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1562 full-text articles. Page 1 of 64.

Prophylactic Methylprednisolone To Reduce Inflammation And Improve Outcomes From One Lung Ventilation In Children: A Randomized Clinical Trial., Mary C. Theroux, Alicia Olivant Fisher, Maria E. Rodriguez, Robert P. Brislin, Kirk W. Reichard, Suken A. Shah, Matt McCoy, Melinda Brown, Kirk W. Dabney, William G. Mackenzie, Douglas A. Katz, Thomas H. Shaffer 2016 Nemours/Alfred I. DuPont Hospital for Children; Thomas Jefferson University

Prophylactic Methylprednisolone To Reduce Inflammation And Improve Outcomes From One Lung Ventilation In Children: A Randomized Clinical Trial., Mary C. Theroux, Alicia Olivant Fisher, Maria E. Rodriguez, Robert P. Brislin, Kirk W. Reichard, Suken A. Shah, Matt Mccoy, Melinda Brown, Kirk W. Dabney, William G. Mackenzie, Douglas A. Katz, Thomas H. Shaffer

Thomas L. Shaffer

BACKGROUND: One lung ventilation (OLV) results in inflammatory and mechanical injury, leading to intraoperative and postoperative complications in children. No interventions have been studied in children to minimize such injury.

OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that a single 2-mg·kg(-1) dose of methylprednisolone given 45-60 min prior to lung collapse would minimize injury from OLV and improve physiological stability.

METHODS: Twenty-eight children scheduled to undergo OLV were randomly assigned to receive 2 mg·kg(-1) methylprednisolone (MP) or normal saline (placebo group) prior to OLV. Anesthetic management was standardized, and data were collected for physiological stability (bronchospasm, respiratory resistance, and compliance ...


Long-Term Correction Of Very Long-Chain Acyl-Coa Dehydrogenase Deficiency In Mice Using Aav9 Gene Therapy, Allison M. Keeler, Thomas J. Conlon, Glenn Walter, Huadong Zeng, Scott A. Shaffer, Fu Dungtao, Kirsten E. Erger, Travis L. Cossette, Qiushi Tang, Christian Mueller, Terence R. Flotte 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Long-Term Correction Of Very Long-Chain Acyl-Coa Dehydrogenase Deficiency In Mice Using Aav9 Gene Therapy, Allison M. Keeler, Thomas J. Conlon, Glenn Walter, Huadong Zeng, Scott A. Shaffer, Fu Dungtao, Kirsten E. Erger, Travis L. Cossette, Qiushi Tang, Christian Mueller, Terence R. Flotte

Thomas L. Shaffer

Very long-chain acyl-coA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) is the rate-limiting step in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. VLCAD-deficient mice and patients clinical symptoms stem from not only an energy deficiency but also long-chain metabolite accumulations. VLCAD-deficient mice were treated systemically with 1 x 10(12) vector genomes of recombinant adeno-associated virus 9 (rAAV9)-VLCAD. Biochemical correction was observed in vector-treated mice beginning 2 weeks postinjection, as characterized by a significant drop in long-chain fatty acyl accumulates in whole blood after an overnight fast. Changes persisted through the termination point around 20 weeks postinjection. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS ...


The Airway Microbiome At Birth., Charitharth Vivek Lal, Colm Travers, Zubair H. Aghai, Peter Eipers, Tamas Jilling, Brian Halloran, Waldemar A. Carlo, Jordan Keeley, Gabriel Rezonzew, Ranjit Kumar, Casey Morrow, Vineet Bhandari, Namasivayam Ambalavanan 2016 University of Alabama

The Airway Microbiome At Birth., Charitharth Vivek Lal, Colm Travers, Zubair H. Aghai, Peter Eipers, Tamas Jilling, Brian Halloran, Waldemar A. Carlo, Jordan Keeley, Gabriel Rezonzew, Ranjit Kumar, Casey Morrow, Vineet Bhandari, Namasivayam Ambalavanan

Department of Pediatrics Faculty Papers

Alterations of pulmonary microbiome have been recognized in multiple respiratory disorders. It is critically important to ascertain if an airway microbiome exists at birth and if so, whether it is associated with subsequent lung disease. We found an established diverse and similar airway microbiome at birth in both preterm and term infants, which was more diverse and different from that of older preterm infants with established chronic lung disease (bronchopulmonary dysplasia). Consistent temporal dysbiotic changes in the airway microbiome were seen from birth to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely preterm infants. Genus Lactobacillus was decreased at birth in ...


