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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Bioprinted In Vitro Model Of Human Glioblastoma, Rachel Lauren Schwartz Aug 2020

Bioprinted In Vitro Model Of Human Glioblastoma, Rachel Lauren Schwartz

Theses and Dissertations

Glioblastoma multiform (GBM) is one of the most aggressive forms of primary brain tumors. GBM is fast progressing and resistant to treatment, resulting in a low survival rate. Conventional 2-dimensional tissue culture models cannot fully replicate the complexities of cancer lesions that contain multiple cell types and structures (e.g. vessels composed of endothelial cells, cancer cells, normal cells, etc.) as well as an intricate scaffold of proteins comprising the extracellular matrix (ECM). In addition, animal models cannot translate into the clinical disease in patients. Thus, this study has developed a bioprintable organ-on-a-chip (OOAC) model that mimics the important ECM ...


Simulation Approaches To X-Ray C-Arm-Based Interventions, Daniel R. Allen Aug 2020

Simulation Approaches To X-Ray C-Arm-Based Interventions, Daniel R. Allen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Mobile C-Arm systems have enabled interventional spine procedures, such as facet joint injections, to be performed minimally-invasively under X-ray or fluoroscopy guidance. The downside to these procedures is the radiation exposure the patient and medical staff are subject to, which can vary greatly depending on the procedure as well as the skill and experience of the team. Standard training methods for these procedures involve the use of a physical C-Arm with real X-rays training on either cadavers or via an apprenticeship-based program. Many guidance systems have been proposed in the literature which aim to reduce the amount of radiation exposure ...


A 3d Printed Axon-Mimetic Diffusion Mri Phantom, Tristan K. Kuehn Aug 2020

A 3d Printed Axon-Mimetic Diffusion Mri Phantom, Tristan K. Kuehn

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Diffusion MRI is used to non-invasively characterize the microstructure of the brain. However, the accuracy of the characterization is difficult to verify because no other non-invasive imaging modality provides the same information. This thesis presents a novel 3D printed axon-mimetic (3AM) diffusion MRI phantom, a synthetic object designed to mimic the brain's microstructure.

The phantoms were characterized using microscopy, synchrotron micro-computed tomography, and diffusion MRI, and found to have sufficiently axon-mimetic properties to be useful as diffusion MRI phantoms. A set of phantoms designed to have anatomically realistic and complex fibre structures was used to test the response of ...


Computational Modeling Of The Human Brain For Mtbi Prediction And Diagnosis, Yanir Levy Aug 2020

Computational Modeling Of The Human Brain For Mtbi Prediction And Diagnosis, Yanir Levy

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Sports related concussions and mild traumatic brain injuries have seen an increase in frequency over the past decade. The creation of highly biofidelic computational head models is an important step in understanding the mechanisms of these mild brain injuries and preventing them. Hence, the purpose of this research is to combine state-of-the-art computational models, brain imaging modalities and traditional head injury assessment protocols to simulate and predict the brains responses during traumatic head impacts. A novel, atlas-based, parcellated axon fiber embedded head model was developed which allows for in-depth analysis of the brain’s structural connectome tracts for injury diagnosis ...


A Biomechanical Investigation Into The Effect Of Experimental Design On Wrist Biomechanics And Contact Mechanics, Clare E. Padmore Aug 2020

A Biomechanical Investigation Into The Effect Of Experimental Design On Wrist Biomechanics And Contact Mechanics, Clare E. Padmore

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The wrist is one of the most commonly injured joints, and injury can have serious sequelae if pathological healing ensues. Strides have been made to understand normal and pathological wrist biomechanics using experimental approaches, which has contributed to improved patient care. The present work advances our understanding of the influence of experimental techniques and joint motion measurement techniques on in-vitro wrist biomechanical cadaveric studies, and applies the knowledge learned to a common clinical entity of scapholunate insufficiency.

First, the relative contributions of the carpal rows to wrist motion were assessed, in addition to the identification of limitations of current biomechanical ...


