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A Cross- Sectional Study Of Stress Biomarkers And Their Associations With Post-Trauma Complaints, And How Those Associations Are Moderated By Early Life Adversity, Sadia Siraj 2017 The University of Western Ontario

A Cross- Sectional Study Of Stress Biomarkers And Their Associations With Post-Trauma Complaints, And How Those Associations Are Moderated By Early Life Adversity, Sadia Siraj

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Chronic musculoskeletal pain results in significant personal, economic, and social burden. Early identification and intervention in those people with acute pain that are likely to transition into a state of chronicity can prevent the onset of chronic pain before it emerges and becomes resistant to treatment. This study investigated the potential stress biomarkers associated with acute pain and disability and how those associations are influenced by early life adversities.

Stress level was determined according to the plasma level of stress biomarkers (cortisol, BDNF, TGFB1) and self-report measures of stress following musculoskeletal traumatic events. The magnitude and direction of associations of ...


A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study Of Motor Fibre Path Integrity And Overt Responsiveness In Disorders Of Consciousness, Clara A. Stafford 2017 The University of Western Ontario

A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study Of Motor Fibre Path Integrity And Overt Responsiveness In Disorders Of Consciousness, Clara A. Stafford

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This study investigated the relationship between motor thalamo-cortico-cerebellar fibre path integrity and overt responsiveness in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). Additionally, we investigated the potential of imaging these motor tracts at ultra-high fields. Study I and II aimed to map the white matter connections of motor execution fibres in DOC patients. Our results showed significant reductions in motor fibre path integrity across DOC diagnostic categories. Study III and IV aimed to develop a 7T MRI Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) sequence. We optimized this sequence to image motor fibre paths in DOC patients. We concluded that, in healthy controls, probabilistic ...


Trauma Team Activation For Geriatric Trauma At A Level Ii Trauma Center: Are The Elderly Under-Triaged?, Grant S. Buchanan, Daniel Scott Kahn, Harry Burke, Brian Czarkowski, Richard Boe, Milad Modarresi, Franklin D. Shuler 2017 Marshall University

Trauma Team Activation For Geriatric Trauma At A Level Ii Trauma Center: Are The Elderly Under-Triaged?, Grant S. Buchanan, Daniel Scott Kahn, Harry Burke, Brian Czarkowski, Richard Boe, Milad Modarresi, Franklin D. Shuler

Franklin D. Shuler

Abstract

Geriatric patients often sustain life-threatening injuries from minor trauma. A growing body of research suggests that these patients are often under-triaged in the emergency setting.The purpose of this research was to evaluate whether or not geriatric trauma patients are under-triaged at a community based level II trauma center.

1434 trauma patients over the age of 65 presenting from 2010-2015 were retrospectively reviewed from the Cabell Huntington Hospital trauma registry and analyzed for age, gender, arrival type, ED response, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), injury cause, ICD-9 diagnosis codes, and mortality. Under-triage and over-triage rates were ...


Trauma Team Activation For Geriatric Trauma At A Level Ii Trauma Center: Are The Elderly Under-Triaged?, Grant S. Buchanan, Daniel Scott Kahn, Harry Burke, Brian Czarkowski, Richard Boe, Milad Modarresi, Franklin D. Shuler 2017 Marshall University

Trauma Team Activation For Geriatric Trauma At A Level Ii Trauma Center: Are The Elderly Under-Triaged?, Grant S. Buchanan, Daniel Scott Kahn, Harry Burke, Brian Czarkowski, Richard Boe, Milad Modarresi, Franklin D. Shuler

Marshall Journal of Medicine

Abstract

Geriatric patients often sustain life-threatening injuries from minor trauma. A growing body of research suggests that these patients are often under-triaged in the emergency setting.The purpose of this research was to evaluate whether or not geriatric trauma patients are under-triaged at a community based level II trauma center.

1434 trauma patients over the age of 65 presenting from 2010-2015 were retrospectively reviewed from the Cabell Huntington Hospital trauma registry and analyzed for age, gender, arrival type, ED response, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), injury cause, ICD-9 diagnosis codes, and mortality. Under-triage and over-triage rates were ...


“Can’T You Just Say?” – Contrasting Communication Preferences Between Surrogate Decision-Makers And Physicians During Outcome Prognostication In Critically-Ill Traumatic Brain Injury Patients, Thomas Quinn, Jesse Moskowitz, Muhammad Khan, Lori Shutter, Robert J. Goldberg, Nananda Col, Kathleen M. Mazor, Susanne Muehlschlegel 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

“Can’T You Just Say?” – Contrasting Communication Preferences Between Surrogate Decision-Makers And Physicians During Outcome Prognostication In Critically-Ill Traumatic Brain Injury Patients, Thomas Quinn, Jesse Moskowitz, Muhammad Khan, Lori Shutter, Robert J. Goldberg, Nananda Col, Kathleen M. Mazor, Susanne Muehlschlegel

Kathleen M. Mazor

Objective: Surrogate decision-makers (“surrogates”) and physicians of incapacitated patients have different views of prognosis and how it should be communicated, but this has not been investigated in neurocritically-ill patients. We examined communication preferences in surrogates and physician practices during the outcome prognostication for critically-ill traumatic brain injury (ciTBI) patients in neuroICUs.

