Knorring Mar 2020

Left Atrial Appendage Printing Process, Areli Reyes, Brandon James Mukai, Mia Noelle Von Knorring

Biomedical Engineering

The left atrial appendage senior design team aims to assist in closing off the left atrial appendage that is susceptible to coagulation due to non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Coagulation in the left atrial appendage (LAA) can be life threatening as it can lead to a stroke. Dr. Chris Porterfield performs a procedure that uses the Boston Scientific Watchman to close the appendage. He finds that sizing the Watchman properly is difficult with limited visuals from live CT scans. He proposed converting the CT scans into a 3D printed model of the left atrial appendage and left atrium so he can visually ...


Solostand, Hau Nhat Doan, Sydney Gray, Celina Dioso Mar 2020

Solostand, Hau Nhat Doan, Sydney Gray, Celina Dioso

Biomedical Engineering

The purpose of this scope of work is to highlight the progress and development of SoloStand sponsored by Derek Herrera, chief technical officer and founder of SpinalSingularity. SoloStand is an attachment to a wheelchair that will benefit paraplegics that use wheelchairs. A portable and customizable attachment to a wheelchair will allow the user to do everyday tasks without transferring into a separate standing wheelchair and travel more easily. This document outlines everything that has been done in fulfillment of our senior project requirements.


Ikioo Flying Robot, Nicholas Michael Lapidus, Bosung Josh Kim, Jenny Fong Mar 2020

Ikioo Flying Robot, Nicholas Michael Lapidus, Bosung Josh Kim, Jenny Fong

Biomedical Engineering

No abstract provided.


Using An Internal Auditory Stimulus To Activate The Developing Primary Auditory Cortex: A Fetal Fmri Study, Estee Goldberg Jan 2020

Using An Internal Auditory Stimulus To Activate The Developing Primary Auditory Cortex: A Fetal Fmri Study, Estee Goldberg

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Insight into the rapidly developing brain in utero is scarce. Fetal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a technique used to gain awareness into the developmental process. Previous auditory task-based fMRI studies employed an external sound stimulus directly on the maternal abdomen. However, there has since been recommendation to cease doing so. We sought to investigate a reliable paradigm to study the development of fetal brain networks and postulate that by using an internal stimulus, such as the mother singing, it would result in activation of the fetal primary auditory cortex. Volunteers carrying singleton fetuses with a gestational age of ...


The Impact Of Aging And Mechanical Injury On Alveolar Epithelial And Macrophage Responses In Acute Lung Injury And Inflammation, Michael S. Valentine Jan 2020

The Impact Of Aging And Mechanical Injury On Alveolar Epithelial And Macrophage Responses In Acute Lung Injury And Inflammation, Michael S. Valentine

Theses and Dissertations

Patients with severe lung pathologies, such as Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), often require mechanical ventilation as a clinical intervention; however, this procedure frequently exacerbates the original pulmonary issue and produces an exaggerated inflammatory response that potentially leads to sepsis, multisystem organ failure, and mortality. This acute lung injury (ALI) condition has been termed Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury (VILI). Alveolar overdistension, cyclic atelectasis, and biotrauma are the primary injury mechanisms in VILI that lead to the loss of alveolar barrier integrity and pulmonary inflammation. Stress and strains during mechanical ventilation are believed to initiate alveolar epithelial mechanotransduction signaling mechanisms that contribute ...


The Tera Multi Terrain Mobility Aid Chassis, Colton Kemp, Daniel Nicoll, Ibrahim Suleiman, Mohammad Alyami Jan 2020

The Tera Multi Terrain Mobility Aid Chassis, Colton Kemp, Daniel Nicoll, Ibrahim Suleiman, Mohammad Alyami

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The natural environment poses a significant number of obstacles and dynamic settings that makes mobility difficult for those with physical and mobility impairments. To approach this problem, a suspension was designed using inspiration from the early Mars rovers developed by NASA for traversing the varied Martian landscape. The course of the project followed the direction of a start-up through problem identification, early design generation and review, and final design production. The project outcome, through client request and proven market research, aimed to produce a multi-terrain wheelchair. The final product is a kinematic body with mobile front “legs” and a rotational ...


