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Negative Regulators Of Colonic Peripheral Regulatory T Cell Development, Teresa Lei Ai 2018 Washington University in St. Louis

Negative Regulators Of Colonic Peripheral Regulatory T Cell Development, Teresa Lei Ai

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Peripheral Treg cells (pTreg cells) maintain immune homeostasis at mucosal interfaces, where they can develop upon activation of naïve CD4+ T cells by bacteria antigen. However, the cellular and molecular requirements that govern their differentiation in inflamed and homeostatic contexts require further elucidation. To circumvent uncertainties in existing methods of distinguishing pTreg cells from thymic Treg cells (tTreg cells), we analyzed monoclonal cell populations of CT2 and CT6 transgenic (Tg) cells that develop into pTreg cells in response to different species of endogenously presented Helicobacter antigen. In our comprehensive assessment of multiple intestinal inflammatory models, including infections and physical injury ...


Herpes Zoster Patient Education: A Coloring Book Approach, Sophia Charuhas 2018 Liberty University

Herpes Zoster Patient Education: A Coloring Book Approach, Sophia Charuhas

Senior Honors Theses

Shingles, the disease caused by the herpes zoster virus, is a widespread and widely misunderstood illness in the United States. It is preventable, but many at-risk patients do not know what measures they may take to prevent it. Clear communication from physician to patient is crucial for patient understanding of diseases. Many patient education materials on herpes zoster currently available are often unused. It is therefore beneficial to public health to disseminate new mediums of medical communication, and one way of accomplishing this is through adult coloring books. The pathophysiology of herpes zoster virus is here explored and the idea ...


Refrigerated Stability Of Diluted Cisatracurium, Rocuronium, And Vecuronium For Skin Testing After Perioperative Anaphylaxis, Kristen Dinsmore, Bethany Campbell, Timothy Archibald, Greg Mosier, Stacy Brown PhD, Alexei Gonzalez-Estrada MD 2018 East Tennessee State University

Refrigerated Stability Of Diluted Cisatracurium, Rocuronium, And Vecuronium For Skin Testing After Perioperative Anaphylaxis, Kristen Dinsmore, Bethany Campbell, Timothy Archibald, Greg Mosier, Stacy Brown Phd, Alexei Gonzalez-Estrada Md

Appalachian Student Research Forum

Rationale: The purpose of this study is to investigate the stored stability of dilutions of neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs), namely cisatracurium, rocuronium, and vecuronium, for skin prick/intradermal testing.

Methods: Concentrations of NMBAs were monitored by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for a period of 14 days. Dilutions of NMBAs were prepared in saline by factors of 10x, 100x, 1,000x, 10,000x, and 100,000x as sensitivity of the assay allowed. Diluted drug products were stored in a laboratory refrigerator until sampling. On sampling days, aliquots of each dilution were removed and compared to a freshly prepared set of ...


Gene Expression Of Il-17 And Il-23 In Radiotherapy Induced Oral Mucositis, Eanas Abutaha, Heather Conti Dr. 2018 The University of Toledo

Gene Expression Of Il-17 And Il-23 In Radiotherapy Induced Oral Mucositis, Eanas Abutaha, Heather Conti Dr.

Scholars' Celebration: Undergraduate Research Showcase

Cancer patients have many side effects in their immune system as a result of anti-cancer treatments, such as radiation and chemotherapy. However, one of the most consistent and debilitating complications in patients undergoing head-neck radiation is Oral Mucositis. Oral Mucositis is characterized as the painful development of exposed ulceration on the oral mucosal tissue. Although it is well known that oral mucosa cells are significantly damaged during these therapeutic radiations, an effective treatment is yet to be discovered. Preliminary data indicates that the inflammation produced by tissue damage is connected to a particular interleukin known as IL-17. This investigation focuses ...


Electronic Cigarettes Use And Perception Amongst Medical Students: A Cross Sectional Survey From Sindh, Pakistan, Nousheen Iqbal, Zain A. KHAN, Syed Muhammad Hamza Anwar, Omar Irfan, Babar Irfan, Ammar Mushtaq, Maria Bibi, Faraz Siddiqui, Javaid Khan 2018 Aga Khan University

Electronic Cigarettes Use And Perception Amongst Medical Students: A Cross Sectional Survey From Sindh, Pakistan, Nousheen Iqbal, Zain A. Khan, Syed Muhammad Hamza Anwar, Omar Irfan, Babar Irfan, Ammar Mushtaq, Maria Bibi, Faraz Siddiqui, Javaid Khan

Section of Pulmonary & Critical Care

Objective: The manufacturers of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are actively marketing their product through electronic and social media. Undergraduate medical students are expected to have better knowledge and awareness as they directly interact with patients in their training, The purpose of this study is therefore, to determine knowledge, use and perception regarding e-cigarettes among medical students from Sindh, Pakistan.