Cytomegalovirus Inhibition By Pluronic-Encapsulated Quercetin And Synergy With Ganciclovir, Ian Wadsworth Aug 2020

Cytomegalovirus Inhibition By Pluronic-Encapsulated Quercetin And Synergy With Ganciclovir, Ian Wadsworth

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the leading viral cause of birth defects worldwide and leads to a variety of complications. Ganciclovir is the most common anti-CMV drug used but often causes severe side effects. Quercetin, a plant pigment, shows anti-CMV activity that may provide a less toxic alternative to ganciclovir, or when co-administered, reduce ganciclovir treatments. However, a drug carrier is needed to deliver quercetin for CMV treatment. In this study, three Pluronic polymers (P123, F127, and F68) were investigated as a quercetin drug delivery system (DDS) for CMV treatment.

All selected Pluronics successfully encapsulated quercetin at varying degrees of efficacy ...


Changes In Neural Network Connectivity Of Normal Young Adults In Response To Power Wheelchair Trainer Using Eeg Coherence, Ruby Phung Aug 2020

Changes In Neural Network Connectivity Of Normal Young Adults In Response To Power Wheelchair Trainer Using Eeg Coherence, Ruby Phung

Masters Theses

The ability to move and explore their surrounding environment plays a critical role in the development of cognitive function in children, especially during early childhood. The lack of independent and autonomous mobility is, therefore, a clear disadvantage for the overall development of children with multiple, severe disabilities. Limited number of studies have been conducted on the impact of power mobility device on this specific population. Previous exploratory and pilot studies showed promising results regarding quantifiable and consistent changes in the electroencephalogram (EEG) of children with multiple, severe disabilities when provided with power mobility training. This study aimed to further extend ...


Characterization Of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Performance With Pentanoic Acid And N-Acetyl Cysteine Treatment, Joseph Camire Aug 2020

Characterization Of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Performance With Pentanoic Acid And N-Acetyl Cysteine Treatment, Joseph Camire

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

To improve the cost of producing protein therapeutics manufacturers can attempt to increase the amount of protein produced per unit volume. Some small fatty-acids have shown the ability to increase protein concentrations in some manufacturing systems. An example system is in the industrially important cell line derived from a Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO). A drawback of adding these fatty-acids is they can increase the rate of cell death.

A potential way to minimize the cell death rate, caused by adding fatty-acids, is to also add additional anti-oxidants. Through a series of studies, we demonstrate production with different fatty-acids, butanoic acid ...


Protecting Crops From Abiotic Stress: Copper Oxide Nanoparticle Effects On Wheat And A Beneficial Rhizobacterium, Matthew Potter Aug 2020

Protecting Crops From Abiotic Stress: Copper Oxide Nanoparticle Effects On Wheat And A Beneficial Rhizobacterium, Matthew Potter

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Nanoparticles (NPs) are defined as particles less than 100 nm in at least one dimension. CuO NPs have possible applications in agriculture as micronutrient sources, pesticides, and enhancers of crop stress tolerance. Here, three aspects of CuO NP agricultural applications are studied: 1) the potential of CuO NPs to prevent wheat lodging-when crops irreversibly fall over; 2) CuO NP-induced drought tolerance in wheat seedlings; and 3) the effects of CuO NPs on outer membrane vesicle (OMV) production by Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 (PcO6), a plant-health promoting bacterium.

Wheat grown 7 d exposed to CuO NPs in the growth matrix exhibited increased ...


Optimization Of Indentation For The Material Characterization Of Soft Pva-Cryogels, Md. Mansur Ul Mulk Jul 2020

Optimization Of Indentation For The Material Characterization Of Soft Pva-Cryogels, Md. Mansur Ul Mulk

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Over the past few years a variety of clinical procedures aiming at tissue repair and other relevant therapies have been under active investigation [12,32]. Success of procedures aimed at soft tissue repair depend on the combined response of biochemical and biomechanical properties of the organs neighbouring the tissue [53]. Using human or animal cadaveric tissue for this purpose is very challenging due to issues pertaining to biodegradability and infection or biohazard risk factors [135,205].As such, tissue mimicking materials (e.g. Polyvinyl Alcohol Cryo-gel (PVA-C)) have been investigated to satisfy the need for the said clinical applications. Advantages ...


