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Impact Of Natural Blind Spot Location On Perimetry., Mengyu Wang, Lucy Q. Shen, Michael V. Boland, Sarah R. Wellik, Carlos Gustavo De Moraes, Jonathan S. Myers, Peter J. Bex, Tobias Elze 2017 Harvard Medical School

Impact Of Natural Blind Spot Location On Perimetry., Mengyu Wang, Lucy Q. Shen, Michael V. Boland, Sarah R. Wellik, Carlos Gustavo De Moraes, Jonathan S. Myers, Peter J. Bex, Tobias Elze

Wills Eye Institute Papers

We study the spatial distribution of natural blind spot location (NBSL) and its impact on perimetry. Pattern deviation (PD) values of 11,449 reliable visual fields (VFs) that are defined as clinically unaffected based on summary indices were extracted from 11,449 glaucoma patients. We modeled NBSL distribution using a two-dimensional non-linear regression approach and correlated NBSL with spherical equivalent (SE). Additionally, we compared PD values of groups with longer and shorter distances than median, and larger and smaller angles than median between NBSL and fixation. Mean and standard deviation of horizontal and vertical NBSL were 14.33° ± 1.37 ...


Protection Of Cells From Degeneration And Treatment Of Geographic Atrophy, Jayakrishna Ambati 2017 University of Kentucky

Protection Of Cells From Degeneration And Treatment Of Geographic Atrophy, Jayakrishna Ambati

Ophthalmology and Visual Science Faculty Patents

Therapeutic uses P2X7 inhibition and inhibition of IRAK1 and/or IRAK4, methods protecting a cell, and screening methods for identifying inhibitors are described herein.


Synaptic Ribbon Active Zones In Cone Photoreceptors Operate Independently From One Another., Justin J. Grassmeyer, Wallace B. Thoreson 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Synaptic Ribbon Active Zones In Cone Photoreceptors Operate Independently From One Another., Justin J. Grassmeyer, Wallace B. Thoreson

Journal Articles: Ophthalmology

Cone photoreceptors depolarize in darkness to release glutamate-laden synaptic vesicles. Essential to release is the synaptic ribbon, a structure that helps organize active zones by clustering vesicles near proteins that mediate exocytosis, including voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. Cone terminals have many ribbon-style active zones at which second-order neurons receive input. We asked whether there are functionally significant differences in local Ca(2+) influx among ribbons in individual cones. We combined confocal Ca(2+) imaging to measure Ca(2+) influx at individual ribbons and patch clamp recordings to record whole-cell ICa in salamander cones. We found that the voltage for half-maximal ...


Non-Adherence To Eye Care In People With Diabetes, Ann P. Murchison, Lisa A. Hark, Laura T. Pizzi, Yang Dai, Eileen Mayro, Philip P. Storey, Benjamin E. Leiby, Julia A. Haller 2017 Thomas Jefferson University

Non-Adherence To Eye Care In People With Diabetes, Ann P. Murchison, Lisa A. Hark, Laura T. Pizzi, Yang Dai, Eileen Mayro, Philip P. Storey, Benjamin E. Leiby, Julia A. Haller

Wills Eye Institute Papers

Objective Evaluate individual factors that impact adherence to eye care follow-up in patients with diabetes. Design and methods A 4-year retrospective chart review was conducted for 1968 patients with diabetes over age 40 from an urban academic center. Data collected included demographics, insurance, visual acuity, smoking status, medications, dates of dilated fundus examinations (DFE), and reported hemoglobin A1C and blood glucose levels. The primary outcome was timely DFE follow-up adherence following the initial eye exam visit. Results Overall, 41.6% of patients adhered to initial follow-up eye care recommendations. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that patients with severe diabetic retinopathy (DR) were ...


Increased Clusterin Expression In Fuchs’ Endothelial Dystrophy, Ula V. Jurkunas, Maya Bitar, Ian Rawe, Deshea L. Harris, Kathryn Colby, Nancy C. Joyce 2017 Marshall University

Increased Clusterin Expression In Fuchs’ Endothelial Dystrophy, Ula V. Jurkunas, Maya Bitar, Ian Rawe, Deshea L. Harris, Kathryn Colby, Nancy C. Joyce

Maya S. Bitar

Purpose: To compare the relative expression of peroxiredoxin (Prx) proteins in normal human corneal endothelium with endothelium in corneas affected by Fuchs’ endothelial dystrophy (FED) and between normal human endothelium and epithelial/stromal tissue.

