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Impact Of Natural Blind Spot Location On Perimetry., Mengyu Wang, Lucy Q. Shen, Michael V. Boland, Sarah R. Wellik, Carlos Gustavo De Moraes, Jonathan S. Myers, Peter J. Bex, Tobias Elze 2017 Harvard Medical School

Impact Of Natural Blind Spot Location On Perimetry., Mengyu Wang, Lucy Q. Shen, Michael V. Boland, Sarah R. Wellik, Carlos Gustavo De Moraes, Jonathan S. Myers, Peter J. Bex, Tobias Elze

Wills Eye Institute Papers

We study the spatial distribution of natural blind spot location (NBSL) and its impact on perimetry. Pattern deviation (PD) values of 11,449 reliable visual fields (VFs) that are defined as clinically unaffected based on summary indices were extracted from 11,449 glaucoma patients. We modeled NBSL distribution using a two-dimensional non-linear regression approach and correlated NBSL with spherical equivalent (SE). Additionally, we compared PD values of groups with longer and shorter distances than median, and larger and smaller angles than median between NBSL and fixation. Mean and standard deviation of horizontal and vertical NBSL were 14.33° ± 1.37 ...


Integrated Results From The Copernicus And Galileo Studies., Amelie Pielen, W. Lloyd Clark, David S. Boyer, Yuichiro Ogura, Frank G. Holz, Jean-Francois Korobelnik, Brigitte Stemper, Friedrich Asmus, Kay D. Rittenhouse, Christiane Ahlers, Robert Vitti, Namrata Saroj, Oliver Zeitz, Julia A. Haller 2017 University Hospital Freiburg; Hannover Medical School

Integrated Results From The Copernicus And Galileo Studies., Amelie Pielen, W. Lloyd Clark, David S. Boyer, Yuichiro Ogura, Frank G. Holz, Jean-Francois Korobelnik, Brigitte Stemper, Friedrich Asmus, Kay D. Rittenhouse, Christiane Ahlers, Robert Vitti, Namrata Saroj, Oliver Zeitz, Julia A. Haller

Wills Eye Institute Papers

OBJECTIVES: To report on the efficacy and safety of intravitreal aflibercept in patients with macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) in an integrated analysis of COPERNICUS and GALILEO.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were randomized to receive intravitreal aflibercept 2 mg every 4 weeks or sham injections until week 24. From week 24 to week 52, all intravitreal aflibercept-treated patients in both studies and sham-treated patients in COPERNICUS were eligible to receive intravitreal aflibercept based on prespecified criteria. In GALILEO, sham-treated patients continued to receive sham treatment through week 52.

RESULTS: At week 24, mean gain in best-corrected ...


Protection Of Cells From Degeneration And Treatment Of Geographic Atrophy, Jayakrishna Ambati 2017 University of Kentucky

Protection Of Cells From Degeneration And Treatment Of Geographic Atrophy, Jayakrishna Ambati

Ophthalmology and Visual Science Faculty Patents

Therapeutic uses P2X7 inhibition and inhibition of IRAK1 and/or IRAK4, methods protecting a cell, and screening methods for identifying inhibitors are described herein.


Synaptic Ribbon Active Zones In Cone Photoreceptors Operate Independently From One Another., Justin J. Grassmeyer, Wallace B. Thoreson 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Synaptic Ribbon Active Zones In Cone Photoreceptors Operate Independently From One Another., Justin J. Grassmeyer, Wallace B. Thoreson

Journal Articles: Ophthalmology

Cone photoreceptors depolarize in darkness to release glutamate-laden synaptic vesicles. Essential to release is the synaptic ribbon, a structure that helps organize active zones by clustering vesicles near proteins that mediate exocytosis, including voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. Cone terminals have many ribbon-style active zones at which second-order neurons receive input. We asked whether there are functionally significant differences in local Ca(2+) influx among ribbons in individual cones. We combined confocal Ca(2+) imaging to measure Ca(2+) influx at individual ribbons and patch clamp recordings to record whole-cell ICa in salamander cones. We found that the voltage for half-maximal ...


