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A Simple Economic Conjecture Of Neural Activations, Information Retrieval, And Discount Rates With An Application To Fmri, Amanda S. Bruce, John M. Crespi, Jayson Lusk 2017 University of Kansas Medical Center

A Simple Economic Conjecture Of Neural Activations, Information Retrieval, And Discount Rates With An Application To Fmri, Amanda S. Bruce, John M. Crespi, Jayson Lusk

John Crespi

Brain imaging data gathered from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans in economics is often ad hoc, with little guidance from economic theory. Using a very simple economic product differentiation model with temporal hazard rates and discounting, the authors incorporate percent signal change contrasts from blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) scans in a logical manner. Using BOLD signals from brain regions implicated in economic valuation, the research directly tests the hypotheses from the economic conjecture. The empirical test uses a study of consumer decision time regarding milk products. Both simple correlations as well as regression analyses support the hypothesized relationships providing evidence of ...


An Open Conversation With Traditional Birth Attendants In Rural Uganda: The Potential For Collaborative Care, Elizabeth D. Yuan, Anjuli R. Cherukuri, Renny Ssembatya, Magdalena R. Naylor, Kristen K. DeStigter 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

An Open Conversation With Traditional Birth Attendants In Rural Uganda: The Potential For Collaborative Care, Elizabeth D. Yuan, Anjuli R. Cherukuri, Renny Ssembatya, Magdalena R. Naylor, Kristen K. Destigter

The Journal of Global Radiology

Background: Imaging the World-Africa (ITWA) is a registered non-governmental organization aimed at distributing low-cost ultrasound services at health centres in rural Uganda. Yet, studies demonstrate that the majority of mothers continue to deliver with unregulated traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in their local villages. It has been suggested that the unregulated practices of TBAs has contributed to the high rate of maternal and fetal mortality. A greater understanding of the roles of TBAs in the management of pregnancy and delivery is needed.

Purpose: The purpose of this report is to provide the international community with a greater understanding of TBA practices ...


Comparison Of Online 6 Degree-Of-Freedom Image Registration Of Varian Truebeam Cone-Beam Ct And Brainlab Exactrac X-Ray For Intracranial Radiosurgery., Jun Li, Wenyin Shi, David W. Andrews, Maria Werner-Wasik, Bo Lu, Yan Yu, Adam Dicker MD, PhD, Haisong Lui 2017 Thomas Jefferson University

Comparison Of Online 6 Degree-Of-Freedom Image Registration Of Varian Truebeam Cone-Beam Ct And Brainlab Exactrac X-Ray For Intracranial Radiosurgery., Jun Li, Wenyin Shi, David W. Andrews, Maria Werner-Wasik, Bo Lu, Yan Yu, Adam Dicker Md, Phd, Haisong Lui

Department of Radiation Oncology Faculty Papers

PURPOSE: The study was aimed to compare online 6 degree-of-freedom image registrations of TrueBeam cone-beam computed tomography and BrainLab ExacTrac X-ray imaging systems for intracranial radiosurgery.

METHODS: Phantom and patient studies were performed on a Varian TrueBeam STx linear accelerator (version 2.5), which is integrated with a BrainLab ExacTrac imaging system (version 6.1.1). The phantom study was based on a Rando head phantom and was designed to evaluate isocenter location dependence of the image registrations. Ten isocenters at various locations representing clinical treatment sites were selected in the phantom. Cone-beam computed tomography and ExacTrac X-ray images were ...


Quality Assurance Guidelines For Superficial Hyperthermia Clinical Trials : Ii. Technical Requirements For Heating Devices., Hana Dobšíček Trefná, Johannes Crezee, Manfred Schmidt, Dietmar Marder, Ulf Lamprecht, Michael Ehmann, Jacek Nadobny, Josefin Hartmann, Nicolleta Lomax, Sultan Abdel-Rahman, Sergio Curto, Akke Bakker, Mark D. Hurwitz, Chris J. Diederich, Paul R. Stauffer, Gerard C. Van Rhoon 2017 Chalmers University of Technology