Methods: Human corneal endothelial cell-Descemet’s membrane (HCEC-DM) complexes from normal and FED corneal buttons were dissected from the epithelium/stroma. For proteomic analysis, HCEC-DM protein extracts were separated by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Relative differences in protein spot density was analyzed. Proteins of interest, including Prx isoforms, were identified by MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted desorption ionization-time of flight) mass spectrometry. Western blot analysis compared the relative expression ...


Decreased Expression Of Peroxiredoxins In Fuchs’ Endothelial Dystrophy, Ula V. Jurkunas, Ian Rawe, Maya Bitar, Cheng Zhu, Deshea L. Harris, Kathryn Colby, Nancy C. Joyce 2017 Marshall University

Decreased Expression Of Peroxiredoxins In Fuchs’ Endothelial Dystrophy, Ula V. Jurkunas, Ian Rawe, Maya Bitar, Cheng Zhu, Deshea L. Harris, Kathryn Colby, Nancy C. Joyce

Maya S. Bitar

Purpose: To compare the relative expression of peroxiredoxin (Prx) proteins in normal human corneal endothelium with endothelium in corneas affected by Fuchs’ endothelial dystrophy (FED) and between normal human endothelium and epithelial/stromal tissue.

Methods: Human corneal endothelial cell-Descemet’s membrane (HCEC-DM) complexes from normal and FED corneal buttons were dissected from the epithelium/stroma. For proteomic analysis, HCEC-DM protein extracts were separated by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Relative differences in protein spot density was analyzed. Proteins of interest, including Prx isoforms, were identified by MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted desorption ionization-time of flight) mass spectrometry. Western blot analysis compared the relative expression ...


Colocalization Of Increased Transforming Growth Factor-Β-Induced Protein (Tgfbip) And Clusterin In Fuchs Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy, Ula V. Jurkunas, Maya Bitar, Ian Rawe 2017 Marshall University

Colocalization Of Increased Transforming Growth Factor-Β-Induced Protein (Tgfbip) And Clusterin In Fuchs Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy, Ula V. Jurkunas, Maya Bitar, Ian Rawe

Maya S. Bitar

PURPOSE: To investigate the differential expression of TGFBIp in normal human and Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) endothelial cell-Descemet’s membrane (HCEC-DM) complex, and to asses the structural role of TGFBIp and clusterin (CLU) in guttae formation.

METHODS: HCEC-DM complex was dissected from stroma in normal and FECD samples. Proteins were separated by 2-D gel electrophoresis and subjected to proteomic analysis. N-terminal processing of TGFBIp was detected by Western blot analysis with two separate antibodies against the N- and C-terminal regions of TGFBIp. Expression of TGFBI mRNA was compared by using real-time PCR. Subcellular localization of TGFBIp and CLU in ...


The Anatomical And Functional Benefit Of Bevacizumab In The Treatment Of Macular Edema Associated With Purtscher-Like Retinopathy, B. LW. Nesmith, Maya Bitar, S. Schaal 2017 Marshall University

The Anatomical And Functional Benefit Of Bevacizumab In The Treatment Of Macular Edema Associated With Purtscher-Like Retinopathy, B. Lw. Nesmith, Maya Bitar, S. Schaal

Maya S. Bitar

We read the article by Miguel et al1 regarding Purtscher’s and Purtscher-like retinopathies with great interest. As the authors well describe, ‘Purtscher-like retinopathy’ is diagnosed in patients with fundus findings similar to Purtscher’s retinopathy, without a history of trauma but with known systemic associations.1 Current proposed mechanisms for the underlying pathogenesis include leukocyte aggregation by activated complement factor 5 (C5a).2 As noted by the authors’ systematic review, there is currently no established treatment for Purtscher-like retinopathy, although the literature consists of several case reports of treatment with corticosteroids, without certainty as to effect on the clinical ...