Autoimmune Retinopathy Associated With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Diagnostic Dilemma., Wadakarn Wuthisiri, Yu-Hung Lai, Jenina Capasso, Martin Blidner, David Salz, Erik Kruger, Alex V. Levin 2017 Wills Eye Hospital; Mahidol University

Autoimmune Retinopathy Associated With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Diagnostic Dilemma., Wadakarn Wuthisiri, Yu-Hung Lai, Jenina Capasso, Martin Blidner, David Salz, Erik Kruger, Alex V. Levin

Wills Eye Institute Papers

Visual loss in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) due to autoimmune retinopathy (AIR) is rare and easily misdiagnosed as hydroxychloroquine retinopathy. We report the rare clinical presentation of severe visual loss in a patient with SLE due to nonparaneoplastic AIR as differentiated from hydroxychloroquine toxicity. A 70-year-old female diagnosed and treated for lupus for 17 years and had been taking hydroxychloroquine for 15 years. Over the past 2 years, she developed progressive peripheral visual loss oculus uterque which rapidly advanced in the latter 6 months. Hydroxychloroquine toxicity was initially suspected, but diagnostic testing revealed a retinal degeneration. Antiretinal autoantibody testing using ...


Non-Adherence To Eye Care In People With Diabetes, Ann P. Murchison, Lisa A. Hark, Laura T. Pizzi, Yang Dai, Eileen Mayro, Philip P. Storey, Benjamin E. Leiby, Julia A. Haller 2017 Thomas Jefferson University

Non-Adherence To Eye Care In People With Diabetes, Ann P. Murchison, Lisa A. Hark, Laura T. Pizzi, Yang Dai, Eileen Mayro, Philip P. Storey, Benjamin E. Leiby, Julia A. Haller

Wills Eye Institute Papers

Objective Evaluate individual factors that impact adherence to eye care follow-up in patients with diabetes. Design and methods A 4-year retrospective chart review was conducted for 1968 patients with diabetes over age 40 from an urban academic center. Data collected included demographics, insurance, visual acuity, smoking status, medications, dates of dilated fundus examinations (DFE), and reported hemoglobin A1C and blood glucose levels. The primary outcome was timely DFE follow-up adherence following the initial eye exam visit. Results Overall, 41.6% of patients adhered to initial follow-up eye care recommendations. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that patients with severe diabetic retinopathy (DR) were ...


Increased Clusterin Expression In Fuchs’ Endothelial Dystrophy, Ula V. Jurkunas, Maya Bitar, Ian Rawe, Deshea L. Harris, Kathryn Colby, Nancy C. Joyce 2017 Marshall University

Increased Clusterin Expression In Fuchs’ Endothelial Dystrophy, Ula V. Jurkunas, Maya Bitar, Ian Rawe, Deshea L. Harris, Kathryn Colby, Nancy C. Joyce

Maya S. Bitar

Purpose: To compare the relative expression of peroxiredoxin (Prx) proteins in normal human corneal endothelium with endothelium in corneas affected by Fuchs’ endothelial dystrophy (FED) and between normal human endothelium and epithelial/stromal tissue.

Methods: Human corneal endothelial cell-Descemet’s membrane (HCEC-DM) complexes from normal and FED corneal buttons were dissected from the epithelium/stroma. For proteomic analysis, HCEC-DM protein extracts were separated by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Relative differences in protein spot density was analyzed. Proteins of interest, including Prx isoforms, were identified by MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted desorption ionization-time of flight) mass spectrometry. Western blot analysis compared the relative expression ...


Decreased Expression Of Peroxiredoxins In Fuchs’ Endothelial Dystrophy, Ula V. Jurkunas, Ian Rawe, Maya Bitar, Cheng Zhu, Deshea L. Harris, Kathryn Colby, Nancy C. Joyce 2017 Marshall University

Decreased Expression Of Peroxiredoxins In Fuchs’ Endothelial Dystrophy, Ula V. Jurkunas, Ian Rawe, Maya Bitar, Cheng Zhu, Deshea L. Harris, Kathryn Colby, Nancy C. Joyce

Maya S. Bitar

Purpose: To compare the relative expression of peroxiredoxin (Prx) proteins in normal human corneal endothelium with endothelium in corneas affected by Fuchs’ endothelial dystrophy (FED) and between normal human endothelium and epithelial/stromal tissue.

Methods: Human corneal endothelial cell-Descemet’s membrane (HCEC-DM) complexes from normal and FED corneal buttons were dissected from the epithelium/stroma. For proteomic analysis, HCEC-DM protein extracts were separated by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Relative differences in protein spot density was analyzed. Proteins of interest, including Prx isoforms, were identified by MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted desorption ionization-time of flight) mass spectrometry. Western blot analysis compared the relative expression ...


