Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Radiology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

1,240 Full-Text Articles 3,919 Authors 295,872 Downloads 67 Institutions

All Articles in Radiology

Faceted Search

1,240 full-text articles. Page 4 of 45.

Optimizing Vaccine Immunotherapy For Prostate Cancer, G. Hattier, E. K. Bongiorno, C. Portocarrero, Trevor R. Baybutt, Adam E. Snook, U. Rodeck 2018 Thomas Jefferson University

Optimizing Vaccine Immunotherapy For Prostate Cancer, G. Hattier, E. K. Bongiorno, C. Portocarrero, Trevor R. Baybutt, Adam E. Snook, U. Rodeck

Sigma Xi Student Research Day

Introduction: Treatment options for metastatic prostate cancer are limited and cures are rare. In other cancers immunotherapy has shown remarkable efficacy in certain patient subsets particularly when combined with other treatment modalities. Our previous work showed that combining radiation and vaccine therapy slows the growth of syngeneic prostate cancer in mice more effectively than single modality treatment arms. Here we tested the hypothesis that addition of immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting the PD1/PD-L1 axis further improves efficacy of the dual radiation/vaccine treatment.

Methods: Mice were injected with tumor cells expressing human prostate specific antigen (TPSA-23). The mice were divided ...


Stochastic Modeling Of Radiation-Induced Dendritic Damage On In Silico Mouse Hippocampal Neurons, Eliedonna Cacao, Vipan K. Parihar, Charles L. Limoli, Francis A. Cucinotta 2018 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Stochastic Modeling Of Radiation-Induced Dendritic Damage On In Silico Mouse Hippocampal Neurons, Eliedonna Cacao, Vipan K. Parihar, Charles L. Limoli, Francis A. Cucinotta

Health Physics & Diagnostic Sciences Faculty Publications

Cognitive dysfunction associated with radiotherapy for cancer treatment has been correlated to several factors, one of which is changes to the dendritic morphology of neuronal cells. Alterations in dendritic geometry and branching patterns are often accompanied by deficits that impact learning and memory. The purpose of this study is to develop a novel predictive model of neuronal dendritic damages caused by exposure to low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, such as X-rays, gamma-rays and high-energy protons. We established in silico representations of mouse hippocampal dentate granule cell layer (GCL) and CA1 pyramidal neurons, which are frequently examined in radiation-induced cognitive ...


Bleeding Stomal Varices In Portal Hypertension, Karen Tran-Harding, Michael A. Winkler, Driss Raissi 2018 University of Kentucky

Bleeding Stomal Varices In Portal Hypertension, Karen Tran-Harding, Michael A. Winkler, Driss Raissi

Radiology Faculty Publications

We report a case of a 50-year-old man with a history of liver cirrhosis and colon cancer post end colostomy presenting to the emergency department with stomal bleeding and passage of clots into the colostomy bag. The patient was treated with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) and concomitant embolization of the stomal varices via the TIPS shunt using N-butyl cyanoacrylate mixed with ethiodol. Although stomal variceal bleeding is uncommon, this entity can have up to 40% mortality upon initial presentation, given the challenges in diagnosis and management. Currently, there are no established standard treatments for stomal variceal bleeding. In addition ...


Massive Tumor Thrombus In Left Renal Vein Andiinferior Vena Cava In Renal Cell Carcinoma On 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computerized Tomography: "Suspension Bridge Sign"., Maseeh uz Zaman, Nosheen Fatima, Unaiza Zaman, Rabia Tahseen, Sidra Zaman 2018 Aga Khan University

Massive Tumor Thrombus In Left Renal Vein Andiinferior Vena Cava In Renal Cell Carcinoma On 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computerized Tomography: "Suspension Bridge Sign"., Maseeh Uz Zaman, Nosheen Fatima, Unaiza Zaman, Rabia Tahseen, Sidra Zaman

Department of Radiology

Tumor thrombosis is a relatively uncommon complication of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and its diagnosis has therapeutic and prognostic implication. Computerized tomography (CT) is the primary imaging modality for staging RCC, but it has low sensitivity to differentiate between tumor thrombus and bland or benign thrombus. 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT) has a limited role in diagnosis and staging of RCC, but its diagnostic accuracy is considerably high for detection of metabolically active tumor thrombus. We are presenting a case of metastatic left-sided RCC with massive hypermetabolic tumor thrombus extending from left kidney to left renal vein and ...


