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Allergy and Immunology Commons

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311 full-text articles. Page 1 of 14.

Managing Toxicities Associated With Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors: Consensus Recommendations From The Society For Immunotherapy Of Cancer (Sitc) Toxicity Management Working Group., I. Puzanov, A. Diab, K. Abdallah, C. O. Bingham, C. Brogdon, R. Dadu, L. Hamad, S. Kim, M. E. Lacouture, N. R. LeBoeuf, D. Lenihan, C. Onofrei, V. Shannon, R. Sharma, A. W. Silk, D. Skondra, M. E. Suarez-Almazor, Y. Wang, K. Wiley, H. L. Kaufman, M. S. Ernstoff, J. Anderson, K. Lehman, D. Reshef, A. Saylors, M. Turner, I. Waxman, D. Arrindell, S. Andrews, J. Ballesteros, J. Boyer, I. Cotarla, M. Dawson, T. Goswami, V. Hayreh, W. Holmes, Z. Rasheed, M. Sarkeshik, J. Schreiber, K. Shafer-Weaver, D. Chen, S. Ley-Acosta, D. Chonzi, W. Go, R. Cunha, J. L. Gulley, L. Wood, M. Davies, Adam Dicker, L. Eifler, N. Gregory, A. Ferguson, C. Ferlini, S. Frankel, C. Gochett, J. Goldberg, K. Patel, D. Wariabharaj, P. Goncalves, N. Helie, J. Y. Hsu, R. Ibrahim, C. Larocca, O. Lambotte, J. Luke, J. McClure, E. Michelon, M. Nakamura, B. Piperdi, J. Riemer, C. Robert, W. Sharfman, E. Sharon, R. Sherry, C. Simonson, C. Thomas, E. Trehu, J. A. Thompson, D. Tresnan, L. Zhang, P. Zheng 2017 Roswell Park Cancer Institute

Managing Toxicities Associated With Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors: Consensus Recommendations From The Society For Immunotherapy Of Cancer (Sitc) Toxicity Management Working Group., I. Puzanov, A. Diab, K. Abdallah, C. O. Bingham, C. Brogdon, R. Dadu, L. Hamad, S. Kim, M. E. Lacouture, N. R. Leboeuf, D. Lenihan, C. Onofrei, V. Shannon, R. Sharma, A. W. Silk, D. Skondra, M. E. Suarez-Almazor, Y. Wang, K. Wiley, H. L. Kaufman, M. S. Ernstoff, J. Anderson, K. Lehman, D. Reshef, A. Saylors, M. Turner, I. Waxman, D. Arrindell, S. Andrews, J. Ballesteros, J. Boyer, I. Cotarla, M. Dawson, T. Goswami, V. Hayreh, W. Holmes, Z. Rasheed, M. Sarkeshik, J. Schreiber, K. Shafer-Weaver, D. Chen, S. Ley-Acosta, D. Chonzi, W. Go, R. Cunha, J. L. Gulley, L. Wood, M. Davies, Adam Dicker, L. Eifler, N. Gregory, A. Ferguson, C. Ferlini, S. Frankel, C. Gochett, J. Goldberg, K. Patel, D. Wariabharaj, P. Goncalves, N. Helie, J. Y. Hsu, R. Ibrahim, C. Larocca, O. Lambotte, J. Luke, J. Mcclure, E. Michelon, M. Nakamura, B. Piperdi, J. Riemer, C. Robert, W. Sharfman, E. Sharon, R. Sherry, C. Simonson, C. Thomas, E. Trehu, J. A. Thompson, D. Tresnan, L. Zhang, P. Zheng

Department of Radiation Oncology Faculty Papers

Cancer immunotherapy has transformed the treatment of cancer. However, increasing use of immune-based therapies, including the widely used class of agents known as immune checkpoint inhibitors, has exposed a discrete group of immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Many of these are driven by the same immunologic mechanisms responsible for the drugs' therapeutic effects, namely blockade of inhibitory mechanisms that suppress the immune system and protect body tissues from an unconstrained acute or chronic immune response. Skin, gut, endocrine, lung and musculoskeletal irAEs are relatively common, whereas cardiovascular, hematologic, renal, neurologic and ophthalmologic irAEs occur much less frequently. The majority of irAEs ...