Quality Assurance Guidelines For Superficial Hyperthermia Clinical Trials : Ii. Technical Requirements For Heating Devices., Hana Dobšíček Trefná, Johannes Crezee, Manfred Schmidt, Dietmar Marder, Ulf Lamprecht, Michael Ehmann, Jacek Nadobny, Josefin Hartmann, Nicolleta Lomax, Sultan Abdel-Rahman, Sergio Curto, Akke Bakker, Mark D. Hurwitz, Chris J. Diederich, Paul R. Stauffer, Gerard C. Van Rhoon

Department of Radiation Oncology Faculty Papers

Quality assurance (QA) guidelines are essential to provide uniform execution of clinical trials with uniform quality hyperthermia treatments. This document outlines the requirements for appropriate QA of all current superficial heating equipment including electromagnetic (radiative and capacitive), ultrasound, and infrared heating techniques. Detailed instructions are provided how to characterize and document the performance of these hyperthermia applicators in order to apply reproducible hyperthermia treatments of uniform high quality. Earlier documents used specific absorption rate (SAR) to define and characterize applicator performance. In these QA guidelines, temperature rise is the leading parameter for characterization of applicator performance. The intention of this ...


Sensitivity Of Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy To Dose- And Depth-Dependent Changes In Tumor Oxygenation After Radiation Therapy, Daria Semeniak 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Sensitivity Of Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy To Dose- And Depth-Dependent Changes In Tumor Oxygenation After Radiation Therapy, Daria Semeniak

Theses and Dissertations

Along with chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and surgery, radiotherapy is one of the most common treatments used against cancer. Around 50% of all cancer patients undergo radiation therapy. While for some patients radiotherapy works efficiently and lead to a complete cancer disappearance, for others treatment outcome may be less favorable due to radioresistance processes happening within a tumor on the molecular level. Radioresistance remains a big challenge for modern oncology. The ability to identify radioresistance at the early stage of radiotherapy would help physicians to improve therapy efficiency. At the current moment, despite the rapid progress in cancer understanding and diagnostic modalities ...


Interventional Radiology Readiness Assessment Tool For Global Health, Aaron D. Kline, Robert G. Dixon, Megan K. Brown, Melissa P. Culp 2017 University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Interventional Radiology Readiness Assessment Tool For Global Health, Aaron D. Kline, Robert G. Dixon, Megan K. Brown, Melissa P. Culp

The Journal of Global Radiology

The Interventional Radiology Readiness Assessment Tool for Global Health is a new tool to methodically evaluate the environment of a medical institution for interventional radiology services given the existing infrastructure. Global health provides an exciting opportunity for interventional radiology to impact health outcomes in developing countries. A systematic and thoughtful approach to integrating interventional radiology services in the health care institutions of resource poor countries is needed in order to maximize global health efforts and outcomes.

The IR Readiness Assessment Tool is available as on online form and in PDF format under "Additional Files" below.


Sonoelastography Of The Common Flexor Tendon Of The Elbow With Histologic Agreement: A Cadaveric Study., Andrea S Klauser, Mathias J Pamminger, Ethan J. Halpern, Mohamed M H Abd Ellah, Bernhard Moriggl, Mihra S Taljanovic, Christian Deml, Judith Sztankay, Guenter Klima, Leonhard Gruber, Werner R Jaschke 2017 Department of Radiology, Medical University of Innsbruck

Sonoelastography Of The Common Flexor Tendon Of The Elbow With Histologic Agreement: A Cadaveric Study., Andrea S Klauser, Mathias J Pamminger, Ethan J. Halpern, Mohamed M H Abd Ellah, Bernhard Moriggl, Mihra S Taljanovic, Christian Deml, Judith Sztankay, Guenter Klima, Leonhard Gruber, Werner R Jaschke

Department of Radiology Faculty Papers

Purpose To determine the correlation of the results of conventional B-mode ultrasonography (US) and compression sonoelastography with histologic results in common flexor tendons of the elbow in human cadavers. Materials and Methods Twenty-five common flexor tendons were evaluated in 16 fresh, unembalmed cadavers of 11 women with a median age of 85 years (range, 71-101 years) and five men with a median age of 78 years (range, 70-88 years). Informed consent was provided according to the last will of the donors. B-mode US results were classified as grade 1, normal tendon with homogeneous fibrillar pattern; grade 2, tendon thickening or ...