Experiences Of The Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy At A Public Hospital Peshawar Pakistan, Gulzar Habibullah, Raisa Raisa, Shanaz Hussein Cassum SC, Rehana Elahi 2018 Postgraduate College of Nursing Hayatabad, Peshawar, Pakistan

Experiences Of The Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy At A Public Hospital Peshawar Pakistan, Gulzar Habibullah, Raisa Raisa, Shanaz Hussein Cassum Sc, Rehana Elahi

School of Nursing & Midwifery

Objective: This study aimed to explore the experiences of female breast cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy (RT) in a public hospital in Peshawar, Pakistan.
Methods: This study employed a descriptive exploratory method. A purposive sample of 14 breast cancer women undergoing RT was selected for this study. Data were collected over the period of 5 months, using a semi-structured interview guide and conducting in-depth face-to-face interviews. These interviews were audio taped and transcribed by a bilingual transcriber. The translated version of the interview was coded, and the analysis was done manually.
Results: Four main categories emerged from data analysis, which were ...


A Variant Of Crossed Pulmonary Arteries In Association With Coarctation Of Aorta, Rabail Raza, Kumail Khandwala, Hafsa Qayyum, Muhammad Anwar Saeed, Anwar Ahmad 2018 Aga Khan University

A Variant Of Crossed Pulmonary Arteries In Association With Coarctation Of Aorta, Rabail Raza, Kumail Khandwala, Hafsa Qayyum, Muhammad Anwar Saeed, Anwar Ahmad

Department of Radiology

Crossed or "crisscross" pulmonary arteries (CPA) are a result of an anomalous origin and course of both the pulmonary arteries from the main pulmonary trunk in which the left pulmonary artery (PA) ostium usually lies directly superior and to the right PA ostium after which they cross each other and supply their respective lungs. This condition is usually associated with conotruncal malformations and genetic syndromes. We describe a case report of an infant, suspected to have Down syndrome, who was diagnosed with CPA and coarctation of aorta on computed tomography (CT) angiography. Our case is unusual because in our patient ...


Resolution Of Symptomatic Secondary Empty Sella Syndrome Following Lumbar-Peritoneal Shunt., Waseem Mehmood Nizamani, Mubbashira Siddiqui, Sehrish Nizar Ali Momin, Waqas Muhammad, Rashid Jooma 2018 Aga Khan University

Resolution Of Symptomatic Secondary Empty Sella Syndrome Following Lumbar-Peritoneal Shunt., Waseem Mehmood Nizamani, Mubbashira Siddiqui, Sehrish Nizar Ali Momin, Waqas Muhammad, Rashid Jooma

Department of Radiology

Background: Post‑surgical empty sella is related to the removal of pituitary tumors either from the transcranial or transphenoidal route, rendering diaphragma sellae incompetent at the end of the procedure. This subsequently leads to herniation of the third ventricle and optic apparatus into the empty sella. Studies have shown that in 50% of the cases, individuals with primary and secondary empty sella syndrome have developed defects in the visual fields. Benign increased intracranial pressure, cerebrospinal rhinorrhea, papilledema, and abnormalities affecting visual acuity may also occur as a result of empty sella.

Case Description: This case report discusses a rare treatment ...


Accuracy Of Specimen Radiography In Assessing Complete Local Excision With Breast-Conservation Surgery, Saira Naz, Imrana Masroor, Shaista Afzal Saeed, W. Akhtar, Sehrish Butt, Zafar Sajjad, Anwar Ahmad 2018 Aga Khan University

Accuracy Of Specimen Radiography In Assessing Complete Local Excision With Breast-Conservation Surgery, Saira Naz, Imrana Masroor, Shaista Afzal Saeed, W. Akhtar, Sehrish Butt, Zafar Sajjad, Anwar Ahmad

Department of Radiology

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of “X- ray examination of surgically resected specimen‘‘ in assessing complete local excision (CLE).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective cross sectional study, data were collected for all female breast cancer cases who underwent breast-conserving surgery after needle localization of mammographically visible disease. Males, patients with mammographically invisible disease and cases with benign or inconclusive histopathology, those undergoing modified radical mastectomy and individuals with dense breast parenchyma were excluded. We evaluated radiography of resected specimens to assess margin spiculation, distance of mass/microcalcification from the excised margin, presence of ...