Results: A cross-sectional study was conducted between 1st July and 30th September 2016 at five different medical colleges situated in the second largest province of Sindh, Pakistan. The data was collected through a structured, self-administered questionnaire. Of the 500 students, the mean ...


Immunoglobulin Therapy And Primary Immunodeficient Patients' Health-Related Quality Of Life And Well-Being, Niedre Heckman 2018 Walden University

Immunoglobulin Therapy And Primary Immunodeficient Patients' Health-Related Quality Of Life And Well-Being, Niedre Heckman

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Individuals born with primary immune deficiency diseases (PIDD) have a dysfunctional immune system, and many are treated by lifelong injections of immunoglobulin therapy. Studies have shown that these patients have low health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and well-being (WB) and that these outcomes might be improved by the availability of therapy innovated according to preferences for fewer needle sticks or a shorter infusion time. Regulators at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have approved therapies innovated per these preferences. However, there is limited data demonstrating how these innovations impact HRQOL and WB. Using the biopsychosocial model, the purpose ...


Host Transcriptomic Response To Newcastle Disease Virus In Relatively Resistant And Susceptible Inbred Chicken Lines, Melissa Deist 2018 Iowa State University

Host Transcriptomic Response To Newcastle Disease Virus In Relatively Resistant And Susceptible Inbred Chicken Lines, Melissa Deist

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has devastating impacts on poultry throughout the world. The inbred Fayoumi and Leghorn chicken lines, previously characterized as relatively resistant and susceptible, respectively, to various pathogens were utilized to characterize host response to the NDV vaccine and identify potential genes and pathways associated with NDV resistance. Three-week-old chicks were inoculated with La Sota NDV (challenged) or PBS (nonchallenged) via the oculonasal route. At 2, 6, and 10 days post infection (dpi), approximately one-third of the birds within each line and challenge group were euthanized for tissue collection. At 2 and 6 dpi, lachrymal fluid was collected ...


Investigating Immunological Responses Of Wc1+ Gamma Delta T Cells In Cattle Naturally Infected With Mycobacterium Avium Subspecies Paratuberculosis (Map), Saleh Mohammed Albarrak 2018 Iowa State University

Investigating Immunological Responses Of Wc1+ Gamma Delta T Cells In Cattle Naturally Infected With Mycobacterium Avium Subspecies Paratuberculosis (Map), Saleh Mohammed Albarrak

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In these studies, we used non-infected cattle and cattle naturally infected with MAP that were either in the subclinical or clinical stage of infection to test the hypothesis that infection status influences WC1+ γδ T cells frequency, proliferation, and cytokine production. We found no significant differences between subclinical and clinical cattle with regard to WC1+ γδ T cells frequency in peripheral blood or in the ileum, a primary site for MAP infection. In PBMCs taken from MAP-infected cattle, WC1+ γδ T cells responded diffrentially to stimulation with PPD-J. In the clinical group, WC1+ γδ T cells failed to proliferate and ...


Wnt Secretion Proteins Modulate Rankl-Induced Expression Of Aire In Thymic Epithelial Cells, Daniel Pollack 2018 CUNY City College

Wnt Secretion Proteins Modulate Rankl-Induced Expression Of Aire In Thymic Epithelial Cells, Daniel Pollack

Master's Theses

Thymic epithelial cells (TEC) are essential for a proper adaptive immune response by regulating thymocyte development and establishing central tolerance. In the thymus, TECs differentially express Wnt proteins, which activate canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways. Wnt signaling is thought to regulate cell survival, proliferation, and development although the direct molecular mechanisms in TECs have yet to be elucidated. The inducible inhibition of canonical Wnt signaling with Dkk1 leads to a rapid loss of TEC progenitors as well as a decline in mature Aire-expressing mTECs. Therefore, we explore the role of Wnt ligands potentially responsible for stimulating and/or regulating ...