Colocalization Of Increased Transforming Growth Factor-Β-Induced Protein (Tgfbip) And Clusterin In Fuchs Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy, Ula V. Jurkunas, Maya Bitar, Ian Rawe 2017 Marshall University

Colocalization Of Increased Transforming Growth Factor-Β-Induced Protein (Tgfbip) And Clusterin In Fuchs Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy, Ula V. Jurkunas, Maya Bitar, Ian Rawe

Maya S. Bitar

PURPOSE: To investigate the differential expression of TGFBIp in normal human and Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) endothelial cell-Descemet’s membrane (HCEC-DM) complex, and to asses the structural role of TGFBIp and clusterin (CLU) in guttae formation.

METHODS: HCEC-DM complex was dissected from stroma in normal and FECD samples. Proteins were separated by 2-D gel electrophoresis and subjected to proteomic analysis. N-terminal processing of TGFBIp was detected by Western blot analysis with two separate antibodies against the N- and C-terminal regions of TGFBIp. Expression of TGFBI mRNA was compared by using real-time PCR. Subcellular localization of TGFBIp and CLU in ...


The Anatomical And Functional Benefit Of Bevacizumab In The Treatment Of Macular Edema Associated With Purtscher-Like Retinopathy, B. LW. Nesmith, Maya Bitar, S. Schaal 2017 Marshall University

The Anatomical And Functional Benefit Of Bevacizumab In The Treatment Of Macular Edema Associated With Purtscher-Like Retinopathy, B. Lw. Nesmith, Maya Bitar, S. Schaal

Maya S. Bitar

We read the article by Miguel et al1 regarding Purtscher’s and Purtscher-like retinopathies with great interest. As the authors well describe, ‘Purtscher-like retinopathy’ is diagnosed in patients with fundus findings similar to Purtscher’s retinopathy, without a history of trauma but with known systemic associations.1 Current proposed mechanisms for the underlying pathogenesis include leukocyte aggregation by activated complement factor 5 (C5a).2 As noted by the authors’ systematic review, there is currently no established treatment for Purtscher-like retinopathy, although the literature consists of several case reports of treatment with corticosteroids, without certainty as to effect on the clinical ...


A Rare Association Of Giant Cell Arteritis With Recurrent Corneal Ulcer, Sailaja Bondalapati, Kay Khine, Maya Bitar, David Chesnutt, Richard M. Davis 2017 Marshall University

A Rare Association Of Giant Cell Arteritis With Recurrent Corneal Ulcer, Sailaja Bondalapati, Kay Khine, Maya Bitar, David Chesnutt, Richard M. Davis

Maya S. Bitar

We report a rare case of association of temporal arteritis with recurrent central corneal ulcer. A 91-year-old male with a remote history of clinically diagnosed giant cell arteritis (GCA) and penetrating keratoplasty (PK) for corneal edema in 1990’s in the left eye presented with irritation and severe dry eye. He progressively developed central corneal ulcer regardless of treatment with aggressive lubrication and patching. The clinical course, blood tests and temporal artery biopsy results yielded the diagnosis of recurrent GCA. The clinical course improved after starting oral steroids. The case report illustrates the importance of ruling out GCA in patients ...


Role Of Myo/Nog Cells In Neuroprotection: Evidence From The Light Damaged Retina., Alice Brandli, Jacquelyn Gerhart, Christopher K Sutera, Sivaraman Purushothuman, Mindy George-Weinstein, Jonathan Stone, Arturo Bravo-Nuevo 2017 Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine

Role Of Myo/Nog Cells In Neuroprotection: Evidence From The Light Damaged Retina., Alice Brandli, Jacquelyn Gerhart, Christopher K Sutera, Sivaraman Purushothuman, Mindy George-Weinstein, Jonathan Stone, Arturo Bravo-Nuevo

Arturo Bravo-Nuevo

PURPOSE: To identify Myo/Nog cells in the adult retina and test their role in protecting retinal photoreceptors from light damage.

METHODS: Light damage was induced by exposing albino rats raised in dim cyclic light to 1000 lux light for 24 hours. In one group of rats, Myo/Nog cells were purified from rat brain tissue by magnetic cell sorting following binding of the G8 monoclonal antibody (mAb). These cells were injected into the vitreous humour of the eye within 2 hours following bright light exposure. Retinal function was assessed using full-field, flash electroretinogram (ERG) before and after treatment. The ...