Diagnostic Accuracy Of Pelvic Mri For Determination Of The Cervical Involvement In Endometrial Cancer., Imrana Masroor, Sadia Rashid, Shaista Afzal Saeed, Saira Naz, Muhammad Azeemuddin 2018 Aga Khan University

Diagnostic Accuracy Of Pelvic Mri For Determination Of The Cervical Involvement In Endometrial Cancer., Imrana Masroor, Sadia Rashid, Shaista Afzal Saeed, Saira Naz, Muhammad Azeemuddin

Department of Radiology

OBJECTIVE: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of pelvic MRI for assessment of the cervical involvement in endometrial cancer.

STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional analytical study.

PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Radiology Department of the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi from January 2014 to December 2015.

METHODOLOGY: Patients with biopsy-proven endometrial cancer were included, who had both their MRI and histopathological diagnosis performed at our institution. Those patients treated with chemo/radiotherapy or had incomplete medical records, were excluded. The extent of cervical involvement by endometrial carcinoma was seen on T2WI images, and findings were correlated after surgery taking histopathology as the gold ...


Myocardial Perfusion Imaging: The Gatekeeper And Advisor, Maseeh uz Zaman, Nosheen Fatima 2018 Aga Khan University

Myocardial Perfusion Imaging: The Gatekeeper And Advisor, Maseeh Uz Zaman, Nosheen Fatima

Department of Radiology

No abstract provided.


Breast Lesions Detected Via Molecular Breast Imaging: Physiological Parameters Affecting Interpretation, Jason Ching, Rachel Brem 2018 George Washington University

Breast Lesions Detected Via Molecular Breast Imaging: Physiological Parameters Affecting Interpretation, Jason Ching, Rachel Brem

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Rationale and Objectives:

To evaluate correlations between molecular breast imaging (MBI) descriptor characteristics and positive predictive value (PPV) in detecting breast cancer.

Materials and Methods:

A retrospective review was performed on 193 suspicious findings from 153 women (31-81 years) with positive MBI examinations. We assessed associations between: (i) lesion pattern (mass vs. non-mass) and PPV; (ii) lesion pattern and suspected likelihood of cancer (low vs. moderate vs. high); (iii) background parenchymal uptake (BPU) (homogeneous vs. heterogeneous) and PPV; (iv) breast density (dense vs. non-dense) and PPV; (v) BPU and density.

Results:

One hundred ten of 153 patients were diagnosed with ...


Compressed Sensing For Few-View Multi-Pinhole Spect With Applications To Preclinical Imaging, Benjamin Michael Rizzo 2018 Marquette University

Compressed Sensing For Few-View Multi-Pinhole Spect With Applications To Preclinical Imaging, Benjamin Michael Rizzo

Dissertations (2009 -)

Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) can be used to identify and quantify changes in molecular and cellular targets involved in disease. A radiopharmaceutical that targets a specific metabolic function is administered to a subject and planar projections are formed by imaging emissions at different view angles around the subject. The reconstruction task is to determine the distribution of radioactivity within the subject from the projections. We present a reconstruction approach that utilizes only a few view angles, resulting in a highly underdetermined system, which could be used for dynamic imaging applications designed to quantify physiologic processes altered with disease ...


Enriching The Medical Student Radiology Clerkship: Simulating The Radiologist’S Experience, Liqi Shu, Faraien Bahri, Navid Mostaghni, Ramin Javan 2018 George Washington University

Enriching The Medical Student Radiology Clerkship: Simulating The Radiologist’S Experience, Liqi Shu, Faraien Bahri, Navid Mostaghni, Ramin Javan

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Background

Current radiology training in medical schools is still predominantly limited to passively observing the radiologist at the workstation and through lectures, textbooks and online sources. Evaluation is also mainly limited on still image interpretation or knowledge-based multiple-choice questions. Furthermore, students may have specific interests based on their choice of residency. In order to create a tailored and active learning experience, and to evaluate students’ ability in image interpretation, we utilized an open-source web-based Picture archiving and communication system (PACS) named "Weasis" and integrated a report system.

Method

We establish a new PACS teaching system by utilizing the open-source PACS ...