Differential Live Mycobacterium Tuberculosis- , M. Bovis Bcg-, Recombinant Esat6-, And Culture Filtrate Protein 10-Induced Immunity In Tuberculosis, Zahra Hasan, Bushra Jamil, Mussarat Ashraf, Muniba Islam, Maqboola Dojki, Muhammad Irfan, Rabia Hussain 2017 Aga Khan University

Differential Live Mycobacterium Tuberculosis- , M. Bovis Bcg-, Recombinant Esat6-, And Culture Filtrate Protein 10-Induced Immunity In Tuberculosis, Zahra Hasan, Bushra Jamil, Mussarat Ashraf, Muniba Islam, Maqboola Dojki, Muhammad Irfan, Rabia Hussain

Bushra Jamil

The high prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis makes it imperative that immune responses to evaluate could be predictive of infection. We investigated live Mycobacterium- and recombinant antigen-induced cytokine and chemokine responses in patients with active tuberculosis (TB) compared with those of healthy controls from an area where TB is endemic (ECs). M. tuberculosis-, M. bovis BCG-, ESAT6-, and culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP10)-induced responses were determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with pulmonary TB (n = 38) and ECs (n = 39). The levels of the cytokines gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) and the chemokines CCL2, CCL3, and CXCL9 ...


Aspira: Employing A Serious Game In An Mhealth App To Improve Asthma Outcomes, Jamie Thomson, Chris Hass, Ivor Horn, Elizabeth Kleine, Stephanie Mitchell, Kevin Gary, Ishrat Ahmed, Derek Hamel, Ashish Amresh 2017 Mad*Pow, Inc.

Aspira: Employing A Serious Game In An Mhealth App To Improve Asthma Outcomes, Jamie Thomson, Chris Hass, Ivor Horn, Elizabeth Kleine, Stephanie Mitchell, Kevin Gary, Ishrat Ahmed, Derek Hamel, Ashish Amresh

Publications

This paper presents the design, implementation and evaluation of a home based intervention targeting economically disadvantaged children to improve asthma clinical outcomes. The monitoring and intervention activities were delivered within an embedded astronaut-themed game to promote user acceptance and compliance to the clinical protocol. An iterative, user-centered design process was used to prototype the asthma home monitoring system (ASPIRA) involving a tablet application, digital spirometer and a particulate monitor linked to a data management server. Children of low socio-economic demographic populations were the main target group for this study as they have significantly high asthma rates and lack of condition ...


Mitochondrial Dynamics Controls T Cell Fate Through Metabolic Programming, Michael Buck 2017 Washington University in St. Louis

Mitochondrial Dynamics Controls T Cell Fate Through Metabolic Programming, Michael Buck

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Activated effector T (TE) cells augment anabolic pathways of metabolism, such as aerobic glycolysis, while memory T (TM) cells engage catabolic pathways, like fatty acid oxidation (FAO). However, signals that drive these differences remain unclear. Mitochondria are metabolic organelles that actively transform their ultrastructure. Therefore, we questioned whether mitochondrial dynamics controls T cell metabolism. We show that TE cells have punctate mitochondria, while TM cells maintain fused networks. The fusion protein Opa1 is required for TM, but not TE cells after infection, and enforcing fusion in TE cells imposes TM cell characteristics and enhances antitumor function. Our data suggest that ...


The Role Of Histidine Rich Protein Ii In Cerebral Malaria, Priya Pal 2017 Washington University in St. Louis

The Role Of Histidine Rich Protein Ii In Cerebral Malaria, Priya Pal

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Human malaria is caused by five species of Plasmodium. Of these, P. falciparum is the deadliest and is the only species that causes cerebral malaria (CM). CM is a disease of the vascular endothelium characterized by parasite sequestration, increased inflammatory cytokine production, vascular leakage and leukocyte infiltration. A distinguishing feature of P. falciparum infection is the parasite’s production and secretion of histidine-rich protein II (HRPII). HRPII accumulates to high concentrations (up to 100 µg/ml) in serum, which correlates with disease severity. Due to high serum levels of this protein, HRPII has classically been considered a biomarker for P ...