Design: Qualitative study using in-person semi-structured interviews with surrogates of ciTBI patients and physicians with expertise in TBI.

Setting: Two neuroICUs at two level-1 trauma centers (surrogates); seven academic U.S. medical centers (physicians).

Subjects: Sixteen surrogates for 15 ciTBI patients and 20 attending physicians from neurocritical care, neurosurgery ...


The Effects Of Insurance Status On Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury Outcomes: A Literature Review, Anthony Fabio, Austin Murray, Michelle Mellers, Stephen Wisniewski, Michael Bell 2017 University of Pittsburgh

The Effects Of Insurance Status On Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury Outcomes: A Literature Review, Anthony Fabio, Austin Murray, Michelle Mellers, Stephen Wisniewski, Michael Bell

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Objective: To review the literature that describes the effects of insurance status on traumatic brain injury (TBI) outcomes among pediatric patients to understand how policies related to access to health insurance changes TBI outcomes. Method: This review was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA). A search of OVID Medline was conducted in May of 2016 for all years for peer-reviewed articles that included keywords related to “brain injuries” and “insurance status”. Articles were included if authors conducted a separate analysis of children aged 0 to 18. Articles were excluded if the TBI was the ...


A Prospective Investigation To Develop Data-Driven Interventions And Improve Process Efficiency At A Level Ii Trauma Center, Tracy L. Litzinger 2017 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

A Prospective Investigation To Develop Data-Driven Interventions And Improve Process Efficiency At A Level Ii Trauma Center, Tracy L. Litzinger

Dissertations and Theses

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this investigation was to better understand process inefficiencies in a Level II trauma center through the identification and classification of flow disruptions. Data-driven interventions were systematically developed and introduced in an effort to reduce disruptions threatening the optimal delivery of trauma care.

METHOD: Medical human factors researchers observed disruptions during resuscitation and imaging in 117 trauma cases. Data was classified using the human factors taxonomy Realizing Improved Patient Care through Human-centered Operating Room Design for Threat Window Analysis (RIPCHORD-TWA). Interdisciplinary subject matter experts (SMEs) utilized a human factors intervention matrix (HFIX) to generate targeted interventions designed ...


Use Of Geocoding And Us Census Data To Assess Determinants Of Outcome In Trauma Patients, Krista M. Goodman MD, John J. Hong MD, Sherrine Eid MPH, Leslie Baga BSN, CCRC, Michael M. Badellino MD, MPH, FACS, Michael D. Pasquale MD, FACS 2017 Lehigh Valley Health Network

Use Of Geocoding And Us Census Data To Assess Determinants Of Outcome In Trauma Patients, Krista M. Goodman Md, John J. Hong Md, Sherrine Eid Mph, Leslie Baga Bsn, Ccrc, Michael M. Badellino Md, Mph, Facs, Michael D. Pasquale Md, Facs

John J. Hong, M.D.

No abstract provided.


Effect Of Preinjury Use Of Antiplatelet Agents In Patients With Isolated Traumatic Brain Injury, Danielle Cheeseman MD, David Milia MD, David Kashmer MD, Farheen Hussain MS, John J. Hong MD, Robert D. Barraco MD 2017 Lehigh Valley Health Network

Effect Of Preinjury Use Of Antiplatelet Agents In Patients With Isolated Traumatic Brain Injury, Danielle Cheeseman Md, David Milia Md, David Kashmer Md, Farheen Hussain Ms, John J. Hong Md, Robert D. Barraco Md

John J. Hong, M.D.

No abstract provided.


The Role Of Skeletal Survey In Identifying Non-Accidental Trauma In Pediatric Trauma Patients, Jonathan Green 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Role Of Skeletal Survey In Identifying Non-Accidental Trauma In Pediatric Trauma Patients, Jonathan Green

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Background: Non-accidental Trauma (NAT) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Children less than 2 years old are at greater risk of NAT than older children. A skeletal survey is a series of X-rays of all the bones in the body, or at least the axial skeleton and the large cortical bones used to identify NAT in children. In this observational study, we examined the association between a child’s age, frequency of positive skeletal surveys, and the types of injuries discovered in pediatric patients undergoing a trauma work-up.

Methods: The study sample consisted of all pediatric ...