The Pivotal Role Of Mri In The Diagnosis Of Listeria Rhomboencephalitis, K.R Uprety, M Reza Taheri 2018 George Washington University

The Pivotal Role Of Mri In The Diagnosis Of Listeria Rhomboencephalitis, K.R Uprety, M Reza Taheri

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Sixty-six year-old female presented to the Emergency Department with history of several days of headache, malaise, chills, and fatigue with accompanying nausea, vomiting, and inability to tolerate oral intake. She had no history of fever and remained afebrile at the time of presentation. Physical exam and immediate lab values were non-contributory; CSF was obtained and sent for analysis. The patient was placed preemptively on acyclovir, as viral meningitis was the admitting diagnosis. MRI of the brain showed abnormal FLAIR signal hyperintensity and enhancement involving the entire cisternal segment of the left trigeminal nerve, which extended dorsally along the nerve fiber ...


Electrophysiological Signatures Of Spatial Boundaries In The Human Subiculum., Sang Ah Lee, Jonathan F. Miller, Andrew J. Watrous, Michael R. Sperling, Ashwini Sharan, Gregory A. Worrell, Brent M. Berry, Joshua P. Aronson, Kathryn A. Davis, Robert E. Gross, Bradley Lega, Sameer Sheth, Sandhitsu R. Das, Joel M. Stein, Richard Gorniak, Daniel S. Rizzuto, Joshua Jacobs 2018 Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology

Electrophysiological Signatures Of Spatial Boundaries In The Human Subiculum., Sang Ah Lee, Jonathan F. Miller, Andrew J. Watrous, Michael R. Sperling, Ashwini Sharan, Gregory A. Worrell, Brent M. Berry, Joshua P. Aronson, Kathryn A. Davis, Robert E. Gross, Bradley Lega, Sameer Sheth, Sandhitsu R. Das, Joel M. Stein, Richard Gorniak, Daniel S. Rizzuto, Joshua Jacobs

Department of Radiology Faculty Papers

Environmental boundaries play a crucial role in spatial navigation and memory across a wide range of distantly related species. In rodents, boundary representations have been identified at the single-cell level in the subiculum and entorhinal cortex of the hippocampal formation. Although studies of hippocampal function and spatial behavior suggest that similar representations might exist in humans, boundary-related neural activity has not been identified electrophysiologically in humans until now. To address this gap in the literature, we analyzed intracranial recordings from the hippocampal formation of surgical epilepsy patients (of both sexes) while they performed a virtual spatial navigation task and compared ...


Training Course In Focused Assessment With Sonography For Hiv/Tb In Hiv Prevalent Medical Centers In Malawi, Timothy Canan, Risa Hoffman, Alan Schooley, Zachary Boas, Kristin Schwab, Daniel Kahn, Roger Shih, Khumbo Phiri, Julie Parent, Ben Allan Banda, Ronald Chagoma, Chifundo Chipungu, Kara-Lee Pool 2018 University of California, Los Angeles

Training Course In Focused Assessment With Sonography For Hiv/Tb In Hiv Prevalent Medical Centers In Malawi, Timothy Canan, Risa Hoffman, Alan Schooley, Zachary Boas, Kristin Schwab, Daniel Kahn, Roger Shih, Khumbo Phiri, Julie Parent, Ben Allan Banda, Ronald Chagoma, Chifundo Chipungu, Kara-Lee Pool

Journal of Global Radiology

Purpose: This article describes the process of training medical providers of different backgrounds about the “focused assessment with sonography for HIV-associated TB” (FASH) exam to expand the availability of ultrasound for TB diagnosis in resource poor settings in the central region of Malawi.

Methods and Materials: A survey was completed by the 19 eligible participants before and after a 4-day training course regarding the utility of the FASH exam. A six-question quiz was used to assess knowledge of the use of ultrasound in the FASH exam before and after the course.

Results: Participants’ knowledge of the FASH technique significantly improved ...


Non-Retrieval Of Inferior Vena Cava Filters As A Patient Safety Concern: Evaluation Of A New Process Improvement Project To Increase Retrieval Rates In A Vascular And Interventional Radiology Clinic, Joshua Brown, Jeffery Talbert, Ryan Pennington, Qiong Han, Driss Raissi 2018 University of Florida

Non-Retrieval Of Inferior Vena Cava Filters As A Patient Safety Concern: Evaluation Of A New Process Improvement Project To Increase Retrieval Rates In A Vascular And Interventional Radiology Clinic, Joshua Brown, Jeffery Talbert, Ryan Pennington, Qiong Han, Driss Raissi

Pharmacy Practice and Science Faculty Publications

Background: Retrieval of inferior vena cava filters (IVCFs) is important to decrease the long-term risk of complications associated with indwelling devices. Our hospital experienced low retrieval rates and implemented a low-cost intervention and evaluation for quality improvement. The working hypothesis was that a simple, mailed letter intervention could increase retrieval rates by increasing patient and primary care provider knowledge of the need for retrieval.