Value Of Superb Microvascular Imaging Ultrasonography In The Diagnosis Of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Compared With Color Doppler And Power Doppler., Jie Chen, Li Chen, Lei Wu, Rui Wang, Ji-Bin Liu, Bing Hu, Li-Xin Jiang 2017 Shanghai Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine

Value Of Superb Microvascular Imaging Ultrasonography In The Diagnosis Of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Compared With Color Doppler And Power Doppler., Jie Chen, Li Chen, Lei Wu, Rui Wang, Ji-Bin Liu, Bing Hu, Li-Xin Jiang

Department of Radiology Faculty Papers

The aim of this study was to compare the value of superb microvascular imaging (SMI) in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) with that of color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) and power Doppler ultrasonography (PDUS).Fifty patients with symptomatic CTS and 25 healthy volunteers were enrolled. The cross-sectional area (CSA), CDUS score, PDUS score, and SMI score of the median nerve (MN) at the carpal tunnel were recorded. The value of different ultrasonography (US) diagnostic strategies was calculated.The blood flow display ratio in the MN of the healthy volunteers had no statistical difference between CDUS, PDUS, and SMI (20%, 32%, and 48 ...


Breast Lesions Detected Via Breast Specific Gamma Imaging: Descriptor Characteristics And Positive Predictive Value, Jason Ching, Rachel Brem 2017 George Washington University

Breast Lesions Detected Via Breast Specific Gamma Imaging: Descriptor Characteristics And Positive Predictive Value, Jason Ching, Rachel Brem

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Background:

Breast Specific Gamma Imaging (BSGI) is increasingly being used as a diagnostic tool for the detection of breast cancer, using technetium 99m sestamibi to identify physiological differences between cancerous and normal breast tissue. Our study retrospectively evaluates pathologic correlates to positive BSGI findings in the detection of breast cancer.

Methods:

A retrospective review was performed of patients with positive BSGI examinations (200 total) during a 1-year period. Using biopsy/surgical pathology or 2 years mammography/ultrasound/MRI follow-up as correlation, we determined the positive predictive values of BSGI findings when categorized by: (i) character of suspicious region [mass, non-mass ...


Needs Assessment Of Pediatric Radiological Equipment And Cross-Cultural Investigation Into Parental Empowerment In Pediatric Radiology Program Development In The Kingdom Of Bhutan, Danielle Canter 2017 George Washington University

Needs Assessment Of Pediatric Radiological Equipment And Cross-Cultural Investigation Into Parental Empowerment In Pediatric Radiology Program Development In The Kingdom Of Bhutan, Danielle Canter

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Background:

Bhutan is a magnificent mountainous country hugged by India to the east and west and by China to the North and South. This peaceful nestled country faces challenges in combating non-communicable diseases due to the lack of radiological equipment necessary for early diagnosis. Prior to implementation of these medical devices, it is imperative to investigate the cultural attitudes, beliefs, and infrastructure, to ensure successful integration. Bhutan is beginning to implement a pediatric radiology program for the nation with the assistance of ABAH Foundation and RAD-AID International, both of whom partnered with graduate students at George Washington University School of ...


Effect Of A Poloxamer 407-Based Thermosensitive Gel On Minimization Of Thermal Injury To Diaphragm During Microwave Ablation Of The Liver., Li-Li Zhang, Gui-Min Xia, Yu-Jiang Liu, Rui Dou, John R. Eisenbrey, Ji-Bin Liu, Xiao-Wei Wang, Lin-Xue Qian 2017 Capital Medical University

Effect Of A Poloxamer 407-Based Thermosensitive Gel On Minimization Of Thermal Injury To Diaphragm During Microwave Ablation Of The Liver., Li-Li Zhang, Gui-Min Xia, Yu-Jiang Liu, Rui Dou, John R. Eisenbrey, Ji-Bin Liu, Xiao-Wei Wang, Lin-Xue Qian

Department of Radiology Faculty Papers

AIM: To assess the insulating effect of a poloxamer 407 (P407)-based gel during microwave ablation of liver adjacent to the diaphragm.

METHODS: We prepared serial dilutions of P407, and 22.5% (w/w) concentration was identified as suitable for ablation procedures. Subsequently, microwave ablations were performed on the livers of 24 rabbits (gel, saline, control groups, n = 8 in each). The P407 solution and 0.9% normal saline were injected into the potential space between the diaphragm and liver in experimental groups. No barriers were applied to the controls. After microwave ablations, the frequency, size and degree of thermal ...