Rod Outer Segment Development Influences Aav-Mediated Photoreceptor Transduction After Subretinal Injection, Lolita Petit, Shan Ma, Shun-Yun Cheng, Guangping Gao, Claudio Punzo 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Rod Outer Segment Development Influences Aav-Mediated Photoreceptor Transduction After Subretinal Injection, Lolita Petit, Shan Ma, Shun-Yun Cheng, Guangping Gao, Claudio Punzo

UMass Metabolic Network Publications

Vectors based on the adeno-associated virus (AAV) are currently the preferred tools for delivering genes to photoreceptors (PR) in small and large animals. AAVs have been applied successfully in various models of PR dystrophies. However, unknown barriers still limit AAV's efficient application in several forms of severe PR degenerations due to insufficient transgene expression and/or treated cells at the time of injection. Optimizations of PR gene therapy strategies will likely benefit from the identification of the cellular factors that influence PR transduction. Interestingly, recent studies have shown that the AAV transduction profile of PRs differs significantly between neonatal ...


Basic Vision Research With Clinical Applications And Science Education Assessments, Andrew Wilson 2017 The University of Maine

Basic Vision Research With Clinical Applications And Science Education Assessments, Andrew Wilson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Visual Acuity (VA) examinations are one of the most commonly conducted medical assessment throughout the world. Recent advances in computer technology allows for new forms of visual assessment to be conducted. In Part I of this thesis I demonstrate the capability of an automated computer program named VISION to assess human visual acuities. Different color combinations of an object against a background emitted from a computer screen are used to examine a variety of human color vision acuities. Results indicated a large difference in acuity scores between human subjects tested with these different color combinations. A single human subject exhibits ...


Atorvastatin Promotes Phagocytosis And Attenuates Pro-Inflammatory Response In Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells, Bo Tian, Ahmad Al-Moujahed, Peggy Bouzika, Yijun Hu, Shoji Notomi, Pavlina Tsoka, Joan W. Miller, Haijiang Lin, Demetrios G. Vavvas 2017 Harvard Medical School

Atorvastatin Promotes Phagocytosis And Attenuates Pro-Inflammatory Response In Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells, Bo Tian, Ahmad Al-Moujahed, Peggy Bouzika, Yijun Hu, Shoji Notomi, Pavlina Tsoka, Joan W. Miller, Haijiang Lin, Demetrios G. Vavvas

Open Access Articles

Phagocytosis of daily shed photoreceptor outer segments is an important function of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and it is essential for retinal homeostasis. RPE dysfunction, especially impairment of its phagocytic ability, plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Statins, or HMG CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A) reductase inhibitors, are drugs with multiple properties that have been extensively used to treat hyperlipidemia. However, their effect on RPE cells has not been fully elucidated. Here we report that high dose atorvastatin increased the phagocytic function of ARPE-19 cells, as well as rescue the cells from the phagocytic dysfunction ...


Quantitative Microvascular Analysis Of Retinal Venous Occlusions By Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography, Nicole Koulisis, Alice Y. Kim, Zhongdi Chu, Anoush Shahidzadeh, Bruce Burkemper, Lisa C. Olmos de Koo, Andrew A. Moshfeghi, Hossein Ameri, Carmen A. Puliafito, Veronica L. Isozaki, Ruikang K. Wang, Amir H. Kashani 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Quantitative Microvascular Analysis Of Retinal Venous Occlusions By Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography, Nicole Koulisis, Alice Y. Kim, Zhongdi Chu, Anoush Shahidzadeh, Bruce Burkemper, Lisa C. Olmos De Koo, Andrew A. Moshfeghi, Hossein Ameri, Carmen A. Puliafito, Veronica L. Isozaki, Ruikang K. Wang, Amir H. Kashani

Open Access Articles

PURPOSE: To quantitatively evaluate the retinal microvasculature in human subjects with retinal venous occlusions (RVO) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). DESIGN: Retrospective, cross-sectional, observational case series. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty subjects (84 eyes) were included (20 BRVO, 14 CRVO, 24 unaffected fellow eyes, and 26 controls). METHODS: OCTA was performed on a prototype, spectral domain-OCTA system in the 3x3mm central macular region. Custom software was used to quantify morphology and density of retinal capillaries using four quantitative parameters. The vasculature of the segmented retinal layers and nonsegmented whole retina were analyzed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Fractal dimension (FD), vessel density (VD), skeletal ...