Can Physician Champions Improve Kangaroo Care? Trends Over 5 Years In Rural Western India, Apurv Soni, Amee Amin, Dipen V. Patel, Nisha Fahey, Ajay G. Phatak, Jeroan Allison, Somashekhar M. Nimbalkar 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Can Physician Champions Improve Kangaroo Care? Trends Over 5 Years In Rural Western India, Apurv Soni, Amee Amin, Dipen V. Patel, Nisha Fahey, Ajay G. Phatak, Jeroan Allison, Somashekhar M. Nimbalkar

Jeroan J. Allison

Introduction: In 2013, approximately 2.8 million children worldwide died within the neonatal period. India is at the epicenter of this tragedy, accounting for one-third of all neonatal mortalities. Prematurity and/or with low birth weight are the leading cause of neonatal mortality and India has the highest number of neonates born preterm and weighing less than 2,500 grams worldwide. It is estimated that Kangaroo Care can avert up to 48% of all neonatal deaths among premature babies by 2025. However, the promise of Kangaroo Care as a low-cost, safe, and efficacious intervention to reduce neonatal mortality in India ...


White Blood Cell Count Versus Temperature As Predictors Of Pediatric Bacteremia, Ashley Ashby, Loren Moscinski 2016 James Madison University

White Blood Cell Count Versus Temperature As Predictors Of Pediatric Bacteremia, Ashley Ashby, Loren Moscinski

Physician Assistant Capstones

Introduction: Although the prevalence of bacteremia has largely declined with the development of the Haemophilus Influenza Type b (Hib) and pneumococcal vaccines, it continues to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Thus, it is crucial to differentiate bacteremia from other illnesses via the clinical picture and laboratory test results. Objective: The purpose of this research was to determine whether there is a clinically significant difference between temperature and white blood cell (WBC) count as determinants of bacteremia in the pediatric population. Methods: A PubMed search was conducted utilizing the following terms and filters: temperature, WBC, pediatrics ...


Targeted Echocardiographic Screening For Latent Rheumatic Heart Disease In Northern Uganda: Evaluating Familial Risk Following Identification Of An Index Case., Twalib Aliku, Craig Sable, Amy Scheel, Alison Tompsett, Peter Lwabi, Emmy Okello, Robert McCarter, Marshall Summar, Andrea Beaton 2016 George Washington University

Targeted Echocardiographic Screening For Latent Rheumatic Heart Disease In Northern Uganda: Evaluating Familial Risk Following Identification Of An Index Case., Twalib Aliku, Craig Sable, Amy Scheel, Alison Tompsett, Peter Lwabi, Emmy Okello, Robert Mccarter, Marshall Summar, Andrea Beaton

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Echocardiographic screening for detection of latent RHD has shown potential as a strategy to decrease the burden of disease. However, further research is needed to determine optimal implementation strategies. RHD results from a complex interplay between environment and host susceptibility. Family members share both and relatives of children with latent RHD may represent a high-risk group. The objective of this study was to use echocardiographic family screening to determine the relative risk of RHD among first-degree relatives of children with latent RHD compared to the risk in first-degree relatives of healthy peers.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Previous school-based screening data ...


Postoperative Intussusception In 10-Year-Old Presenting As Decreased Intestinal Motility, Arielle Spellun, Loren Berman, Stephen Murphy 2016 Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University

Postoperative Intussusception In 10-Year-Old Presenting As Decreased Intestinal Motility, Arielle Spellun, Loren Berman, Stephen Murphy

Department of Medicine Faculty Papers

No abstract provided.