Epigenetic Activation Of The Mouse T Cell Receptor Beta Recombination Center, Jiangyang Zhao 2017 Washington University in St. Louis

Epigenetic Activation Of The Mouse T Cell Receptor Beta Recombination Center, Jiangyang Zhao

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Lymphocytes are the work horses of adaptive immunity. Compared to the B lymphocyte lineage, early stage progenitors of T lymphocytes maintain considerable potential for differentiation into other hematopoietic lineages. T lineage commitment requires the continuous coordination of transcription factors (TFs) by Notch1 signaling after multi-potent progenitors (MPPs) migrate to thymus. One of the first hall marks of T lineage commitment is expression of the T cell receptor β (TCRβ), which is encoded by the Tcrb locus following its assembly by V(D)J recombination, a somatic shuffling of the genome that joins one V, one D, and one J gene ...


Characterization Of Murine Breast Cancer Cell Lines For Anti-Cancer Vaccine, Haven N. Frazier 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Characterization Of Murine Breast Cancer Cell Lines For Anti-Cancer Vaccine, Haven N. Frazier

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women and the second leading cause of cancer death among women in the United States (1). While treatments involving radiation and chemotherapy currently exist, disease must be detected early in order for the treatments to be somewhat effective, and there is no effective treatment after metastasis occurs (2). Additionally, current therapies do not mitigate tumor immunosuppression. Decreasing the tumor-associated immunosuppressive conditions while activating antitumor immunity could prevent recurrence and metastasis, possibly leading to an effective treatment for cancer (3). Tumor cell vaccines could possibly address this issue and have become a ...


Cigarette Smoke Impairs A2a Adenosine Receptor Mediated Wound Repair Through Up-Regulation Of Duox-1 Expression., Zhi Tian, Hui Zhang, Jendayi Dixon, Nicole Traphagen, Todd A. Wyatt, Kusum K. Kharbanda, Samantha Simet, Narasaiah Kolliputi, Diane S Allen-Gipson 2017 University of South Florida

Cigarette Smoke Impairs A2a Adenosine Receptor Mediated Wound Repair Through Up-Regulation Of Duox-1 Expression., Zhi Tian, Hui Zhang, Jendayi Dixon, Nicole Traphagen, Todd A. Wyatt, Kusum K. Kharbanda, Samantha Simet, Narasaiah Kolliputi, Diane S Allen-Gipson

Journal Articles: Pulmonary & Critical Care Med

Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure and intrinsic factors such as the NADPH oxidases produce high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), ensuing inflammatory tissue injury. We previously demonstrated that CS-generated ROS, particularly hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), impaired adenosine stimulated wound repair. We hypothesized that CS exposure modulates expression of Dual oxidase 1 (Duox-1), a NADPH oxidases known to generate H2O2. To test this hypothesis, we used human bronchial epithelial cell line Nuli-1 and C57BL/6 mice. Cells were treated with 5% CS extract (CSE) for various periods of time, and mice were exposed to whole body CS for six weeks. Both CSE ...


Effect Of Low-Level Co2 On Innate Inflammatory Protein Response To Organic Dust From Swine Confinement Barns., David Schneberger, Jane M. DeVasure, Kristina L. Bailey, Debra J. Romberger, Todd A. Wyatt 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Effect Of Low-Level Co2 On Innate Inflammatory Protein Response To Organic Dust From Swine Confinement Barns., David Schneberger, Jane M. Devasure, Kristina L. Bailey, Debra J. Romberger, Todd A. Wyatt

Journal Articles: Pulmonary & Critical Care Med

BACKGROUND: Organic hog barn dust (HDE) exposure induces lung inflammation and long-term decreases in lung function in agricultural workers. While concentrations of common gasses in confined animal facilities are well characterized, few studies have been done addressing if exposure to elevated barn gasses impacts the lung immune response to organic dusts. Given the well documented effects of hypercapnia at much higher levels we hypothesized that CO2 at 8 h exposure limit levels (5000 ppm) could alter innate immune responses to HDE.