A Rare Association Of Giant Cell Arteritis With Recurrent Corneal Ulcer, Sailaja Bondalapati, Kay Khine, Maya Bitar, David Chesnutt, Richard M. Davis 2017 Marshall University

A Rare Association Of Giant Cell Arteritis With Recurrent Corneal Ulcer, Sailaja Bondalapati, Kay Khine, Maya Bitar, David Chesnutt, Richard M. Davis

Maya S. Bitar

We report a rare case of association of temporal arteritis with recurrent central corneal ulcer. A 91-year-old male with a remote history of clinically diagnosed giant cell arteritis (GCA) and penetrating keratoplasty (PK) for corneal edema in 1990’s in the left eye presented with irritation and severe dry eye. He progressively developed central corneal ulcer regardless of treatment with aggressive lubrication and patching. The clinical course, blood tests and temporal artery biopsy results yielded the diagnosis of recurrent GCA. The clinical course improved after starting oral steroids. The case report illustrates the importance of ruling out GCA in patients ...


Role Of Myo/Nog Cells In Neuroprotection: Evidence From The Light Damaged Retina., Alice Brandli, Jacquelyn Gerhart, Christopher K Sutera, Sivaraman Purushothuman, Mindy George-Weinstein, Jonathan Stone, Arturo Bravo-Nuevo 2017 Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine

Role Of Myo/Nog Cells In Neuroprotection: Evidence From The Light Damaged Retina., Alice Brandli, Jacquelyn Gerhart, Christopher K Sutera, Sivaraman Purushothuman, Mindy George-Weinstein, Jonathan Stone, Arturo Bravo-Nuevo

Arturo Bravo-Nuevo

PURPOSE: To identify Myo/Nog cells in the adult retina and test their role in protecting retinal photoreceptors from light damage.

METHODS: Light damage was induced by exposing albino rats raised in dim cyclic light to 1000 lux light for 24 hours. In one group of rats, Myo/Nog cells were purified from rat brain tissue by magnetic cell sorting following binding of the G8 monoclonal antibody (mAb). These cells were injected into the vitreous humour of the eye within 2 hours following bright light exposure. Retinal function was assessed using full-field, flash electroretinogram (ERG) before and after treatment. The ...


Basic Vision Research With Clinical Applications And Science Education Assessments, Andrew Wilson 2017 The University of Maine

Basic Vision Research With Clinical Applications And Science Education Assessments, Andrew Wilson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Visual Acuity (VA) examinations are one of the most commonly conducted medical assessment throughout the world. Recent advances in computer technology allows for new forms of visual assessment to be conducted. In Part I of this thesis I demonstrate the capability of an automated computer program named VISION to assess human visual acuities. Different color combinations of an object against a background emitted from a computer screen are used to examine a variety of human color vision acuities. Results indicated a large difference in acuity scores between human subjects tested with these different color combinations. A single human subject exhibits ...


Quantitative Microvascular Analysis Of Retinal Venous Occlusions By Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography, Nicole Koulisis, Alice Y. Kim, Zhongdi Chu, Anoush Shahidzadeh, Bruce Burkemper, Lisa C. Olmos de Koo, Andrew A. Moshfeghi, Hossein Ameri, Carmen A. Puliafito, Veronica L. Isozaki, Ruikang K. Wang, Amir H. Kashani 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Quantitative Microvascular Analysis Of Retinal Venous Occlusions By Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography, Nicole Koulisis, Alice Y. Kim, Zhongdi Chu, Anoush Shahidzadeh, Bruce Burkemper, Lisa C. Olmos De Koo, Andrew A. Moshfeghi, Hossein Ameri, Carmen A. Puliafito, Veronica L. Isozaki, Ruikang K. Wang, Amir H. Kashani

Open Access Articles

PURPOSE: To quantitatively evaluate the retinal microvasculature in human subjects with retinal venous occlusions (RVO) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). DESIGN: Retrospective, cross-sectional, observational case series. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty subjects (84 eyes) were included (20 BRVO, 14 CRVO, 24 unaffected fellow eyes, and 26 controls). METHODS: OCTA was performed on a prototype, spectral domain-OCTA system in the 3x3mm central macular region. Custom software was used to quantify morphology and density of retinal capillaries using four quantitative parameters. The vasculature of the segmented retinal layers and nonsegmented whole retina were analyzed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Fractal dimension (FD), vessel density (VD), skeletal ...