Managing Toxicities Associated With Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors: Consensus Recommendations From The Society For Immunotherapy Of Cancer (Sitc) Toxicity Management Working Group., I. Puzanov, A. Diab, K. Abdallah, C. O. Bingham, C. Brogdon, R. Dadu, L. Hamad, S. Kim, M. E. Lacouture, N. R. LeBoeuf, D. Lenihan, C. Onofrei, V. Shannon, R. Sharma, A. W. Silk, D. Skondra, M. E. Suarez-Almazor, Y. Wang, K. Wiley, H. L. Kaufman, M. S. Ernstoff, J. Anderson, K. Lehman, D. Reshef, A. Saylors, M. Turner, I. Waxman, D. Arrindell, S. Andrews, J. Ballesteros, J. Boyer, I. Cotarla, M. Dawson, T. Goswami, V. Hayreh, W. Holmes, Z. Rasheed, M. Sarkeshik, J. Schreiber, K. Shafer-Weaver, D. Chen, S. Ley-Acosta, D. Chonzi, W. Go, R. Cunha, J. L. Gulley, L. Wood, M. Davies, Adam Dicker, L. Eifler, N. Gregory, A. Ferguson, C. Ferlini, S. Frankel, C. Gochett, J. Goldberg, K. Patel, D. Wariabharaj, P. Goncalves, N. Helie, J. Y. Hsu, R. Ibrahim, C. Larocca, O. Lambotte, J. Luke, J. McClure, E. Michelon, M. Nakamura, B. Piperdi, J. Riemer, C. Robert, W. Sharfman, E. Sharon, R. Sherry, C. Simonson, C. Thomas, E. Trehu, J. A. Thompson, D. Tresnan, L. Zhang, P. Zheng 2017 Roswell Park Cancer Institute

Managing Toxicities Associated With Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors: Consensus Recommendations From The Society For Immunotherapy Of Cancer (Sitc) Toxicity Management Working Group., I. Puzanov, A. Diab, K. Abdallah, C. O. Bingham, C. Brogdon, R. Dadu, L. Hamad, S. Kim, M. E. Lacouture, N. R. Leboeuf, D. Lenihan, C. Onofrei, V. Shannon, R. Sharma, A. W. Silk, D. Skondra, M. E. Suarez-Almazor, Y. Wang, K. Wiley, H. L. Kaufman, M. S. Ernstoff, J. Anderson, K. Lehman, D. Reshef, A. Saylors, M. Turner, I. Waxman, D. Arrindell, S. Andrews, J. Ballesteros, J. Boyer, I. Cotarla, M. Dawson, T. Goswami, V. Hayreh, W. Holmes, Z. Rasheed, M. Sarkeshik, J. Schreiber, K. Shafer-Weaver, D. Chen, S. Ley-Acosta, D. Chonzi, W. Go, R. Cunha, J. L. Gulley, L. Wood, M. Davies, Adam Dicker, L. Eifler, N. Gregory, A. Ferguson, C. Ferlini, S. Frankel, C. Gochett, J. Goldberg, K. Patel, D. Wariabharaj, P. Goncalves, N. Helie, J. Y. Hsu, R. Ibrahim, C. Larocca, O. Lambotte, J. Luke, J. Mcclure, E. Michelon, M. Nakamura, B. Piperdi, J. Riemer, C. Robert, W. Sharfman, E. Sharon, R. Sherry, C. Simonson, C. Thomas, E. Trehu, J. A. Thompson, D. Tresnan, L. Zhang, P. Zheng

Department of Radiation Oncology Faculty Papers

Cancer immunotherapy has transformed the treatment of cancer. However, increasing use of immune-based therapies, including the widely used class of agents known as immune checkpoint inhibitors, has exposed a discrete group of immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Many of these are driven by the same immunologic mechanisms responsible for the drugs' therapeutic effects, namely blockade of inhibitory mechanisms that suppress the immune system and protect body tissues from an unconstrained acute or chronic immune response. Skin, gut, endocrine, lung and musculoskeletal irAEs are relatively common, whereas cardiovascular, hematologic, renal, neurologic and ophthalmologic irAEs occur much less frequently. The majority of irAEs ...


Expansion Of Microbial Virology By Impetus Of The Reduction Of Viral Dark Matter, Siddharth Ravindran Krishnamurthy 2017 Washington University in St. Louis

Expansion Of Microbial Virology By Impetus Of The Reduction Of Viral Dark Matter, Siddharth Ravindran Krishnamurthy

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Modern metagenomic methods have rapidly accelerated the rate of viral discovery. Currently, to discover a novel virus, deep sequencing reads must align to a known reference virus. While alignment is effective at identifying closely related viruses, highly divergent viruses can often share no discernable sequence alignment with known viruses. Therefore, the accurate classification of viral dark matter – metagenomic sequences that originate from viruses but do not align to any reference virus sequences – is one of the major obstacles in not only discovering novel viruses, but also by extension, comprehensively defining the virome. As viral dark matter results fundamentally from a ...