Methods: For all prospective patients who received a retrievable IVCF during the intervention period from January 1, 2014 to February 29, 2016, patients and their primary care providers were mailed letters encouraging contact with the clinic ...


The Value Of Mri In Distinguishing Subtypes Of Lipomatous Extremity Tumors Needs Reassessment In The Era Of Mdm2 And Cdk4 Testing, Sean Ryan, Julia Visgauss, David Kerr, Joshua Helmkamp, Nicholas Said, Emily Vinson, Patrick W. O'Donnell, Xuechan Li, Sin-Ho Jung, Diana Cardona, William Eward, Brian Brigman 2018 Duke University

The Value Of Mri In Distinguishing Subtypes Of Lipomatous Extremity Tumors Needs Reassessment In The Era Of Mdm2 And Cdk4 Testing, Sean Ryan, Julia Visgauss, David Kerr, Joshua Helmkamp, Nicholas Said, Emily Vinson, Patrick W. O'Donnell, Xuechan Li, Sin-Ho Jung, Diana Cardona, William Eward, Brian Brigman

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

Introduction. Extremity lipomas and well-differentiated liposarcomas (WDLs) are difficult to distinguish on MR imaging. We sought to evaluate the accuracy of MRI interpretation using MDM2 amplification, via fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH), as the gold standard for pathologic diagnosis. Furthermore, we aimed to investigate the utility of a diagnostic formula proposed in the literature. Methods. We retrospectively collected 49 patients with lipomas or WDLs utilizing MDM2 for pathologic diagnosis. Four expert readers interpreted each patient's MRI independently and provided a diagnosis. Additionally, a formula based on imaging characteristics (i.e. tumor depth, diameter, presence of septa, and internal cystic change ...


Beyond Concurrent Chemoradiation: The Emerging Role Of Pd-1/Pd-L1 Inhibitors In Stage Iii Lung Cancer., Neal S. McCall, Adam P. Dicker, Bo Lu 2018 Thomas Jefferson University

Beyond Concurrent Chemoradiation: The Emerging Role Of Pd-1/Pd-L1 Inhibitors In Stage Iii Lung Cancer., Neal S. Mccall, Adam P. Dicker, Bo Lu

Department of Radiation Oncology Faculty Papers

Concurrent chemoradiation (cCRT) with platinum-based chemotherapy is standard-of-care therapy for patients with stage III unresectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Although cCRT is potentially curative, 5-year overall survival has hovered around 20%, despite extensive efforts to improve outcomes with increasing doses of conformal radiation and intensification of systemic therapy with either induction or consolidation chemotherapy. PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint inhibitors have demonstrated unprecedented efficacy in patients with stage IV NSCLC. In addition, preclinical and early clinical evidence suggests that chemotherapy and radiation may work synergistically with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy to promote antitumor immunity, which has led to the initiation of ...


Age Related Diffusion And Tractography Changes In Typically Developing Pediatric Cervical And Thoracic Spinal Cord, Mahdi Alizadeh, Joshua Fisher, Sona Saksena, PhD, Yusra Sultan, Chris Conklin, PhD, Devon Middleton, Laura Krisa, PhD, Jürgen Finsterbusch, Adam Flanders, Scott H. Faro, M. J. Mulcahey, Feroze Mohamed, PhD 2018 Thomas Jefferson University

Age Related Diffusion And Tractography Changes In Typically Developing Pediatric Cervical And Thoracic Spinal Cord, Mahdi Alizadeh, Joshua Fisher, Sona Saksena, Phd, Yusra Sultan, Chris Conklin, Phd, Devon Middleton, Laura Krisa, Phd, Jürgen Finsterbusch, Adam Flanders, Scott H. Faro, M. J. Mulcahey, Feroze Mohamed, Phd

Department of Radiology Faculty Papers

Background and objective: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) are two techniques that can measure white matter integrity of the spinal cord. Recently, DTI indices have been shown to change with age. The purpose of this study is (a) to evaluate the maturational states of the entire pediatric spinal cord using DTI and DTT indices including fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), mean length of white matter fiber tracts and tract density and (b) to analyze the DTI and DTT parameters along the entire spinal cord as a function of spinal cord levels and age. Method: A ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress