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Role Of Myo/Nog Cells In Neuroprotection: Evidence From The Light Damaged Retina., Alice Brandli, Jacquelyn Gerhart, Christopher K Sutera, Sivaraman Purushothuman, Mindy George-Weinstein, Jonathan Stone, Arturo Bravo-Nuevo 2017 Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine

Role Of Myo/Nog Cells In Neuroprotection: Evidence From The Light Damaged Retina., Alice Brandli, Jacquelyn Gerhart, Christopher K Sutera, Sivaraman Purushothuman, Mindy George-Weinstein, Jonathan Stone, Arturo Bravo-Nuevo

Arturo Bravo-Nuevo

PURPOSE: To identify Myo/Nog cells in the adult retina and test their role in protecting retinal photoreceptors from light damage.

METHODS: Light damage was induced by exposing albino rats raised in dim cyclic light to 1000 lux light for 24 hours. In one group of rats, Myo/Nog cells were purified from rat brain tissue by magnetic cell sorting following binding of the G8 monoclonal antibody (mAb). These cells were injected into the vitreous humour of the eye within 2 hours following bright light exposure. Retinal function was assessed using full-field, flash electroretinogram (ERG) before and after treatment. The ...


Quantitative Microvascular Analysis Of Retinal Venous Occlusions By Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography, Nicole Koulisis, Alice Y. Kim, Zhongdi Chu, Anoush Shahidzadeh, Bruce Burkemper, Lisa C. Olmos de Koo, Andrew A. Moshfeghi, Hossein Ameri, Carmen A. Puliafito, Veronica L. Isozaki, Ruikang K. Wang, Amir H. Kashani 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Quantitative Microvascular Analysis Of Retinal Venous Occlusions By Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography, Nicole Koulisis, Alice Y. Kim, Zhongdi Chu, Anoush Shahidzadeh, Bruce Burkemper, Lisa C. Olmos De Koo, Andrew A. Moshfeghi, Hossein Ameri, Carmen A. Puliafito, Veronica L. Isozaki, Ruikang K. Wang, Amir H. Kashani

Open Access Articles

PURPOSE: To quantitatively evaluate the retinal microvasculature in human subjects with retinal venous occlusions (RVO) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). DESIGN: Retrospective, cross-sectional, observational case series. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty subjects (84 eyes) were included (20 BRVO, 14 CRVO, 24 unaffected fellow eyes, and 26 controls). METHODS: OCTA was performed on a prototype, spectral domain-OCTA system in the 3x3mm central macular region. Custom software was used to quantify morphology and density of retinal capillaries using four quantitative parameters. The vasculature of the segmented retinal layers and nonsegmented whole retina were analyzed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Fractal dimension (FD), vessel density (VD), skeletal ...


Latanoprost And Timolol In Hydrogel Soft Drug-Dispensing Contact Lenses: A Comparative Analysis, Neha Potdar 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University

Latanoprost And Timolol In Hydrogel Soft Drug-Dispensing Contact Lenses: A Comparative Analysis, Neha Potdar

Virginias Collegiate Honors Council Conference

Glaucoma patients only can instill glaucoma eye drops. This results in 1-7% absorption of the medication. Surveys show that patients forget to take their medication and have difficulty inserting their eye drops. Researchers at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary have developed latanoprost drug-dispensing hydrogel soft contact lenses that dispense the drug to help facilitate the process. However, some glaucoma patients do not respond to latanoprost because they have uveitic glaucoma or do not want to experience latanoprost’s ocular side effects. Patients need an alternative which can be inserted into these contact lenses. Another commonly used glaucoma drug is ...


Medical Resource Utilization Of Outpatient Care For Children With Neurofibromatosis Type 1, Rabia Idrees, Michael Fisher, Rachel Hachen, Brian Callaghan, Robert A. Avery 2017 George Washington University

Medical Resource Utilization Of Outpatient Care For Children With Neurofibromatosis Type 1, Rabia Idrees, Michael Fisher, Rachel Hachen, Brian Callaghan, Robert A. Avery

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Background:

Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant syndrome with manifestations affecting the central nervous system, musculoskeletal system, peripheral nervous system, and cognitive/behavioral functions. Many of these manifestations persist throughout life and require medical/surgical interventions.

The resource utilization and economic burden of caring for children with NF1 is unknown. Prior research has inherent selection bias and does not accurately reflect the incidence/resource utilization of morbidities. In order to identify which disease manifestations are in the most need of improved clinical algorithms and novel therapeutics, the frequency/type of resources utilized (i.e., diagnostic imaging and specialty ...


Management Of Giant Retinal Tear Detachments, Maria H. Berrocal, Megan Chenworth, Luis A. Acaba 2017 University of Puerto Rico

Management Of Giant Retinal Tear Detachments, Maria H. Berrocal, Megan Chenworth, Luis A. Acaba

Student Papers

Giant retinal tears (GRTs) are full-thickness circumferential tears of more than 90 degrees of the retina that are associated with vitreous detachment. They are related to ocular trauma, high myopia, aphakia, pseudophakia, genetic mutations involving collagen and young age. GRTs comprise 1.5% of all rhegmatogenous retinal detachments and the average age of incidence is 42 years. GRTs are more common in males, as 72% of all cases occur in males. The incidence of GRTs in the general population is estimated to be 0.05 per 100,000 individuals. Common techniques used in the management of GRTs include fluid-air exchange ...


Functional Outcomes Of The Low Vision Depression Prevention Trial In Age-Related Macular Degeneration., Ashley D. Deemer, Robert W. Massof, Barry W. Rovner, Robin J. Casten, Catherine V. Piersol 2017 Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

Functional Outcomes Of The Low Vision Depression Prevention Trial In Age-Related Macular Degeneration., Ashley D. Deemer, Robert W. Massof, Barry W. Rovner, Robin J. Casten, Catherine V. Piersol

Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior Faculty Papers

Purpose: To compare the efficacy of behavioral activation (BA) plus low vision rehabilitation with an occupational therapist (OT-LVR) with supportive therapy (ST) on visual function in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

Methods: Single-masked, attention-controlled, randomized clinical trial with AMD patients with subsyndromal depressive symptoms (n = 188). All subjects had two outpatient low vision rehabilitation optometry visits, then were randomized to in-home BA + OT-LVR or ST. Behavioral activation is a structured behavioral treatment aiming to increase adaptive behaviors and achieve valued goals. Supportive therapy is a nondirective, psychological treatment that provides emotional support and controls for attention. Functional vision was ...


Phosphorylation Of Prb: Mechanism For Rb Pathway Inactivation In Mycn-Amplified Retinoblastoma., Kathryn G. Ewens, Tricia R. Bhatti, Kimberly A. Moran, Jennifer Richards-Yutz, Carol L. Shields, Ralph C. Eagle Jr., Arupa Ganguly 2017 University of Pennsylvania

Phosphorylation Of Prb: Mechanism For Rb Pathway Inactivation In Mycn-Amplified Retinoblastoma., Kathryn G. Ewens, Tricia R. Bhatti, Kimberly A. Moran, Jennifer Richards-Yutz, Carol L. Shields, Ralph C. Eagle Jr., Arupa Ganguly

Wills Eye Institute Papers

A small, but unique subgroup of retinoblastoma has been identified with no detectable mutation in the retinoblastoma gene (RB1) and with high levels of MYCN gene amplification. This manuscript investigated alternate pathways of inactivating pRb, the encoded protein in these tumors. We analyzed the mutation status of the RB1 gene and MYCN copy number in a series of 245 unilateral retinoblastomas, and the phosphorylation status of pRb in a subset of five tumors using immunohistochemistry. There were 203 tumors with two mutations in RB1 (RB1(-/-) , 83%), 29 with one (RB1(+/-) , 12%) and 13 with no detectable mutations (RB1(+/+) , 5%). Eighteen ...


Stones, Bones, Groans, Thrones, And Psychiatric Overtones: Systemic Associations Of Sclerochoroidal Calcification., Jordan A Sugarman, Alexzandra M Douglass, Emil Anthony T. Say, Carol L. Shields 2017 Thomas Jefferson University

Stones, Bones, Groans, Thrones, And Psychiatric Overtones: Systemic Associations Of Sclerochoroidal Calcification., Jordan A Sugarman, Alexzandra M Douglass, Emil Anthony T. Say, Carol L. Shields

Wills Eye Institute Papers

Sclerochoroidal calcification (SCC) is a frequent masquerader of choroidal melanoma with important systemic associations such as hyperparathyroidism and parathyroid adenoma. Herein, we describe a case of a 67-year-old male who presented with an amelanotic choroidal lesion in the right eye (OD) and a history of kidney stones. Ultrasonography showed the lesion to be flat and calcified OD. Incidentally, a subclinical calcified plaque was also found in the fellow eye. Optical coherence tomography showed an elevated suprachoroidal mass in a table mountain configuration OD and flat configuration left eye, consistent with type 4 and type 1 SCC. The patient was referred ...