Combat Vascular Trauma: From Characterization To Innovation, Shane A. Smith 2017 University of Western Ontario

Combat Vascular Trauma: From Characterization To Innovation, Shane A. Smith

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The way that soldiers are injured in modern conflicts has changed. Bullet and ballistic weapons are harming fewer casualties, and more commonly Improvised Explosive Devices (IED) are injuring them. The purpose of this thesis is to characterize the injury pattern of the antipersonnel IED (AP-IED) in victims from the Afghanistan conflict, to retrospectively examine the incidence and type of vascular trauma in a Canadian level 1 trauma center and to develop and novel device for control of junctional vascular injuries.

The injury pattern of 100 consecutive AP-IED victims was recorded. Multiple amputations occurred in 70% of IED victims: 5 quadruple ...


Defining Success In Perioperative Care Pathways For Hip Fracture Patients, Hayden B. Rockson, Brian Clair, Christine Motzkus, Amrit V. Vinod, Michael Schoor, Matthew Stebulis, Mark Kraus 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Defining Success In Perioperative Care Pathways For Hip Fracture Patients, Hayden B. Rockson, Brian Clair, Christine Motzkus, Amrit V. Vinod, Michael Schoor, Matthew Stebulis, Mark Kraus

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

PURPOSE: Hip fracture is an increasingly common cause of morbidity and mortality in the aging U.S. population. Multiple studies have shown that patients who undergo surgical repair within 48 hours of the initial injury have better outcomes. The use of a perioperative care pathway (PCP) for hip fracture patients combines prompt surgical repair with dedicated medical services tailored to patients’ specific comorbidities.

METHODS: Our level 1 trauma center implemented a PCP in October 2015, requiring only anesthesia (not hospital medicine) clearance prior to surgery. We identified all hip fracture patients who presented to our level 1 hospital for one ...


“Can’T You Just Say?” – Contrasting Communication Preferences Between Surrogate Decision-Makers And Physicians During Outcome Prognostication In Critically-Ill Traumatic Brain Injury Patients, Thomas Quinn, Jesse Moskowitz, Muhammad Khan, Lori Shutter, Robert J. Goldberg, Nananda Col, Kathleen M. Mazor, Susanne Muehlschlegel 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

“Can’T You Just Say?” – Contrasting Communication Preferences Between Surrogate Decision-Makers And Physicians During Outcome Prognostication In Critically-Ill Traumatic Brain Injury Patients, Thomas Quinn, Jesse Moskowitz, Muhammad Khan, Lori Shutter, Robert J. Goldberg, Nananda Col, Kathleen M. Mazor, Susanne Muehlschlegel

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Objective: Surrogate decision-makers (“surrogates”) and physicians of incapacitated patients have different views of prognosis and how it should be communicated, but this has not been investigated in neurocritically-ill patients. We examined communication preferences in surrogates and physician practices during the outcome prognostication for critically-ill traumatic brain injury (ciTBI) patients in neuroICUs.

Design: Qualitative study using in-person semi-structured interviews with surrogates of ciTBI patients and physicians with expertise in TBI.

Setting: Two neuroICUs at two level-1 trauma centers (surrogates); seven academic U.S. medical centers (physicians).

Subjects: Sixteen surrogates for 15 ciTBI patients and 20 attending physicians from neurocritical care, neurosurgery ...


Phoenix Ink: Psychodynamic Motivations For Tattoo Attainment By Survivors Of Trauma, December Renee Maxwell 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Phoenix Ink: Psychodynamic Motivations For Tattoo Attainment By Survivors Of Trauma, December Renee Maxwell

Theses and Dissertations

Tattoos adorn people from all over the world and date back as far as the Stone Age. Tattoos adorn people from all over the world and motivations for tattoo attainment have been studied recently. Still, there remains limited research on the potential therapeutic properties of tattoo attainment, particularly for survivors of sexual trauma. The purpose of this study was to investigate the experience of the tattoo process for survivors of sexual trauma and their motivations for tattoo attainment. This qualitative exploratory study interviewed both survivors of sexual trauma (N=10) and tattoo artists (N=7) to gain a wider perspective ...


Therapeutic Application Of Carbon Monoxide In Acute Limb Compartment Syndrome, Aurelia Bihari 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Therapeutic Application Of Carbon Monoxide In Acute Limb Compartment Syndrome, Aurelia Bihari

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Acute limb compartment syndrome (CS), a devastating complication of musculoskeletal trauma, develops in response to elevation of the pressure within a closed osseofascial compartment, producing muscle- and limb-threatening ischemia. Full decompression of all involved compartments by fasciotomy is the current gold-standard therapy, but it must be performed within a surgical window of 6-8 hours, before tissue damage becomes permanent.

Carbon monoxide (CO), a byproduct of heme metabolism, has been shown protective in ischemia. While inhalation of CO leads to elevation of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), recent development of transitional metal carbonyls, CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs), particularly the water-soluble CORM-3, delivers CO in a ...