Is Aerosalization A Problem With Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii In Thailand Hospital?, Anucha Apisarnthanarak, Ploenpit Tantajina, Pornpimol Laovachirasuwan, David J. Weber, Nalini Singh 2016 George Washington University

Is Aerosalization A Problem With Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii In Thailand Hospital?, Anucha Apisarnthanarak, Ploenpit Tantajina, Pornpimol Laovachirasuwan, David J. Weber, Nalini Singh

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

We evaluated the presence of air contamination with carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) in medical units where patients with CRAB pneumonia were hospitalized, and in Obstetrics and Gynecology units with open-air ventilation in-patient settings. There was no evidence of CRAB contamination in either of the units.


Sulforaphane Treatment Of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Eileen Diggins, Andrew Zimmerman, Kanwaljit Singh, Susan Connors 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Sulforaphane Treatment Of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Eileen Diggins, Andrew Zimmerman, Kanwaljit Singh, Susan Connors

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Abstract This clinical trial in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tests a nontoxic approach to therapy of ASD.

Background: Direct treatment of underlying mechanisms in ASD is limited. Cellular dysfunction in ASD may involve a number of related metabolic pathways. A clinical clue may be found in the “fever effect” in ASD, in which febrile illness dramatically but temporarily ameliorates disordered behavior. Fever stimulates heat shock proteins (HSP) and cellular stress responses that may ultimately lead to improved synaptic function and increased long-range connectivity. The expression of gene transcription by NFE2L2 (Nrf2), which is reduced in ASD, may also increase during ...


Implementation And Utilization Of Mobile Technology In Adolescent Bariatric Surgery Patients, Jonathan Green, Jeremy T. Aidlen, Sherry L. Pagoto, Jennifer Bram 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Implementation And Utilization Of Mobile Technology In Adolescent Bariatric Surgery Patients, Jonathan Green, Jeremy T. Aidlen, Sherry L. Pagoto, Jennifer Bram

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Obesity is the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Obese adolescents are likely to become obese adults with significant associated co-morbidities and early mortality. In Massachusetts, 30% of children ages 10-17 are overweight or obese. It is projected that 48% of Massachusetts’ adults will be obese by 2030. In March of 2015, the Good Fit Adolescent Weight and Wellness Center opened, with a goal of addressing this issue with a proven multidisciplinary approach.

Mobile technology continues to develop at a rapid pace. Adolescent access to mobile technology on smart phones and tablets continues to increase. Mobile fitness tracker applications are ...


Reducing Phlebotomy-­Induced Blood Loss In The Picu: A Quality Improvement Study, Amanda Johnson, Ariel Hoch, Scot T. Bateman, Stacey L. Valentine 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Reducing Phlebotomy-­Induced Blood Loss In The Picu: A Quality Improvement Study, Amanda Johnson, Ariel Hoch, Scot T. Bateman, Stacey L. Valentine

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Introduction: Phlebotomy­induced blood loss contributes to development of anemia in critically ill children. Major factors contributing to this include blood overdraw from indwelling catheters and utilization of larger volume containers. We targeted these causes of excessive blood draws to decrease volumes of both the discarded blood and sample sent to the laboratory for standard tests. Methods: Pre and post quality improvement study in a 10­bed pediatric intensive care unit 2014­2015. All patients admitted to PICU during each 2­month study period were eligible for enrollment. Pre-intervention, nurses used standard pediatric tubes (3­3.5mL). A wash­out ...


Can Physician Champions Improve Kangaroo Care? Trends Over 5 Years In Rural Western India, Apurv Soni, Amee Amin, Dipen V. Patel, Nisha Fahey, Ajay G. Phatak, Jeroan Allison, Somashekhar M. Nimbalkar 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Can Physician Champions Improve Kangaroo Care? Trends Over 5 Years In Rural Western India, Apurv Soni, Amee Amin, Dipen V. Patel, Nisha Fahey, Ajay G. Phatak, Jeroan Allison, Somashekhar M. Nimbalkar

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Introduction: In 2013, approximately 2.8 million children worldwide died within the neonatal period. India is at the epicenter of this tragedy, accounting for one-third of all neonatal mortalities. Prematurity and/or with low birth weight are the leading cause of neonatal mortality and India has the highest number of neonates born preterm and weighing less than 2,500 grams worldwide. It is estimated that Kangaroo Care can avert up to 48% of all neonatal deaths among premature babies by 2025. However, the promise of Kangaroo Care as a low-cost, safe, and efficacious intervention to reduce neonatal mortality in India ...