METHODS: Using a mouse model, C57BL/6 mice were nasally instilled with defined barn dust extracts and then housed ...


Effect Of Low-Level Co2 On Innate Inflammatory Protein Response To Organic Dust From Swine Confinement Barns., David Schneberger, Jane M. DeVasure, Kristina L. Bailey, Debra J. Romberger, Todd A. Wyatt 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Effect Of Low-Level Co2 On Innate Inflammatory Protein Response To Organic Dust From Swine Confinement Barns., David Schneberger, Jane M. Devasure, Kristina L. Bailey, Debra J. Romberger, Todd A. Wyatt

Journal Articles: Pulmonary & Critical Care Med

BACKGROUND: Organic hog barn dust (HDE) exposure induces lung inflammation and long-term decreases in lung function in agricultural workers. While concentrations of common gasses in confined animal facilities are well characterized, few studies have been done addressing if exposure to elevated barn gasses impacts the lung immune response to organic dusts. Given the well documented effects of hypercapnia at much higher levels we hypothesized that CO2 at 8 h exposure limit levels (5000 ppm) could alter innate immune responses to HDE.

METHODS: Using a mouse model, C57BL/6 mice were nasally instilled with defined barn dust extracts and then housed ...


Addendum Guidelines For The Prevention Of Peanut Allergy In The United States: Report Of The National Institute Of Allergy And Infectious Diseases–Sponsored Expert Panel, Alkis Togias, Susan F. Cooper, Maria L. Acebal, Amal Assa'ad, James R. Baker, Lisa A. Beck, Julie Block, Carol Byrd-Bredbenner, Edmond S. Chan, Lawrence F. Eichenfield, David M Fleischer, George J. Fuchs III, Glenn T. Furuta, Matthew J. Greenhawt, Ruchi S. Gupta, Michele Habich, Stacie M. Jones, Kari Keaton, Antonella Muraro, Marshall Plaut, Lanny J. Rosenwasser, Daniel Rotrosen, Hugh A. Sampson, Lynda C. Schneider, Scott H. Sicherer, Robert Sidbury, Jonathan Spergel, David R. Stukus, Carina Venter, Joshua A. Boyce 2017 National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

Addendum Guidelines For The Prevention Of Peanut Allergy In The United States: Report Of The National Institute Of Allergy And Infectious Diseases–Sponsored Expert Panel, Alkis Togias, Susan F. Cooper, Maria L. Acebal, Amal Assa'ad, James R. Baker, Lisa A. Beck, Julie Block, Carol Byrd-Bredbenner, Edmond S. Chan, Lawrence F. Eichenfield, David M Fleischer, George J. Fuchs Iii, Glenn T. Furuta, Matthew J. Greenhawt, Ruchi S. Gupta, Michele Habich, Stacie M. Jones, Kari Keaton, Antonella Muraro, Marshall Plaut, Lanny J. Rosenwasser, Daniel Rotrosen, Hugh A. Sampson, Lynda C. Schneider, Scott H. Sicherer, Robert Sidbury, Jonathan Spergel, David R. Stukus, Carina Venter, Joshua A. Boyce

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

Background: Food allergy is an important public health problem because it affects children and adults, can be severe and even life-threatening, and may be increasing in prevalence. Beginning in 2008, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, working with other organizations and advocacy groups, led the development of the first clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and management of food allergy. A recent landmark clinical trial and other emerging data suggest that peanut allergy can be prevented through introduction of peanut-containing foods beginning in infancy.

Objectives: Prompted by these findings, along with 25 professional organizations, federal agencies, and patient advocacy ...


Tissue Factor Expression, Regulation, And Signaling In Human Airway Cells, Michael D. Davis 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University

Tissue Factor Expression, Regulation, And Signaling In Human Airway Cells, Michael D. Davis

Theses and Dissertations

Rationale: Tissue Factor (TF) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that canonically functions as the initiator of the coagulation cascade. Increased levels of TF have been associated with inflammatory airway diseases. Since lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is known to elicit and inflammatory response in airway epithelium, we hypothesized that airway epithelial cells release TF when exposed to LPS. Since TF aids in local wound healing, we also hypothesized that inhibition of TF would decrease NHBE growth. The specific aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of LPS exposure on TF production and release from airway epithelia and determine the signaling pathways involved ...