Serum Hypercoagulability States In Coats' Disease., Fariba Ghassemi, Carol L. Shields, Masoumeh Mohebbi, Mehdi Nili Ahmadabadi, Fatemeh Morsali, Siamak Sabour 2017 Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Serum Hypercoagulability States In Coats' Disease., Fariba Ghassemi, Carol L. Shields, Masoumeh Mohebbi, Mehdi Nili Ahmadabadi, Fatemeh Morsali, Siamak Sabour

Wills Eye Institute Papers

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the serum hypercoagulability state and common viral and protozoan infections in Coats' disease versus a normal control group.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this comparative case series, 22 consecutive patients with Coats' disease and 19 non-Coats' patients undergoing lensectomy for congenital, traumatic, or senile cataract between January 2011 and June 2014 were included. Laboratory data for hypercoagulability states and common viral and protozoan infections were investigated.

RESULTS: The mean age for the Coats' group was 14.5 years (median 8 years, range: 2 months to 59 years), and for the control group ...


Role Of Myo/Nog Cells In Neuroprotection: Evidence From The Light Damaged Retina., Alice Brandli, Jacquelyn Gerhart, Christopher K Sutera, Sivaraman Purushothuman, Mindy George-Weinstein, Jonathan Stone, Arturo Bravo-Nuevo 2017 Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine

Role Of Myo/Nog Cells In Neuroprotection: Evidence From The Light Damaged Retina., Alice Brandli, Jacquelyn Gerhart, Christopher K Sutera, Sivaraman Purushothuman, Mindy George-Weinstein, Jonathan Stone, Arturo Bravo-Nuevo

Mindy George-Weinstein

PURPOSE: To identify Myo/Nog cells in the adult retina and test their role in protecting retinal photoreceptors from light damage. METHODS: Light damage was induced by exposing albino rats raised in dim cyclic light to 1000 lux light for 24 hours. In one group of rats, Myo/Nog cells were purified from rat brain tissue by magnetic cell sorting following binding of the G8 monoclonal antibody (mAb). These cells were injected into the vitreous humour of the eye within 2 hours following bright light exposure. Retinal function was assessed using full-field, flash electroretinogram (ERG) before and after treatment. The ...


Antibiotic Prophylaxis In Orbital Fractures., Benjamin Reiss, Lamise Rajjoub, Tamer Mansour, Tony Chen, Aisha Mumtaz 2017 George Washington University

Antibiotic Prophylaxis In Orbital Fractures., Benjamin Reiss, Lamise Rajjoub, Tamer Mansour, Tony Chen, Aisha Mumtaz

Ophthalmology Faculty Publications

Purpose:

To determine whether prophylactic antibiotic use in patients with orbital fracture prevent orbital infection.

Design:

Retrospective cohort study.

Participants:

All patients diagnosed with orbital fracture between January 1, 2008 and March 1, 2014 at The George Washington University Hospital and Clinics.

Main Outcome Measures:

Development of orbital infection.

Results:

One hundred seventy-two patients with orbital fracture met our inclusion and exclusion criteria. No orbital infections were documented. Twenty subjects (12%) received no prophylactic antibiotic, and two (1%) received only one dose of antibiotics pre-operatively for surgery. For primary antibiotic, 136 subjects (79%) received oral antibiotics, and 14 (8%) received ...


Association Between Age-Related Macular Degeneration And Sleep-Disordered Breathing, Jeffrey A. Nau 2017 Walden University

Association Between Age-Related Macular Degeneration And Sleep-Disordered Breathing, Jeffrey A. Nau

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a chronic, irreversible disease that robs individuals of vision, quality of life, and independence. It is the leading cause of blindness in industrialized countries. Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is a condition characterized by repeated episodes of apnea and/or hypopnea, insomnia, short sleep duration, and/or sleep disturbances (snoring, gasping, etc.). Because SDB has been shown to cause chronic hypoxia resulting in oxidative stress on the retina, it has been proposed that SDB may be associated with AMD. Based on the life course theory of chronic disease, this quantitative, cross-sectional study used data from the 2005â ...


Role Of Myo/Nog Cells In Neuroprotection: Evidence From The Light Damaged Retina., Alice Brandli, Jacquelyn Gerhart, Christopher K Sutera, Sivaraman Purushothuman, Mindy George-Weinstein, Jonathan Stone, Arturo Bravo-Nuevo 2017 Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine

Role Of Myo/Nog Cells In Neuroprotection: Evidence From The Light Damaged Retina., Alice Brandli, Jacquelyn Gerhart, Christopher K Sutera, Sivaraman Purushothuman, Mindy George-Weinstein, Jonathan Stone, Arturo Bravo-Nuevo

PCOM Scholarly Papers

PURPOSE: To identify Myo/Nog cells in the adult retina and test their role in protecting retinal photoreceptors from light damage.