Emergency Department Approach To Electrical Toothbrush Associated Hand Injury, A Unique Case Of Non-Oropharyngeal Injury., Hannah Robinson, Neal Sikka, Chimere Little, Ali Pourmand 2017 George Washington University

Emergency Department Approach To Electrical Toothbrush Associated Hand Injury, A Unique Case Of Non-Oropharyngeal Injury., Hannah Robinson, Neal Sikka, Chimere Little, Ali Pourmand

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Puncture wounds are common injuries treated in the emergency department (ED). Prior studies have shown that toothbrushes are common reservoirs for oral flora, especially in regions near the head of the toothbrush near the bristles. ED providers must be aware of the danger associated with bacterial contamination of the associated wound and should be familiar with different pathogens and options for treatment. We present a unique case of a 30-year-old male with non-intraoral injury who presented to the ED after puncturing his left palm with the metal post of an electric toothbrush.


Concussion Screening Evaluation: Bess Vs Sway, Zachariah Hatoum, Aidan Neustadtl, Jeremy Altman, Aurash Zarrinbakhsh, David Milzman 2017 George Washington University

Concussion Screening Evaluation: Bess Vs Sway, Zachariah Hatoum, Aidan Neustadtl, Jeremy Altman, Aurash Zarrinbakhsh, David Milzman

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Introduction: Rapid evaluation of concussion is important in the pre-hospital setting as an easy test. It is also useful in the ED, as too often little is done for concussed patients. The Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) is the current gold standard for evaluating balance, one of the best predictors of concussion. SWAY, a new gyroscope based iPhone application, is being proposed as a more sensitive and more objective test than BESS. This study will compare Sway to BESS to determine if there is equal efficacy.
Method: 74 scholastic and collegiate athletes were administered baseline balance evaluations using Sway. Sway ...


Driving Simulators – More Than A Video Game!, William D. McQuilken B.A., Judith M. Schultz B.A. 2017 Lehigh Valley Health Network

Driving Simulators – More Than A Video Game!, William D. Mcquilken B.A., Judith M. Schultz B.A.

Department of Surgery

Background: This study aimed to investigate teenager, young adult, and adult knowledge levels on distracted and impaired driving through the use of educational driving simulators. The distracted and impaired driving simulators were customized to instruct participants on the dangers of driving distracted or impaired utilizing consequence videos. The simulators were taken to high schools, colleges/universities, and businesses over a four year period where we hypothesized that they would play a significant role in raising knowledge about the dangers and penalties of these risky driving behaviors and would also help to increase seat belt usage.

Setting: High schools, colleges / universities ...


Epithelial Cells Are Active Participants In Vocal Fold Wound Healing: An In Vivo Animal Model Of Injury, Ciara Leydon, Mitsuyoshi Imaizumi, Rebecca S. Bartlett, Sarah F. Wang, Susan L. Thibeault 2017 Sacred Heart University

Epithelial Cells Are Active Participants In Vocal Fold Wound Healing: An In Vivo Animal Model Of Injury, Ciara Leydon, Mitsuyoshi Imaizumi, Rebecca S. Bartlett, Sarah F. Wang, Susan L. Thibeault

Ciara Leydon

Vocal fold epithelial cells likely play an important, yet currently poorly defined, role in healing following injury, irritation and inflammation. In the present study, we sought to identify a possible role for growth factors, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGFβ1), in epithelial regeneration during wound healing as a necessary first step for uncovering potential signaling mechanisms of vocal fold wound repair and remodeling. Using a rat model, we created unilateral vocal fold injuries and examined the timeline for epithelial healing and regeneration during early and late stages of wound healing using immunohistochemistry (IHC). We observed time-dependent ...


Dysuria: An Uncommon Presentation In Emergency Department Following Bladder Neck Disruption., Ali Pourmand, Assya Abdallah, Hamid Shokoohi, Mindy Park, Marie White, Francis O'Connell 2017 George Washington University

Dysuria: An Uncommon Presentation In Emergency Department Following Bladder Neck Disruption., Ali Pourmand, Assya Abdallah, Hamid Shokoohi, Mindy Park, Marie White, Francis O'Connell

Emergency Medicine Faculty Publications

Prostate cancer is the most common life-threatening cancer diagnosed in men. Complications of prostatectomies vary and often include urinary incontinence, erectile dysfunction and pain, while other complications go unreported. While emergency physicians are already familiar with the more common post-operative complications presenting to their departments, including urinary retention, ileus, surgical site infections, venous thromboembolisms and urinary tract infections, they must have a high index of suspicion for rarer complications. We report a case of posterior bladder neck disruption as a complication of a robotic assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy that presented to the emergency department as dysuria and abdominal pain following urination.


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