Anti-Crispr Proteins: Applications In Genome Engineering, Jooyoung Lee Jul 2020

Anti-Crispr Proteins: Applications In Genome Engineering, Jooyoung Lee

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats and CRISPR-associated proteins (CRISPR-Cas) constitute a bacterial and archaeal adaptive immune system. The ongoing arms race between prokaryotic hosts and their invaders such as phages led to the emergence of anti-CRISPR proteins as countermeasures against the potent antiviral defense. Since the first examples of anti-CRISPRs were shown in a subset of CRISPR-Cas systems, we endeavored to uncover these naturally-occurring inhibitors that inactivate different types of CRISPR-Cas systems. In the first part of my thesis, we have identified and characterized Type II anti-CRISPR proteins that inactivate several Cas9 orthologs. We share mechanistic insights into anti-CRISPR ...


How Does Robotic Surgery Influence Communication, Leadership, And Team Outcomes? A Multimethod Examination., Jordan E. Rogers Jul 2020

How Does Robotic Surgery Influence Communication, Leadership, And Team Outcomes? A Multimethod Examination., Jordan E. Rogers

Dissertations and Theses

The practice of delivering surgical care has evolved to be less invasive to the patients undergoing surgery. Minimally-invasive surgery can be practiced through traditional laparoscopic methods as well as with robotic technology that displaces the surgeon from the operating table. Robotic surgery has been cited to be safer and more effective than traditional laparoscopic surgery; however, little research has endeavored to investigate the role of surgical modality upon aspects of teamwork. This dissertation contributes to the human factors and teamwork literature by evaluating how surgical modality may influence communication, shared leadership, and team outcomes. Multiple methods were employed to study ...


Active Deep Learning Method To Automate Unbiased Stereology Cell Counting, Saeed Alahmari Jun 2020

Active Deep Learning Method To Automate Unbiased Stereology Cell Counting, Saeed Alahmari

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Cell quantification in histopathology images plays a significant role in understanding and diagnosing diseases such as cancer and Alzheimers. The gold-standard for quantifying cells in tissue sections is the unbiased stereology approach. Unfortunately, in unbiased stereology current practices rely on a well-trained human to manually count hundreds of cells in microscopy images. However, this human-based manual approach is time-consuming, labor-intensive, subject to human errors, recognition bias, fatigue, variable training, poor reproducibility, and inter-observer error. Thus, the lack of high-throughput technology for automating unbiased stereology analyses remains a major obstacle to further progress in a wide range of neuroscience and cancer ...


Designing Silk Protein-Based Composite Materials With Tunable Heat Transfer And Magnetic Properties, Ye Xue Jun 2020

Designing Silk Protein-Based Composite Materials With Tunable Heat Transfer And Magnetic Properties, Ye Xue

Theses and Dissertations

Renewable and biocompatible silk protein materials with desired physical properties show promising applications in biomedical field. In this work, a set of protein-based composites with desired thermal and magnetic properties, enhanced by the appropriate distribution of nanofillers in the protein matrix in both 2D-film and 1D-fiber forms was investigated. Results indicate that secondary structures of silk protein materials regenerated by a formic acid-calcium chloride method are different from those of their respective natural silk fibers. Intramolecular beta-sheet structures were found to dominate these silk films, causing these regenerated samples to be water-insoluble but more flexible than traditional silk films with ...


Study And Characterization Of Conductive Elastomers For Biomedical Applications, Hadis Gharacheh Jun 2020

Study And Characterization Of Conductive Elastomers For Biomedical Applications, Hadis Gharacheh

Theses and Dissertations

Health issues have always been one of humankind's biggest challenges. Over the last century, there has been significant and monumental progress in health and biomedical science, with the end goal of alleviating and eliminating illnesses and ailments. For developing biomedical devices, polymers and elastomers group among other types of biomaterials have been highlighted to be used due to high flexibility, stability, biocompatibility, and mechanical and rheological characteristics. In this work, the characterization of acrylated poly glycerol_sebacate (PGSA) polymer conjugated with bio ionic liquid (BIL) was investigated. Results showed high biocompatibility, high printability with tunable mechanical, adhesive, and conductivity properties ...


Detecting Command-Driven Brain Activity In Patients With Disorders Of Consciousness Using Tr-Fnirs, Androu Abdalmalak Jun 2020

Detecting Command-Driven Brain Activity In Patients With Disorders Of Consciousness Using Tr-Fnirs, Androu Abdalmalak

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Vegetative state (VS) is a disorder of consciousness often referred to as “wakefulness without awareness”. Patients in this condition experience normal sleep-wake cycles, but lack all awareness of themselves and their surroundings. Clinically, assessing consciousness relies on behavioural tests to determine a patient’s ability to follow commands. This subjective approach often leads to a high rate of misdiagnosis (~40%) where patients who retain residual awareness are misdiagnosed as being in a VS. Recently, functional neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), has allowed researchers to use command-driven brain activity to infer consciousness. Although promising, the cost and ...


Optimal Reactor Configuration Of A Microbial Fuel Cell Containing Bacteria Genetically Engineered To Degrade Urea, Ann Mcmonigal, Sarah Khoilian, David Bengford Jun 2020

Optimal Reactor Configuration Of A Microbial Fuel Cell Containing Bacteria Genetically Engineered To Degrade Urea, Ann Mcmonigal, Sarah Khoilian, David Bengford

Bioengineering Senior Theses

The original specific aim of this project was to use a microbial fuel cell (MFC) fueled by the catabolism of E. coli DH5α (pKAU17) bacteria in order generate current as a result of urea degradation. The initial design plan was to test the bacteria outside of the MFC, obtain power measurements,, and finally, construct an electrochemical model that would be compared to an existing theoretical model developed at SCU. Using a 0.25 L anode chamber, graphite electrodes and a sulfonated tetrafluoroethylene based fluoropolymercopolymer proton exchange membrane the galvanic cell was constructed. In response to constraints, the design plan was ...


Cancer Biomarker Detection In Human Plasma By Integrating Surface Acoustic Wave And Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence, Yuqi Huang Jun 2020

Cancer Biomarker Detection In Human Plasma By Integrating Surface Acoustic Wave And Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence, Yuqi Huang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This thesis includes data and discussion about the technique of metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF) to lower the detection limit of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). The detection limit goes down to 100pg/mL level when using MEF substrate made by rapid thermally annealed silver film covered by silica, which has great promise in diagnosing certain types of cancer that uses CEA as detection biomarker, such as pancreatic cancer and colon cancer. To further address the issue of background noises from non-specifically bound proteins (NSB) in complex media, such as plasma, serum, urine and blood, MEF is integrated with surface acoustic wave (SAW) streaming ...


Sandy Feet, Garrett E. Herbst, Jacqueline Chuang, Jerin T. Brust, Parker S. Duncan Jun 2020

Sandy Feet, Garrett E. Herbst, Jacqueline Chuang, Jerin T. Brust, Parker S. Duncan

General Engineering

Sgt. Brady is a former armed forces member with a transtibial amputation. He walks on sand frequently for work and leisure, but experiences severe pain and inconvenience because his current prosthesis is not meant for use on sand. Sand Foot V2 is a prosthesis that allows Sgt. Brady to walk on sand for long periods of time without issue.


Mountain Arm, Conner Magnuson, Amanda Lingle, Jordan Ambrose, Marco Lopez Jun 2020

Mountain Arm, Conner Magnuson, Amanda Lingle, Jordan Ambrose, Marco Lopez

General Engineering

QL+ Challenger, US Navy Veteran, and transhumeral amputee Cassie Perando needed a way to backpack comfortably and independently while wearing a transhumeral prosthesis, as this is something that she enjoys doing often. The current prosthesis she wears causes pinching while wearing a backpack. To eliminate this issue, we decided to design and create a dynamic, pin-lock socket. This design decision allowed for a comfortable fit for Cassie that will not interfere with the backpack straps. As a secondary suspension system, we designed a sports bra with straps that attach to her opposing side and connect to the front and the ...


Cervis: Cervical Cancer Early Response Visual Identification System, Kira Palazzo, Lauren Serfas, Juliana Trujillo Jun 2020

Cervis: Cervical Cancer Early Response Visual Identification System, Kira Palazzo, Lauren Serfas, Juliana Trujillo

Bioengineering Senior Theses

The goal of CERVIS is to increase screening for cervical cancer through the development of a low-cost, minimally invasive screening procedure for women in low-resource settings that requires minimal healthcare expertise. There currently exist two primary screening procedures: the Pap smear, primarily used in developed countries, and visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), primarily used in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Both of these procedures require a high degree of healthcare training in order to administer and interpret, and are highly invasive, requiring direct interaction with the cervix. Our alternative procedure utilizes a particular bacteria, Fusobacterium nucleatum , within the cervicovaginal ...


Milkguard: A Low-Cost Hydrogel Sensor For The Detection Of Escherichia Coli In Donated Human Breast Milk, Emily Brogan, Ariana Haddad, Bridget Woody Jun 2020

Milkguard: A Low-Cost Hydrogel Sensor For The Detection Of Escherichia Coli In Donated Human Breast Milk, Emily Brogan, Ariana Haddad, Bridget Woody

Bioengineering Senior Theses

Breast milk is considered the gold standard of infant nutrition. However , many women around the world lack the ability to breastfeed their children due to disease, malnutrition, time constraints, or cultural considerations. Human breast milk banks exist to collect and distribute breast milk , allowing the greatest number of infants to have access to safe breast milk for optimal nutrition. To ensure the safety of the breast milk that is donated and distributed, milk banks must pasteurize and test donated breast milk for biological hazards such as bacteria. While pasteurization methods in the United States and other highly developed nations are ...


Brainwave Classification For Eeg-Based Neurofeedback, Brent Baculi, Stuart Cansdale Jun 2020

Brainwave Classification For Eeg-Based Neurofeedback, Brent Baculi, Stuart Cansdale

Bioengineering Senior Theses

The aim of this project was to find a way to differentiate active and rested brain signals in a patient using tasks without bodily movement to provide extremely motorly disabled patients a method of control for robotic devices that enable them to move independently of a caretaker. Although many control methods exist for less severely motorly impaired patients, this method would improve quality of life for all patients by allowing for movements to be controlled exclusively using the brain. The three steps for our project were to define the tasks and collect data, process the signals, and run the processed ...


Identification Of Messenger Molecule Between Mammalian And Bacterial Cells, Anna Fraser-Philbin, Alexander Heiler Jun 2020

Identification Of Messenger Molecule Between Mammalian And Bacterial Cells, Anna Fraser-Philbin, Alexander Heiler

Bioengineering Senior Theses

The rapid escalation of the antibiotic resistance crisis has brought attention to the decline in efficiency of antibiotics which have long been a cornerstone of modern medicine. This project aims to provide novel drug targets for the creation of anti-infective immunotherapies that can treat drug-resistant infections. The identification of said drug target(s) (Molecule X) will allow for the development of an antibody based drug that will neutralize bacterial virulence rather than killing the bacteria. Molecule X will be bound using the protein Sortase A (SrtA). SrtA is a surface protein that controls the virulence of gram positive bacteria by ...


Novel Cancer Treatment Using Engineered Exosomes To Disrupt Cancer’S Immune Escape, Abena Boateng, Carley Fowler, Maritza Soria Jun 2020

Novel Cancer Treatment Using Engineered Exosomes To Disrupt Cancer’S Immune Escape, Abena Boateng, Carley Fowler, Maritza Soria

Bioengineering Senior Theses

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the United States1. This disease has impacted billions worldwide and has led to an ever-increasing burden on the healthcare system. Over the last couple of years, researchers have improved upon conventional cancer therapy that includes chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery. One novel approach is immunotherapy, which shows great potential because it has the ability to directly target cancerous cells2. This is a viable treatment because most cancers develop the ability to block immune pathways and evade the killer immune cells in what is known as cancer immune escape. One ...


Concussion Detection Device, Jenna C. Sussex, Mark B. Edin, Bianca X. Aleman Jun 2020

Concussion Detection Device, Jenna C. Sussex, Mark B. Edin, Bianca X. Aleman

Biomedical Engineering

No abstract provided.


The Effect Of Distal Core Flattening And Heat Treatment On 304 Stainless Steel Guide Wires, Andrew Spencer Yap, Bryce Eric Veit, Matthew Frederick Lopez Villena Jun 2020

The Effect Of Distal Core Flattening And Heat Treatment On 304 Stainless Steel Guide Wires, Andrew Spencer Yap, Bryce Eric Veit, Matthew Frederick Lopez Villena

Materials Engineering

The mechanical response of 304 stainless steel guide wires due to different temper conditions and amounts of flattening is to be explored in this project. For this specific project, there is no public literature on the mechanical properties of guide wires with the above conditions through tensile testing or Turns to Failure Testing. To address this, the project with Abbott Vascular will measure the mechanical properties of guide wires using the aforementioned factors. Due to a lack of previous literature on this research topic, there are no quantitative goals for the project, however, any new research compiled in this area ...


Surf Sled, Marius Jatulis, Arthur Zaayer, Griffin O'Malley, Jose Covarrubias Jun 2020

Surf Sled, Marius Jatulis, Arthur Zaayer, Griffin O'Malley, Jose Covarrubias

Mechanical Engineering

This Final Design Review document outlines the process by which we designed and built a surfboard sled, nicknamed the “Beachin’ Buggy”, for the AmpSurf program. The document describes the goals and services that AmpSurf provides for those living with disabilities, and the current methods that volunteers use to transport people from to beach to the water and onto a surfboard. It then identifies the need for a new system for beach-to-water transportation, along with all specifications, constraints, and goals for the system. Background research will be introduced to relate similar products to this project, and their relevant features and parameters ...


Prosthetic Foot Shell, Ql+, Kathryn Victoria Versteeg, Jackson A. Tucker, Ethan William Frey Jun 2020

Prosthetic Foot Shell, Ql+, Kathryn Victoria Versteeg, Jackson A. Tucker, Ethan William Frey

Mechanical Engineering

This final design review includes an overview of our project and the steps we have taken to create our final product. We discuss the background research conducted, including various products like the foot shell we are trying to design and its related patents, along with similar past senior projects. As our product is considered a medical device, there are also certain standards that we must comply with. After determining our problem statement, we established what we believe to be the wants and needs of our user. These wants and needs were converted into specifications for our design, with durability as ...


Non-Invasive Peripheral Venous And Arterial Line Air Detector For Embolization Prevention, Alexandria Kwong, Kevin Shu, Dylan Meinster Jun 2020

Non-Invasive Peripheral Venous And Arterial Line Air Detector For Embolization Prevention, Alexandria Kwong, Kevin Shu, Dylan Meinster

Biomedical Engineering

The scope of this project includes designing a non-invasive bubble detector for peripheral venous and arterial lines. For minimally invasive cardiac procedures, arterial and venous access is necessary for these procedures as is constant flow through the tubing to prevent clotting and to administer drugs. Air bubbles are common in these lines and can be consequential if enough air is introduced into the human system. Air embolisms are the most common and relevant issues during these procedures. The goal of this device is to create an attachable detector for air bubbles in saline that can also terminate flow and alert ...