METHODS: Light damage was induced by exposing albino rats raised in dim cyclic light to 1000 lux light for 24 hours. In one group of rats, Myo/Nog cells were purified from rat brain tissue by magnetic cell sorting following binding of the G8 monoclonal antibody (mAb). These cells were injected into the vitreous humour of the eye within 2 hours following bright light exposure. Retinal function was assessed using full-field, flash electroretinogram (ERG) before and after treatment. The ...


A Sema3c Mutant Resistant To Cleavage By Furin (Fr-Sema3c) Inhibits Choroidal Neovascularization, Shira Toledano, Huayi Lu, Agustina Palacio, Keren Ziv, Ofra Kessler, Shlomit Schaal, Gera Neufeld, Yoreh Barak 2016 Cancer Research and Vascular Biology Center

A Sema3c Mutant Resistant To Cleavage By Furin (Fr-Sema3c) Inhibits Choroidal Neovascularization, Shira Toledano, Huayi Lu, Agustina Palacio, Keren Ziv, Ofra Kessler, Shlomit Schaal, Gera Neufeld, Yoreh Barak

Open Access Articles

In age-related macular degeneration (AMD), abnormal sub retinal choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is a major cause of blindness. FR-sema3C is a point mutated form of semaphorin-3C that is resistant to cleavage by furin like pro-protein convertases (FPPC). We have found in previous work that FR-sema3C functions as an anti-angiogenic factor. In this study we investigated the possible use of FR-sema3C as an inhibitor of CNV. FR-sema3C inhibits VEGF as well as PDGF-BB signal transduction in endothelial cells and to less extent bFGF induced signal transduction using a mechanism that does not depend upon the binding of VEGF like the drugs that ...


Morphological Assessment Of The Retina In Uveitis., Michael M. Altaweel, Sapna S. Gangaputra, Jennifer E. Thorne, James P. Dunn, Susan G. Elner, Glenn J. Jaffe, Rosa Y. Kim, P. Kumar Rao, Susan B. Reed, John H. Kempen 2016 University of Wisconsin-Madison

Morphological Assessment Of The Retina In Uveitis., Michael M. Altaweel, Sapna S. Gangaputra, Jennifer E. Thorne, James P. Dunn, Susan G. Elner, Glenn J. Jaffe, Rosa Y. Kim, P. Kumar Rao, Susan B. Reed, John H. Kempen

Wills Eye Institute Papers

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to describe a system for color photograph evaluation in uveitis and report baseline morphologic findings for the Multicenter Uveitis Steroid Treatment (MUST) Trial. Four-hundred seventy-nine eyes of 255 subjects with intermediate, posterior, and panuveitis had stereoscopic color fundus photographs obtained by certified photographers and evaluated by certified graders using standardized procedures to evaluate morphologic characteristics of uveitis. The posterior pole was evaluated for macular edema, vitreoretinal interface abnormalities, and macular pigment disturbance/atrophy; the optic disk was assessed for edema, pallor, or glaucomatous changes. The presence of neovascularization, vascular occlusion, vascular sheathing, and ...


Self-Complementary Adeno-Associated Virus Vectors Improve Transduction Efficiency Of Corneal Endothelial Cells, Anja K. Gruenert, Marta Czugala, Christian Mueller, Marco Schmeer, Martin Schleef, Friedrich E. Kruse, Thomas A. Fuchsluger 2016 University of Erlangen-Nurnberg

Self-Complementary Adeno-Associated Virus Vectors Improve Transduction Efficiency Of Corneal Endothelial Cells, Anja K. Gruenert, Marta Czugala, Christian Mueller, Marco Schmeer, Martin Schleef, Friedrich E. Kruse, Thomas A. Fuchsluger

Christian Mueller

Transplantation of a donor cornea to restore vision is the most frequently performed transplantation in the world. Corneal endothelial cells (CEC) are crucial for the outcome of a graft as they maintain corneal transparency and avoid graft failure due to corneal opaqueness. Given the characteristic of being a monolayer and in direct contact with culture medium during cultivation in eye banks, CEC are specifically suitable for gene therapeutic approaches prior to transplantation. Recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 (rAAV2) vectors represent a promising tool for gene therapy of CEC. However, high vector titers are needed to achieve sufficient gene expression. One of ...