Latanoprost And Timolol In Hydrogel Soft Drug-Dispensing Contact Lenses: A Comparative Analysis, Neha Potdar 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University

Latanoprost And Timolol In Hydrogel Soft Drug-Dispensing Contact Lenses: A Comparative Analysis, Neha Potdar

Virginias Collegiate Honors Council Conference

Glaucoma patients only can instill glaucoma eye drops. This results in 1-7% absorption of the medication. Surveys show that patients forget to take their medication and have difficulty inserting their eye drops. Researchers at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary have developed latanoprost drug-dispensing hydrogel soft contact lenses that dispense the drug to help facilitate the process. However, some glaucoma patients do not respond to latanoprost because they have uveitic glaucoma or do not want to experience latanoprost’s ocular side effects. Patients need an alternative which can be inserted into these contact lenses. Another commonly used glaucoma drug is ...


Voxel Based Morphometry In Optical Coherence Tomography: Validation & Core Findings, Bhavna J. Antony, Min Chen, Aaron Carass, Bruno M. Jedynak, Omar Al-Louzi, Sharon D. Solomon, Shiv Saidha, Peter Calabresi, Jerry L. Prince 2017 Johns Hopkins University

Voxel Based Morphometry In Optical Coherence Tomography: Validation & Core Findings, Bhavna J. Antony, Min Chen, Aaron Carass, Bruno M. Jedynak, Omar Al-Louzi, Sharon D. Solomon, Shiv Saidha, Peter Calabresi, Jerry L. Prince

Bruno Jedynak

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the human retina is now becoming established as an important modality for the detection and tracking of various ocular diseases. Voxel based morphometry (VBM) is a long standing neuroimaging analysis technique that allows for the exploration of the regional differences in the brain. There has been limited work done in developing registration based methods for OCT, which has hampered the advancement of VBM analyses in OCT based population studies. Following on from our recent development of an OCT registration method, we explore the potential benefits of VBM analysis in cohorts of healthy controls (HCs) and ...


Medical Resource Utilization Of Outpatient Care For Children With Neurofibromatosis Type 1, Rabia Idrees, Michael Fisher, Rachel Hachen, Brian Callaghan, Robert A. Avery 2017 George Washington University

Medical Resource Utilization Of Outpatient Care For Children With Neurofibromatosis Type 1, Rabia Idrees, Michael Fisher, Rachel Hachen, Brian Callaghan, Robert A. Avery

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Background:

Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant syndrome with manifestations affecting the central nervous system, musculoskeletal system, peripheral nervous system, and cognitive/behavioral functions. Many of these manifestations persist throughout life and require medical/surgical interventions.

The resource utilization and economic burden of caring for children with NF1 is unknown. Prior research has inherent selection bias and does not accurately reflect the incidence/resource utilization of morbidities. In order to identify which disease manifestations are in the most need of improved clinical algorithms and novel therapeutics, the frequency/type of resources utilized (i.e., diagnostic imaging and specialty ...


Inhibition Or Stimulation Of Autophagy Affects Early Formation Of Lipofuscin-Like Autofluorescence In The Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cell, Lei Lei, Radouil T. Tzekov, Huapeng Li, J. Hugh McDowell, Guangping Gao, W. Clay Smith, Shibo Tang, Shalesh Kaushal 2017 Sun Yat-sen University, China

Inhibition Or Stimulation Of Autophagy Affects Early Formation Of Lipofuscin-Like Autofluorescence In The Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cell, Lei Lei, Radouil T. Tzekov, Huapeng Li, J. Hugh Mcdowell, Guangping Gao, W. Clay Smith, Shibo Tang, Shalesh Kaushal

Open Access Articles

The accumulation of lipofuscin in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is dependent on the effectiveness of photoreceptor outer segment material degradation. This study explored the role of autophagy in the fate of RPE lipofuscin degradation. After seven days of feeding with either native or modified rod outer segments, ARPE-19 cells were treated with enhancers or inhibitors of autophagy and the autofluorescence was detected by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Supplementation with different types of rod outer segments increased lipofuscin-like autofluorescence (LLAF) after the inhibition of autophagy, while the induction of autophagy (e.g., application of rapamycin) decreased LLAF. The effects of autophagy ...


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