Latanoprost And Timolol In Hydrogel Soft Drug-Dispensing Contact Lenses: A Comparative Analysis, Neha Potdar 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University

Latanoprost And Timolol In Hydrogel Soft Drug-Dispensing Contact Lenses: A Comparative Analysis, Neha Potdar

Virginias Collegiate Honors Council Conference

Glaucoma patients only can instill glaucoma eye drops. This results in 1-7% absorption of the medication. Surveys show that patients forget to take their medication and have difficulty inserting their eye drops. Researchers at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary have developed latanoprost drug-dispensing hydrogel soft contact lenses that dispense the drug to help facilitate the process. However, some glaucoma patients do not respond to latanoprost because they have uveitic glaucoma or do not want to experience latanoprost’s ocular side effects. Patients need an alternative which can be inserted into these contact lenses. Another commonly used glaucoma drug is ...


Voxel Based Morphometry In Optical Coherence Tomography: Validation & Core Findings, Bhavna J. Antony, Min Chen, Aaron Carass, Bruno M. Jedynak, Omar Al-Louzi, Sharon D. Solomon, Shiv Saidha, Peter Calabresi, Jerry L. Prince 2017 Johns Hopkins University

Voxel Based Morphometry In Optical Coherence Tomography: Validation & Core Findings, Bhavna J. Antony, Min Chen, Aaron Carass, Bruno M. Jedynak, Omar Al-Louzi, Sharon D. Solomon, Shiv Saidha, Peter Calabresi, Jerry L. Prince

Bruno Jedynak

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the human retina is now becoming established as an important modality for the detection and tracking of various ocular diseases. Voxel based morphometry (VBM) is a long standing neuroimaging analysis technique that allows for the exploration of the regional differences in the brain. There has been limited work done in developing registration based methods for OCT, which has hampered the advancement of VBM analyses in OCT based population studies. Following on from our recent development of an OCT registration method, we explore the potential benefits of VBM analysis in cohorts of healthy controls (HCs) and ...


Medical Resource Utilization Of Outpatient Care For Children With Neurofibromatosis Type 1, Rabia Idrees, Michael Fisher, Rachel Hachen, Brian Callaghan, Robert A. Avery 2017 George Washington University

Medical Resource Utilization Of Outpatient Care For Children With Neurofibromatosis Type 1, Rabia Idrees, Michael Fisher, Rachel Hachen, Brian Callaghan, Robert A. Avery

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Background:

Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant syndrome with manifestations affecting the central nervous system, musculoskeletal system, peripheral nervous system, and cognitive/behavioral functions. Many of these manifestations persist throughout life and require medical/surgical interventions.

The resource utilization and economic burden of caring for children with NF1 is unknown. Prior research has inherent selection bias and does not accurately reflect the incidence/resource utilization of morbidities. In order to identify which disease manifestations are in the most need of improved clinical algorithms and novel therapeutics, the frequency/type of resources utilized (i.e., diagnostic imaging and specialty ...


Management Of Giant Retinal Tear Detachments, Maria H. Berrocal, Megan Chenworth, Luis A. Acaba 2017 University of Puerto Rico

Management Of Giant Retinal Tear Detachments, Maria H. Berrocal, Megan Chenworth, Luis A. Acaba

Student Papers

Giant retinal tears (GRTs) are full-thickness circumferential tears of more than 90 degrees of the retina that are associated with vitreous detachment. They are related to ocular trauma, high myopia, aphakia, pseudophakia, genetic mutations involving collagen and young age. GRTs comprise 1.5% of all rhegmatogenous retinal detachments and the average age of incidence is 42 years. GRTs are more common in males, as 72% of all cases occur in males. The incidence of GRTs in the general population is estimated to be 0.05 per 100,000 individuals. Common techniques used in the management of GRTs include fluid-air exchange ...