When The Challenges Of Aging And Visual Impairment Collide: Working Together To Build A Toolbox Of Rehab Ideas Of Best Care For Older Adults, Regula H. Robnett, Kathy Clarrage 2016 University of New England

When The Challenges Of Aging And Visual Impairment Collide: Working Together To Build A Toolbox Of Rehab Ideas Of Best Care For Older Adults, Regula H. Robnett, Kathy Clarrage

Occupational Therapy Faculty Presentations

Workshop/presentation by Regi Robnett, Ph.D., OTR/L, FAOTA, professor in the UNE Department of Occupational Therapy and Kathy Clarrage, COMS, Certified Orientation and Mobility Specialist for the State of Maine. Given at the North East Chapter of the Association for Education and Rehabilitation for the Blind and Visually Impaired (NEAER) conference, this presentation encouraged health care providers to work as a team to care for older, visually impaired adults. The professional audience included orientation and mobility specialists, vision rehabilitation therapists, low vision specialists, administrators in the field of blindness, social workers in the field of blindness and vocational ...


The Targetable Epigenetic Tumor Protein Ezh2 Is Enriched In Intraocular Medulloepithelioma., Sarah E. Avedschmidt, Anna M. Stagner, Ralph C Eagle, George J. Harocopos, Yali Dou, Rajesh C. Rao 2016 The University Of Michigan

The Targetable Epigenetic Tumor Protein Ezh2 Is Enriched In Intraocular Medulloepithelioma., Sarah E. Avedschmidt, Anna M. Stagner, Ralph C Eagle, George J. Harocopos, Yali Dou, Rajesh C. Rao

Wills Eye Institute Papers

Purpose: Intraocular medulloepithelioma (IM), the second most common primary neuroepithelial tumor of the eye, can lead to blindness in the affected eye and in rare cases, is deadly. Intraocular medulloepithelioma lacks targetable biomarkers for potential pharmacologic therapy. The purpose of this study was to identify actionable, tumor-specific proteins for potential diagnostic or therapeutic strategies. We hypothesize that the tumor-specific epigenetic enzyme EZH2 is selectively expressed in IM.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective case series study of five IM from five eyes of four children and one adult. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stains of sections from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks of IM tumors were used to localize IM tumor cells in each case. Using an EZH2-specific antibody for immunohistochemistry, we semiquantitatively calculated the proportion of IM tumor cells positive for EZH2, and also assayed for EZH2 staining intensity.

Results: We found that EZH2 was expressed in all IM cases but this protein was absent in nontumor ciliary body or retinal tissues. However, not all IM tumor cells expressed EZH2. Similar to retinoblastoma, moderately to poorly differentiated (primitive appearing) IM tumor cells strongly expressed EZH2; expression was weaker or absent in areas of well-formed ...


Analysis Of The Efforts Of Urban And Rural Health Systems To Achieve Accountable Care Organization Target Goals For Dilated Eye Exams In Individuals With Diabetes, Michele Gilliam 2016 University of Southern Maine

Analysis Of The Efforts Of Urban And Rural Health Systems To Achieve Accountable Care Organization Target Goals For Dilated Eye Exams In Individuals With Diabetes, Michele Gilliam

Muskie School Capstones

This capstone project was designed to understand and analyze the completion rates for diabetic dilated eye exams within four different health systems participating in the MaineHealth Accountable Care Organizations (ACO). This research is valuable within the current US health care climate as health care providers have sought to evaluate the cost of care in terms of their value to payers. Moreover, many providers have elected to join the ACO in order to demonstrate better outcomes, improve the cost of care and to share programmatic content and tools to standardized care. Within this capstone, system level workflows and processes were evaluated ...


Retinal Vessel Segmentation From Simple To Difficult, Qing Liu, Beiji Zou, Jie Chen, Zailiang Chen, Chengzhang Zhu, Kejuan Yue, Guoying Zhao 2016 Central South University

Retinal Vessel Segmentation From Simple To Difficult, Qing Liu, Beiji Zou, Jie Chen, Zailiang Chen, Chengzhang Zhu, Kejuan Yue, Guoying Zhao

Proceedings of the Ophthalmic Medical Image Analysis International Workshop

In this paper, we propose two vesselness maps and a simple to difficult learning framework for retinal vessel segmentation which is ground truth free. The first vesselness map is the multiscale centrelineboundary contrast map which is inspired by the appearance of vessels. The other is the difference of diffusion map which measures the difference of the diffused image and the original one. Meanwhile, two existing vesselness maps are generated. Totally, 4 vesselness maps are generated. In each vesselness map, pixels with large vesselness values are regarded as positive samples. Pixels around the positive samples with small vesselness values are regarded ...


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