Hypovolemic Shock And Hemoperitoneum From Spontaneous Avulsion Of A Large Pedunculated Uterine Leiomyoma, Daniel J. Mizrahi, Chhavi Kaushik, Robert Adamo 2017 Thomas Jefferson University

Hypovolemic Shock And Hemoperitoneum From Spontaneous Avulsion Of A Large Pedunculated Uterine Leiomyoma, Daniel J. Mizrahi, Chhavi Kaushik, Robert Adamo

Department of Radiology Faculty Papers

Hemoperitoneum with hypovolemic shock from avulsion of a pedunculated leiomyoma is a rare but highly fatal condition that can occur spontaneously or as a result of trauma. We report a case of hemoperitoneum and hypovolemic shock secondary to a bleeding leiomyoma detected via computed tomography (CT) scan in a 39 year old premenopausal, gravida 0 female that presented with abdominal pain and became hemodynamically unstable in the emergency department. A preoperative bimanual exam revealed a mass consistent with a 20 week gestational uterus. Following fluid resuscitation, the patient underwent emergent myomectomy and ligation of the right uterine artery and was ...


Labrad : Vol 43, Issue 1 - March 2017, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi 2017 Aga Khan University

Labrad : Vol 43, Issue 1 - March 2017, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi

LABRAD

  • Chikungunya
  • Rapid Molecular Diagnosis of Chlamydia Trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria Gonorrhoeae (NG) Urethritis
  • Overview of Rubella Testing
  • Most Common Bone and Soft Tissue Infections Seen in our Practice
  • Diagnosis of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Developing Countries- Pros & Cons
  • Screening for Neonatal Infections with TORCH Profile
  • Blood and Bone Marrow Changes in Viral Infections
  • Malaria
  • World Rare Disease Day
  • Radiology Pathology Correlation


Mri-Guided Stereotactic Biopsy Of Murine Gbm For Spatiotemporal Molecular Genomic Assessment, Stefanie Galban, Waid Al-Holou, Hanxiao Wang, Amanda Welton, Kevin Heist, Yuan Zhu, +several additional authors 2017 George Washington University

Mri-Guided Stereotactic Biopsy Of Murine Gbm For Spatiotemporal Molecular Genomic Assessment, Stefanie Galban, Waid Al-Holou, Hanxiao Wang, Amanda Welton, Kevin Heist, Yuan Zhu, +Several Additional Authors

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

Brain tumor biopsies that are routinely performed in clinical settings significantly aid in diagnosis and staging. The aim of this study is to develop and evaluate a methodological image-guided approach that would allow for routine sampling of glioma tissue from orthotopic mouse brain tumor models. A magnetic resonance imaging-guided biopsy method is presented to allow for spatially precise stereotaxic sampling of a murine glioma coupled with genome-scale technology to provide unbiased characterization of intra- and intertumoral clonal heterogeneity. Longitudinal and multiregional sampling of intracranial tumors allows for successful collection of tumor biopsy samples, thus allowing for a pathway-enrichment analysis and ...


Principles Of Radiation Oncology, Richard S. Pieters, Linda Ding, Harry Bushe, Jesse N. Aronowitz 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Principles Of Radiation Oncology, Richard S. Pieters, Linda Ding, Harry Bushe, Jesse N. Aronowitz

Cancer Concepts: A Guidebook for the Non-Oncologist

This chapter in Cancer Concepts: a Guidebook for the Non-Oncologist describes the principles of Radiation Oncology. Radiation Oncology utilizes ionizing radiation to treat cancer (and occasionally a few benign conditions). Radiotherapy or radiation therapy (RT) was initially developed in conjunction with diagnostic radiology, but has evolved into a separate specialty. Currently, more than fifty percent of cancer patients undergo RT at some point during the course of their cancer. Most receive treatment with curative intent (radical therapy); however, patients with incurable disease receive shorter, gentler courses of therapy to relieve cancer-induced symptoms.


Evaluating Factors Affecting Clinicians’ Knowledge On Contrast Media: Kenyan Experience, Timothy Musila Mutala, Priscilla Nyambura Maina 2017 University of Nairobi

Evaluating Factors Affecting Clinicians’ Knowledge On Contrast Media: Kenyan Experience, Timothy Musila Mutala, Priscilla Nyambura Maina

The Journal of Global Radiology

Purpose: Our study aimed to establish exposure to and level of knowledge about contrast media among non-radiological clinicians and evaluate the contributory factors to the status.