Functional Outcomes Of The Low Vision Depression Prevention Trial In Age-Related Macular Degeneration., Ashley D. Deemer, Robert W. Massof, Barry W. Rovner, Robin J. Casten, Catherine V. Piersol 2017 Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

Functional Outcomes Of The Low Vision Depression Prevention Trial In Age-Related Macular Degeneration., Ashley D. Deemer, Robert W. Massof, Barry W. Rovner, Robin J. Casten, Catherine V. Piersol

Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior Faculty Papers

Purpose: To compare the efficacy of behavioral activation (BA) plus low vision rehabilitation with an occupational therapist (OT-LVR) with supportive therapy (ST) on visual function in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

Methods: Single-masked, attention-controlled, randomized clinical trial with AMD patients with subsyndromal depressive symptoms (n = 188). All subjects had two outpatient low vision rehabilitation optometry visits, then were randomized to in-home BA + OT-LVR or ST. Behavioral activation is a structured behavioral treatment aiming to increase adaptive behaviors and achieve valued goals. Supportive therapy is a nondirective, psychological treatment that provides emotional support and controls for attention. Functional vision was ...


Phosphorylation Of Prb: Mechanism For Rb Pathway Inactivation In Mycn-Amplified Retinoblastoma., Kathryn G. Ewens, Tricia R. Bhatti, Kimberly A. Moran, Jennifer Richards-Yutz, Carol L. Shields, Ralph C. Eagle Jr., Arupa Ganguly 2017 University of Pennsylvania

Phosphorylation Of Prb: Mechanism For Rb Pathway Inactivation In Mycn-Amplified Retinoblastoma., Kathryn G. Ewens, Tricia R. Bhatti, Kimberly A. Moran, Jennifer Richards-Yutz, Carol L. Shields, Ralph C. Eagle Jr., Arupa Ganguly

Wills Eye Institute Papers

A small, but unique subgroup of retinoblastoma has been identified with no detectable mutation in the retinoblastoma gene (RB1) and with high levels of MYCN gene amplification. This manuscript investigated alternate pathways of inactivating pRb, the encoded protein in these tumors. We analyzed the mutation status of the RB1 gene and MYCN copy number in a series of 245 unilateral retinoblastomas, and the phosphorylation status of pRb in a subset of five tumors using immunohistochemistry. There were 203 tumors with two mutations in RB1 (RB1(-/-) , 83%), 29 with one (RB1(+/-) , 12%) and 13 with no detectable mutations (RB1(+/+) , 5%). Eighteen ...


Stones, Bones, Groans, Thrones, And Psychiatric Overtones: Systemic Associations Of Sclerochoroidal Calcification., Jordan A Sugarman, Alexzandra M Douglass, Emil Anthony T. Say, Carol L. Shields 2017 Thomas Jefferson University

Stones, Bones, Groans, Thrones, And Psychiatric Overtones: Systemic Associations Of Sclerochoroidal Calcification., Jordan A Sugarman, Alexzandra M Douglass, Emil Anthony T. Say, Carol L. Shields

Wills Eye Institute Papers

Sclerochoroidal calcification (SCC) is a frequent masquerader of choroidal melanoma with important systemic associations such as hyperparathyroidism and parathyroid adenoma. Herein, we describe a case of a 67-year-old male who presented with an amelanotic choroidal lesion in the right eye (OD) and a history of kidney stones. Ultrasonography showed the lesion to be flat and calcified OD. Incidentally, a subclinical calcified plaque was also found in the fellow eye. Optical coherence tomography showed an elevated suprachoroidal mass in a table mountain configuration OD and flat configuration left eye, consistent with type 4 and type 1 SCC. The patient was referred ...


Serum Hypercoagulability States In Coats' Disease., Fariba Ghassemi, Carol L. Shields, Masoumeh Mohebbi, Mehdi Nili Ahmadabadi, Fatemeh Morsali, Siamak Sabour 2017 Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Serum Hypercoagulability States In Coats' Disease., Fariba Ghassemi, Carol L. Shields, Masoumeh Mohebbi, Mehdi Nili Ahmadabadi, Fatemeh Morsali, Siamak Sabour

Wills Eye Institute Papers

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the serum hypercoagulability state and common viral and protozoan infections in Coats' disease versus a normal control group.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this comparative case series, 22 consecutive patients with Coats' disease and 19 non-Coats' patients undergoing lensectomy for congenital, traumatic, or senile cataract between January 2011 and June 2014 were included. Laboratory data for hypercoagulability states and common viral and protozoan infections were investigated.

RESULTS: The mean age for the Coats' group was 14.5 years (median 8 years, range: 2 months to 59 years), and for the control group ...


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