A Case Of Difficult-To-Treat Asthma Due To Uncontrolled Atypical Gastroesophageal Reflux, Alissa Welsh, Andrey Leonov 2017 Western Michigan University Homer Stryker MD School of Medicine

A Case Of Difficult-To-Treat Asthma Due To Uncontrolled Atypical Gastroesophageal Reflux, Alissa Welsh, Andrey Leonov

Research Day

Introduction: 
In uncontrolled asthma, comorbid conditions should be treated in order to achieve better asthma control. The contribution of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) may be overlooked when its presentation is atypical. 
Case Report: 
11 year-old male with moderate persistent asthma and allergic rhinitis presented with persistent barky cough, diagnosed as spasmodic croup after bronchoscopy, esophagram, swallow study and magnified airway x-ray failed to show anatomical abnormality. Empiric proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment was started with improvement in cough. Patient was referred to Gastroenterology for evaluation of GER, despite lack of heartburn or vomiting. Endoscopy revealed esophageal candida infection which was treated ...


Cd28 Blockade Ex Vivo Induces Alloantigen-Specific Immune Tolerance But Preserves T-Cell Pathogen Reactivity., Barbara Dillinger, Sarah Ahmadi-Erber, Klara Soukup, Angela Halfmann, Silke Schrom, Bernard Vanhove, Peter Steinberger, Rene Geyeregger, Stephan Ladisch, Alexander Michael Dohnal 2017 George Washington University

Cd28 Blockade Ex Vivo Induces Alloantigen-Specific Immune Tolerance But Preserves T-Cell Pathogen Reactivity., Barbara Dillinger, Sarah Ahmadi-Erber, Klara Soukup, Angela Halfmann, Silke Schrom, Bernard Vanhove, Peter Steinberger, Rene Geyeregger, Stephan Ladisch, Alexander Michael Dohnal

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

Donor T-cells contribute to reconstitution of protective immunity after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) but must acquire specific tolerance against recipient alloantigens to avoid life-threatening graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). Systemic immunosuppressive drugs may abrogate severe GvHD, but this also impedes memory responses to invading pathogens. Here, we tested whether ex vivo blockade of CD28 co-stimulation can enable selective T-cell tolerization to alloantigens by facilitating CD80/86-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) signaling. Treatment of human allogeneic dendritic cell/T-cell co-cultures with a human CD28 blocking antibody fragment (α-huCD28) significantly abrogated subsequent allospecific immune responses, seen by decreased T-cell proliferation and of ...


Monitoring Pollen Counts And Pollen Allergy Index Using Satellite Observations In East Coast Of The United States, Murat Cagatay Kececi 2017 South Dakota State University

Monitoring Pollen Counts And Pollen Allergy Index Using Satellite Observations In East Coast Of The United States, Murat Cagatay Kececi

Theses and Dissertations

Allergic diseases have become increasingly common over the world during the last four decades, and they are affecting millions of people. Pollination is an important process in the life cycle of plants. However, pollen exposure is associated with allergic diseases such as asthma and seasonal allergic rhinitis (hay fever). As a result, the total annual expenditure for asthma-associated morbidity is about $56 billion in the United States, and the overall cost of allergic diseases is over $18 billion annually. For allergic rhinitis, the annual medical cost is approximately $3.4 billion. The intensity and frequency of the pollen exposures can ...


Role Of Atg16l1 In Uropathogenic E. Coli Pathogenesis, Jane Symington 2016 Washington University in St. Louis

Role Of Atg16l1 In Uropathogenic E. Coli Pathogenesis, Jane Symington

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common infectious diseases and are primarily caused by uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). Given the greater incidence of antibiotic resistance among UPEC isolates, it is vital to determine factors and pathways important for an effective host response to UPEC in order to improve therapeutic options for combating UTIs. Autophagy is a cellular degradation pathway that plays important roles in pathogen control and modulation of innate immunity. One essential autophagy protein, ATG16L1, has been further implicated in controlling inflammation due to a common variant of ATG16L1 being associated with increased risk of Crohns disease ...