Methods and Materials: A cross-sectional study was conducted between April and December 2015 through interviews using structured questionnaires. We recruited 197 non-radiological clinicians with experience in use of contrast media in their routine practice. They were of different cadres and years of experience, all working in a large referral hospital in Kenya. Levels of basic knowledge on contrast media were evaluated through a scoring system after each clinician responded to the questions provided. We ...


Memri Is A Biomarker Defining Nicotine-Specific Neuronal Responses In Subregions Of The Rodent Brain., Aditya N. Bade, Howard Gendelman, Michael D. Boska, Yutong Liu 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Memri Is A Biomarker Defining Nicotine-Specific Neuronal Responses In Subregions Of The Rodent Brain., Aditya N. Bade, Howard Gendelman, Michael D. Boska, Yutong Liu

Journal Articles: Radiology

Nicotine dependence is defined by dopaminergic neuronal activation within the nucleus accumbens (ACB) and by affected neural projections from nicotine-stimulated neurons. Control of any subsequent neural activities would underpin any smoking cessation strategy. While extensive efforts have been made to study the pathophysiology of nicotine addiction, more limited works were developed to find imaging biomarkers. If such biomarkers are made available, addictive behaviors could be monitored noninvasively. To such ends, we employed manganese (Mn(2+))-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) to determine whether it could be used to monitor neuronal activities after acute and chronic nicotine exposure in rats. The ...


Metastatic Biomarkers In Synovial Sarcoma, Rosalia de Necochea-Campion, Lee M. Zuckerman, Hamid R. Mirshahidi, Shahrzad Khosrowpour, Chien-Shing Chen, Saied Mirshahidi 2017 Loma Linda University

Metastatic Biomarkers In Synovial Sarcoma, Rosalia De Necochea-Campion, Lee M. Zuckerman, Hamid R. Mirshahidi, Shahrzad Khosrowpour, Chien-Shing Chen, Saied Mirshahidi

Library Articles and Research

Synovial sarcoma (SS) is an aggressive soft tissue sarcoma (STS) that typically occurs in the extremities near a joint. Metastatic disease is common and usually occurs in the lungs and lymph nodes. Surgical management is the mainstay of treatment with chemotherapy and radiation typically used as adjuvant treatment. Although chemotherapy has a positive impact on survival, the prognosis is poor if metastatic disease occurs. The biology of sarcoma invasion and metastasis remain poorly understood. Chromosomal translocation with fusion of the SYT and SSX genes has been described and is currently used as a diagnostic marker, although the full impact of ...


Bssfp Elliptical Signal Model With Grappa Parallel Imaging, Grayson Tarbox, Joseph Valentine, Meredith Taylor, Neal Bangerter 2017 Brigham Young University

Bssfp Elliptical Signal Model With Grappa Parallel Imaging, Grayson Tarbox, Joseph Valentine, Meredith Taylor, Neal Bangerter

Biomedical Engineering Western Regional Conference

In magnetic resonance imaging, balanced steady-state free precession acquisition using the elliptical signal model geometrical solution can be combined with a GRAPPA parallel imaging reconstruction that preserves phase information to shorten scan times.


Difference Image Ultra-Short Echo Time T2* Mapping Using A 3d Cones Trajectory, Amin Nazaran, Grayson Tarbox, Randy Hartley, Neal Bangerter 2017 University of California - San Diego

Difference Image Ultra-Short Echo Time T2* Mapping Using A 3d Cones Trajectory, Amin Nazaran, Grayson Tarbox, Randy Hartley, Neal Bangerter

Biomedical Engineering Western Regional Conference

This study introduces a methodology for detecting subtle variations in tissues with very rapid T2* decay through a difference image ultra-short T2* mapping technique using a 3D cones k-space trajectory. The new method is demonstrated in both a normal and surgically repaired Achilles tendon. The resulting UTE images are differenced and T2* values were calculated using a mono-exponential least squares fit on a voxel by voxel basis. The ultrashort T2* maps yield very consistent short T2* values in healthy tendon of 0.3-0.5 ms, while notable variations and elevations of T2* values are observed in surgically repaired tendon.


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