Development Of A Clinical Marker-Less Motion Capture System For Patient Monitoring, Abigail Eustace Jan 2020

Development Of A Clinical Marker-Less Motion Capture System For Patient Monitoring, Abigail Eustace

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The ability to understand human movement is beneficial for deciding surgical procedures, tracking disease progression over time and helping with patient rehabilitation. The current gold-standard for collecting human movement is the use of 3-dimensional marker-based systems. Several studies have presented the many limitations to the current gold-standard that reduces the number of people who are able to benefit from a gait analysis. Those limitations in the current gold-standard include the requirements of large laboratory space, costly equipment, long instrumentation and collection time, and the potential for motion artifact from markers being placed on the skin. The purpose of this study ...


How Degrees Of Freedom Affects Sense Of Agency, Akima Connelly, Jungsu Pak, Tian Lan, Uri Maoz Dec 2019

How Degrees Of Freedom Affects Sense Of Agency, Akima Connelly, Jungsu Pak, Tian Lan, Uri Maoz

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Can the rubber-hand illusion be extended to a moving robotic arm in different degrees of freedom (DOF), inducing sense of ownership & agency over the arm? We hypothesize that DOF closer to what humans possess will result in a stronger sense of ownership and agency.


Blood Glucose Predictor, Jessica Patterson Dec 2019

Blood Glucose Predictor, Jessica Patterson

Electrical Engineering

For my senior project, I perform data analysis using statistical methods to determine body metrics that correlate with blood glucose levels. Working with Dr. Tina Smilkstein, I take repeat measurements from 6 different volunteers to establish trends in bodily metric data. The data taken includes weight, body fat, pulse rate, VO2, blood glucose, blood pressure, hours slept, and quality of sleep. Using these values, I use the program MiniTab to view results.

A few examples of correlations with blood glucose found in this project are:

  • Systolic blood pressure for females had a regression line of 124.0 -0.3366*Blood ...


Effect Of Corrective Surgery On Lower Limb Mechanics In Patients With Crouch Gait, Adelle Milholland Dec 2019

Effect Of Corrective Surgery On Lower Limb Mechanics In Patients With Crouch Gait, Adelle Milholland

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Crouch gait a progressively degrading gait deviation associated with the neurological disorder cerebral palsy. If left untreated it can lead to anterior knee pain and a loss of ambulation. At present there exists no agreed upon metric for determining the surgical procedures used to treat crouch gait and there is insufficient means to analytically compare the results of different procedures. The aims of this thesis work were to create a pipeline to transform a patient’s gait analysis data into a finite element model, develop a model of sufficient complexity to evaluate a range of outcomes by which to judge ...


Effect Of Annealing On The Contact Resistance Of Aluminum On A P-Type Substrate, Shrey Shah, George Patrick Watson Nov 2019

Effect Of Annealing On The Contact Resistance Of Aluminum On A P-Type Substrate, Shrey Shah, George Patrick Watson

Protocols and Reports

Aluminum contacts are widely used to form both ohmic and rectifying contacts. The process to form these contacts involves annealing, thus it is important to study the effect of annealing on the electrical properties of the contacts. Here, we present a way to measure the contact resistance of aluminum contacts formed on a p-type silicon substrate. It was found the contact resistivity decreased by an average of 18%. It was thus found that annealing at 400°C in a forming gas environment improves the electrical properties of aluminum contacts.


Diagnostic Sequence Detection Against A Complex Background Using A Dna Molecular Computation Framework, Adan Leon Myers Y Gutierrez Oct 2019

Diagnostic Sequence Detection Against A Complex Background Using A Dna Molecular Computation Framework, Adan Leon Myers Y Gutierrez

Nanoscience and Microsystems ETDs

Diagnostic assays are designed to detect a unique analyte profile in a disease of interest. Nucleic acids contain an information-dense sequence, and thus are ideal candidates for unique analytes. The gold-standard of nucleic-acid-based detection is PCR which has high sensitivity, but involves time, expertise, and cost. DNA molecular logic technology holds much promise as an alternative molecular detection method due to the potential to save cost and expertise, while also achieving a high sensitivity. However, nucleic acid detection in biomedical applications carries with it the difficulty of choice of appropriate sequence and potential biological sample background.

This work describes the ...