Parental And Staff Perspectives Of Nicu Research Procedures., Christina Freibott, Ursula Guillen, Amy Mackley, Robert Locke 2016 Columbia University; Christiana Care Health System, Division of Neonatology

Parental And Staff Perspectives Of Nicu Research Procedures., Christina Freibott, Ursula Guillen, Amy Mackley, Robert Locke

Department of Medicine Faculty Papers

BACKGROUND: There are limited data on parental perception of infant participation in minimal risk and minor increase above minimal risk research focusing on the NICU population. The study objective was to assess parental and NICU staff perceptions concerning minimal risk and minor increase above minimal risk in the NICU setting.

METHODS: Parents of infants and NICU staff were presented with a combination of 4 infant scenarios and 5 hypothetical research procedures. These assessed participants' willingness to allow their infant to participate in research and their attitude towards obligation to assist future children. Linear and hierarchal linear models analyzed the association ...


Acute Cerebellar Ataxia: An Unusual Pediatric Case., Thanhnga T. Doan, Clifford P. Masom MD, Richard J. Mazzaccaro MD, Kathleen E. Kane MD 2016 USF MCOM- LVHN Campus

Acute Cerebellar Ataxia: An Unusual Pediatric Case., Thanhnga T. Doan, Clifford P. Masom Md, Richard J. Mazzaccaro Md, Kathleen E. Kane Md

Kathleen E Kane MD

BACKGROUND: Acute cerebellar ataxia is a clinical syndrome with sudden onset of uncoordinated gait and normal mental status in young children. Although it has a benign clinical course, it often requires an exhaustive diagnostic work-up in order to rule out potentially life-threatening etiologies that present similarly. The wide differential encompasses causes from infections, brain masses, drugs, toxins, trauma, paraneoplastic syndromes, as well as hereditary or congenital disorders.

CASE REPORT: We report on a 4-year-old boy with recent hand-foot-mouth disease who presented with acute cerebellar ataxia. In addition to his marked truncal ataxia and wide-based, staggering gait, he had slowness of ...


Shortened Lifespan And Lethal Hemorrhage In A Hemophilia A Mouse Model, Janice M. Staber, Molly J. Pollpeter 2016 University of Iowa

Shortened Lifespan And Lethal Hemorrhage In A Hemophilia A Mouse Model, Janice M. Staber, Molly J. Pollpeter

Stead Family Department of Pediatrics Publications

BACKGROUND: Hemophilia A animal models have helped advance our understanding of factor VIII deficiency. Previously, factor VIII deficient mouse models were reported to have a normal life span without spontaneous bleeds. However, the bleeding frequency and survival in these animals has not been thoroughly evaluated.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the survival and lethal bleeding frequency in two strains of E-16 hemophilia A mice.

METHODS: We prospectively studied factor VIII deficient hemizygous affected males (n = 83) and homozygous affected females (n = 55) for survival and bleeding frequency. Animals were evaluated for presence and location of bleeds as potential cause of death.

RESULTS ...


Integrating Pediatric Burn Patients, Less Than 12 Years Old, Into An Adult Burn Icu Setting, Jennifer A. Nagle RN, Jessica Ayers RN, Nancy Humes BSN, RN 2016 Lehigh Valley Health Network

Integrating Pediatric Burn Patients, Less Than 12 Years Old, Into An Adult Burn Icu Setting, Jennifer A. Nagle Rn, Jessica Ayers Rn, Nancy Humes Bsn, Rn

Patient Care Services / Nursing

No abstract provided.