Identification And Characterization Of An Interferon Stimulated Gene That Restricts Alphavirus Infection And Pathogenesis, Subhajit Poddar 2017 Washington University in St. Louis

Identification And Characterization Of An Interferon Stimulated Gene That Restricts Alphavirus Infection And Pathogenesis, Subhajit Poddar

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Viral infection of host cells induces the Type I interferon (IFN) response, which is

characterized by the production of hundreds of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). Altogether, these

ISGs function to induce an antiviral state, hindering or blocking various steps of the viral

lifecycle. Many individual ISGs have potent and broad antiviral functions. However elimination

of a single ISG does not completely abrogate protection, suggesting that other ISGs, although

moderate or moderate when considered alone, must work cooperatively to provide optimal

antiviral activity.

In order to identify and characterize novel ISGs, an attenuated strain of the alphavirus

chikungunya (CHIKV-181/25) was tested ...


Characterization And Function Of Islet Antigen Presenting Cells During Nod Diabetes, Stephen Thomas Ferris 2017 Washington University in St. Louis

Characterization And Function Of Islet Antigen Presenting Cells During Nod Diabetes, Stephen Thomas Ferris

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Here we characterized the initial antigen presenting cells (APCs) within the islet of Langerhans to ascertain their identity and functional role as it pertains to autoimmune diabetes. The activation of the adaptive immune system is induced by the innate immune system, and more specifically APCs. Therefore, it is crucial to identify the APCs that are initiating T1D in order to elucidate the break in tolerance and intervene in order to inhibit progression. We have found that there is a resident macrophage that is present in all strains of mice. This islet macrophage has a distinct transcriptional profile that is unique ...


Differential Live Mycobacterium Tuberculosis- , M. Bovis Bcg-, Recombinant Esat6-, And Culture Filtrate Protein 10-Induced Immunity In Tuberculosis, Zahra Hasan, Bushra Jamil, Mussarat Ashraf, Muniba Islam, Maqboola Dojki, Muhammad Irfan, Rabia Hussain 2017 Aga Khan University

Differential Live Mycobacterium Tuberculosis- , M. Bovis Bcg-, Recombinant Esat6-, And Culture Filtrate Protein 10-Induced Immunity In Tuberculosis, Zahra Hasan, Bushra Jamil, Mussarat Ashraf, Muniba Islam, Maqboola Dojki, Muhammad Irfan, Rabia Hussain

Bushra Jamil

The high prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis makes it imperative that immune responses to evaluate could be predictive of infection. We investigated live Mycobacterium- and recombinant antigen-induced cytokine and chemokine responses in patients with active tuberculosis (TB) compared with those of healthy controls from an area where TB is endemic (ECs). M. tuberculosis-, M. bovis BCG-, ESAT6-, and culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP10)-induced responses were determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with pulmonary TB (n = 38) and ECs (n = 39). The levels of the cytokines gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) and the chemokines CCL2, CCL3, and CXCL9 ...


Aspira: Employing A Serious Game In An Mhealth App To Improve Asthma Outcomes, Jamie Thomson, Chris Hass, Ivor Horn, Elizabeth Kleine, Stephanie Mitchell, Kevin Gary, Ishrat Ahmed, Derek Hamel, Ashish Amresh 2017 Mad*Pow, Inc.

Aspira: Employing A Serious Game In An Mhealth App To Improve Asthma Outcomes, Jamie Thomson, Chris Hass, Ivor Horn, Elizabeth Kleine, Stephanie Mitchell, Kevin Gary, Ishrat Ahmed, Derek Hamel, Ashish Amresh

Publications

This paper presents the design, implementation and evaluation of a home based intervention targeting economically disadvantaged children to improve asthma clinical outcomes. The monitoring and intervention activities were delivered within an embedded astronaut-themed game to promote user acceptance and compliance to the clinical protocol. An iterative, user-centered design process was used to prototype the asthma home monitoring system (ASPIRA) involving a tablet application, digital spirometer and a particulate monitor linked to a data management server. Children of low socio-economic demographic populations were the main target group for this study as they have significantly high asthma rates and lack of condition ...