Omcp Mediated Cowpox Virulence And Its Dependence On The Immune Receptors Nkg2d And Fcrl5., Michel Muzi Sun 2016 Washington University in St. Louis

Omcp Mediated Cowpox Virulence And Its Dependence On The Immune Receptors Nkg2d And Fcrl5., Michel Muzi Sun

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Viruses with large DNA genomes, such as cowpox virus, encode many open-reading frames involved in the modulation of the host immune system, facilitating escape from immune detection or downregulation of specific aspects of the host immune response. Investigation of virally-encoded immunoevasins has been instrumental in understanding host-pathogen interactions. Here, we focus on the cowpox virus immunoevasin Orthopoxvirus MHC Class I-like Protein (OMCP) and demonstrate for the first time that OMCP facilitates cowpox virus virulence in vivo. We have previously documented that OMCP binds the activating receptor NKG2D on NK cells as well as the orphan receptor FCRL5 on innate B ...


The Resolution Phase Of Nk Cell Proliferation And Ifn Production Following Viral Infection Are Highly Regulated Processes., Leslie Abigail Fogel 2016 Washington University in St. Louis

The Resolution Phase Of Nk Cell Proliferation And Ifn Production Following Viral Infection Are Highly Regulated Processes., Leslie Abigail Fogel

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In response to MCMV infection, NK cells undergo three distinct phases of proliferation: the non-specific phase mediated by pro-proliferative cytokines; the specific phase mediated by recognition of an MCMV-encoded protein by an NK cell activating receptor, Ly49H; and the resolution phase, whose mechanism is unknown. MCMV infection of RAG mice, which lack all adaptive immune cells, results in prolonged proliferation of NK cells despite similar viral titers compared to wildtype mice. Interestingly, there are different kinetics for Ly49H+ and Ly49H- NK cells. We have identified several additional markers that may distinguish NK cells that have been specifically activated through their ...


Understanding The Interactions Of Developing Thymocytes And Antigen Presenting Cells In The Thymic Medulla, Justin Shaun Arnold Perry 2016 Washington University in St. Louis

Understanding The Interactions Of Developing Thymocytes And Antigen Presenting Cells In The Thymic Medulla, Justin Shaun Arnold Perry

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Various thymic APC subsets have been invoked in deletional tolerance and Treg cell induction, but previous studies either assessed total T cell numbers or used TCR transgenic lines, obscuring roles that individual thymic APC subsets might serve for particular antigen-specific T cell populations. Utilizing T cell receptor sequencing, we found that medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) and bone marrow-derived (BM) APCs delete or select unique conventional and Treg cell TCR repertoires, demonstrating distinct roles for these APCs. We show that BM APCs and mTECs each contribute to Aire-dependent T cell tolerance development, albeit through either cooperative or autologous antigen presentation ...


Sa-4-1bbl As A Modulator Of Innate, Adaptive, And Regulatory Immunity : Implications For Cancer Prevention And Treatment., Hampartsoum Barsoumian 2016 University of Louisville

Sa-4-1bbl As A Modulator Of Innate, Adaptive, And Regulatory Immunity : Implications For Cancer Prevention And Treatment., Hampartsoum Barsoumian

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

SA-4-1BBL is a recombinant costimulatory molecule that is active in its soluble form and has pleiotropic effects on the functions of innate, adaptive, and regulatory immune cells. We have previously shown that SA-4-1BBL makes CD4+ T conventional cells (Tconvs) resistant to suppression by CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T regulatory cells (Tregs). The mechanistic basis of this observation is the subject of this study. We demonstrate that Tconvs, but not Tregs, are the direct targets of SA-4-1BBL-mediated evasion of Treg suppression without contribution from antigen presenting cells (APCs). SA-4-1BBL engagement with its receptor, 4-1BB, on Tconvs resulted in the production of high ...


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