A Single Exercise Bout Enhances The Manufacture Of Viral-Specific T-Cells From Healthy Donors: Implications For Allogeneic Adoptive Transfer Immunotherapy, Guillaume Spielmann, Catherine Bollard, Hawley Kunz, Patrick J. Hanley, Richard J. Simpson 2016 George Washington University

A Single Exercise Bout Enhances The Manufacture Of Viral-Specific T-Cells From Healthy Donors: Implications For Allogeneic Adoptive Transfer Immunotherapy, Guillaume Spielmann, Catherine Bollard, Hawley Kunz, Patrick J. Hanley, Richard J. Simpson

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The adoptive transfer of donor-derived viral-specific cytotoxic T-cells (VSTs) is an effective treatment for controlling CMV and EBV infections after HSCT; however, new practical methods are required to augment the ex vivo manufacture of multi-VSTs from healthy donors. This study investigated the effects of a single exercise bout on the ex vivo manufacture of multi-VSTs. PBMCs isolated from healthy CMV/EBV seropositive participants before (PRE) and immediately after (POST) 30-minutes of cycling exercise were stimulated with CMV (pp65 ...


Psychobiobehavioral Model For Preterm Birth In Pregnant Women In Low- And Middle-Income Countries, Shahirose S. Premji, Ilona S. Yim, Aliyah Dosani (Mawji), Zeenatkhanu Kanji, Salima Sulaiman, Wangira Musana, Pauline Samia, Kiran Shaikh, Nicole Letourneau 2016 University of Calgary

Psychobiobehavioral Model For Preterm Birth In Pregnant Women In Low- And Middle-Income Countries, Shahirose S. Premji, Ilona S. Yim, Aliyah Dosani (Mawji), Zeenatkhanu Kanji, Salima Sulaiman, Wangira Musana, Pauline Samia, Kiran Shaikh, Nicole Letourneau

Zeenatkhanu Kanji

Preterm birth (PTB) is a final common outcome resulting from many interrelated etiological pathways; of particular interest is antenatal psychosocial distress (i.e., stress, anxiety, and depression). In LMI countries, both exposure to severe life stressors and rate of PTB are on average greater when compared with high-income countries. In LMI countries women are exposed to some of the most extreme psychosocial stress worldwide (e.g., absolute poverty, limited social resources). High prevalence of antenatal stress and depression have been observed in some studies from LMI countries. We propose a psychosocial, biological, and behavioral model for investigating the complex multisystem ...


Evaluating Use Of Higher Dose Oxybutynin In Combination With Desmopressin For Refractory Nocturnal Enuresis, Aaron Berkenwald, Jacqueline Pires, Pamela Ellsworth 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Evaluating Use Of Higher Dose Oxybutynin In Combination With Desmopressin For Refractory Nocturnal Enuresis, Aaron Berkenwald, Jacqueline Pires, Pamela Ellsworth

Senior Scholars Program

Background: Nocturnal enuresis is a common pediatric condition with limited treatment options. In older children, pharmacologic therapy is often the preferred treatment. Pharmacologic therapies including Desmopressin (DDAVP) or Imipramine are effective in 40-50% of children. However Imipramine has serious safety concerns. DDAVP in combination with a fixed dose anticholinergic has been shown to be useful in individuals who fail DDAVP monotherapy, but still fails to achieve success rates greater than 60%.

Objective: Our goal is to explore the efficacy and safety of using combination therapy DDAVP plus Oxybutynin with increasing dose ofOxybutynin in patients refractory to standard combination therapy.

Study ...


Life-Threatening Retropharyngeal Hemorrhage Secondary To Rupture Of The Inferior Thyroid Artery., Cristina G Calogero, Andrew C. Miller DO, Marna R. Greenberg DO, MPH, FACEP 2016 USF MCOM- LVHN Campus

Life-Threatening Retropharyngeal Hemorrhage Secondary To Rupture Of The Inferior Thyroid Artery., Cristina G Calogero, Andrew C. Miller Do, Marna R. Greenberg Do, Mph, Facep

Marna R Greenberg DO, MPH, FACEP

Inferior thyroid artery (ITA) rupture is rare and may progress to life-threatening conditions. We present a patient who visited the emergency department after an episode of syncope and dizziness in which he had a mechanical fall that resulted in abrasions and a hematoma to his left forehead. The patient presented with dysphagia and anterior neck swelling that progressed rapidly into airway compromise requiring endotracheal intubation. Emergent computed tomography revealed a large retropharyngeal hematoma, with active arterial extravasation that was thought to be arising from the thyrocervical trunk on the left. The hematoma measured approximately 6.7 cm transversely and 3 ...


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