Epigenetic Activation Of The Mouse T Cell Receptor Beta Recombination Center, Jiangyang Zhao 2017 Washington University in St. Louis

Epigenetic Activation Of The Mouse T Cell Receptor Beta Recombination Center, Jiangyang Zhao

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Lymphocytes are the work horses of adaptive immunity. Compared to the B lymphocyte lineage, early stage progenitors of T lymphocytes maintain considerable potential for differentiation into other hematopoietic lineages. T lineage commitment requires the continuous coordination of transcription factors (TFs) by Notch1 signaling after multi-potent progenitors (MPPs) migrate to thymus. One of the first hall marks of T lineage commitment is expression of the T cell receptor β (TCRβ), which is encoded by the Tcrb locus following its assembly by V(D)J recombination, a somatic shuffling of the genome that joins one V, one D, and one J gene ...


The Role Of Histidine Rich Protein Ii In Cerebral Malaria, Priya Pal 2017 Washington University in St. Louis

The Role Of Histidine Rich Protein Ii In Cerebral Malaria, Priya Pal

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Human malaria is caused by five species of Plasmodium. Of these, P. falciparum is the deadliest and is the only species that causes cerebral malaria (CM). CM is a disease of the vascular endothelium characterized by parasite sequestration, increased inflammatory cytokine production, vascular leakage and leukocyte infiltration. A distinguishing feature of P. falciparum infection is the parasite’s production and secretion of histidine-rich protein II (HRPII). HRPII accumulates to high concentrations (up to 100 µg/ml) in serum, which correlates with disease severity. Due to high serum levels of this protein, HRPII has classically been considered a biomarker for P ...


Mitochondrial Dynamics Controls T Cell Fate Through Metabolic Programming, Michael Buck 2017 Washington University in St. Louis

Mitochondrial Dynamics Controls T Cell Fate Through Metabolic Programming, Michael Buck

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Activated effector T (TE) cells augment anabolic pathways of metabolism, such as aerobic glycolysis, while memory T (TM) cells engage catabolic pathways, like fatty acid oxidation (FAO). However, signals that drive these differences remain unclear. Mitochondria are metabolic organelles that actively transform their ultrastructure. Therefore, we questioned whether mitochondrial dynamics controls T cell metabolism. We show that TE cells have punctate mitochondria, while TM cells maintain fused networks. The fusion protein Opa1 is required for TM, but not TE cells after infection, and enforcing fusion in TE cells imposes TM cell characteristics and enhances antitumor function. Our data suggest that ...


Characterization Of Murine Breast Cancer Cell Lines For Anti-Cancer Vaccine, Haven N. Frazier 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Characterization Of Murine Breast Cancer Cell Lines For Anti-Cancer Vaccine, Haven N. Frazier

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women and the second leading cause of cancer death among women in the United States (1). While treatments involving radiation and chemotherapy currently exist, disease must be detected early in order for the treatments to be somewhat effective, and there is no effective treatment after metastasis occurs (2). Additionally, current therapies do not mitigate tumor immunosuppression. Decreasing the tumor-associated immunosuppressive conditions while activating antitumor immunity could prevent recurrence and metastasis, possibly leading to an effective treatment for cancer (3). Tumor cell vaccines could possibly address this issue and have become a ...


Aspira: Employing A Serious Game In An Mhealth App To Improve Asthma Outcomes, Jamie Thomson, Chris Hass, Ivor Horn, Elizabeth Kleine, Stephanie Mitchell, Kevin Gary, Ishrat Ahmed, Derek Hamel, Ashish Amresh 2017 Mad*Pow, Inc.

Aspira: Employing A Serious Game In An Mhealth App To Improve Asthma Outcomes, Jamie Thomson, Chris Hass, Ivor Horn, Elizabeth Kleine, Stephanie Mitchell, Kevin Gary, Ishrat Ahmed, Derek Hamel, Ashish Amresh

Ashish Amresh

This paper presents the design, implementation and evaluation of a home based intervention targeting economically disadvantaged children to improve asthma clinical outcomes. The monitoring and intervention activities were delivered within an embedded astronaut-themed game to promote user acceptance and compliance to the clinical protocol. An iterative, user-centered design process was used to prototype the asthma home monitoring system (ASPIRA) involving a tablet application, digital spirometer and a particulate monitor linked to a data management server. Children of low socio-economic demographic populations were the main target group for this study as they have significantly high asthma rates and lack of condition ...


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