A Sex-Positive Approach To Healthcare, And Truvada As Hiv Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (Prep), 2018 University of Vermont
A Sex-Positive Approach To Healthcare, And Truvada As Hiv Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (Prep), Michael Ohkura, Nicholas Bonefant, Michael D. Upton
College of Medicine Faculty Publications
Nationally, incidence of new HIV infections has hovered around over 50,000 per year and men who have sex with men (MSM) carry the largest burden. In Vermont, 56% of individuals newly diagnosed are MSM, with 25% of diagnoses among youth ages 13-24 years old. Despite the proven efficacy and approval of daily Truvada (emtricitabine + tenofovir) as Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) against HIV infection, provider understanding and awareness of its use has remained extremely limited in Vermont with last estimates at just over 9 providers familiar with PrEP (excluding UVM Student Health, Planned Parenthood, and UVM Medical Center infectious disease department ...
Provider Opinion: Should We Screen And Counsel Parents Of Teen Drivers Regarding Texting/Distracted Driving?, 2018 University of Vermont
Provider Opinion: Should We Screen And Counsel Parents Of Teen Drivers Regarding Texting/Distracted Driving?, Daniel Lambert
Family Medicine Clerkship Student Projects
Adolescent texting and driving has been directly responsible for the deaths of 11 teenagers every day. 33% of teenagers in Vermont admit to texting and driving making it one of the most prevalent risky behaviors in their age group. Currently there is no routine screening recommendation for parents with adolescent drivers addressing texting and driving. Mobile application information can improve parental monitoring and prevent texting and driving habits from forming in adolescents.
Psa Screening In Lewiston Maine, 2018 University of Vermont
Psa Screening In Lewiston Maine, Francis G. Gause Iv
Family Medicine Clerkship Student Projects
PSA Screening Patient Information for 2017 guidelines
Somalia: Rift Valley Fever, 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois
Somalia: Rift Valley Fever, Alyson Meeks
Global Public Health
This walks readers through the basic demographics of Somalia, a country located in the horn of Africa. After learning about the government in Somalia and the problems that the people of the country face, this focuses on the problem of Rift Valley Fever. Rift Valley Fever is a virus that year after year strikes Somalia and surrounding countries. Weather patterns seem to help predict when Rift Valley Fever will be at the highest risk for an outbreak. This outlines the steps the current government and people are trying to take to help prevent outbreaks of RVF. But the solutions currently ...
Quality And Access To Care For Cardiovascular Disease Prevalence In Women Veterans: Population Estimate Using Electronic Health Records, Meena Marie Kim-Dopp, Vanessa Gow-Lee, Linda Ferry, Sharon Jamie, Ralph Clark, Suma Singh
Loma Linda University Student Journal
Electronic Health Records are used to measure quality indicators for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but have not been tested for sensitivity and specificity. Computerized Patient Record System (CPRS) used by the Veterans Health Affairs (VHA), has active CVD clinical reminders from Healthcare Effectiveness Data & Information Set (HEDIS) that are compared nationally. San Bernardino County, CA has a 7.8% prevalence of self-reported CVD in both genders. For HEDIS measures, there is only a 4 point CVD composite score gender difference for VHA nationally, but at the Loma Linda VHA there is an 18 point gender difference (2016). Women Veterans (WV) are ...
Improving Early Child Developmental Screenings In A Primary Care Setting: A Quality Improvement Project, 2017 University of the Incarnate Word
Improving Early Child Developmental Screenings In A Primary Care Setting: A Quality Improvement Project, Marlischa Jackson
Doctor of Nursing Practice
A dramatic growth of physical, motor, cognitive, communication, emotional, and social development will occur during the 3 years of life. Of children ages 3-17 years of age, 13% have some type of developmental or behavioral condition that goes undiagnosed before the age of 10. Children with multiple health and social risk factors, or those with chronic health disorders, are at greater risk to develop early child delays or disabilities. In the U. S., developmental screenings are only completed 21% of the time during well-child visits. Therefore, the purpose of this quality improvement project was to increase the adherence of health ...
Effect Of Weather On Pedestrian Trip Count And Duration: City-Scale Evaluations Using Mobile Phone Application Data, 2017 Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Effect Of Weather On Pedestrian Trip Count And Duration: City-Scale Evaluations Using Mobile Phone Application Data, Anthony P. Vanky, Santosh K. Verma, Theodore K. Courtney, Paolo Santi, Carlo Ratti
Open Access Articles
We examined the association between meteorological (weather) conditions in a given locale and pedestrian trips frequency and duration, through the use of locative digital data. These associations were determined for seasonality, urban microclimate, and commuting. We analyzed GPS data from a broadly available activity tracking mobile phone application that automatically recorded 247,814 trips from 5432 unique users in Boston and 257,697 trips from 8256 users in San Francisco over a 50-week period. Generally, we observed increased air temperature and the presence of light cloud cover had a positive association with hourly trip frequency in both cities, regardless of ...
Usability Of A Smartphone Application To Support The Prevention And Early Intervention Of Anxiety In Youth, 2017 Arizona State University
Usability Of A Smartphone Application To Support The Prevention And Early Intervention Of Anxiety In Youth, Ryan D. Stoll, Armando A. Pina, Kevin Gary, Ashish Amresh
Mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders are common in youth with anxiety problems being among the most prevalent, typically failing to spontaneously remit, and placing some youth at risk for additional difficulties. Mobile health (mHealth) might be a novel avenue to strengthen prevention efforts for child anxiety, since program effects are generally small. However, although a significant number of mHealth tools have been developed, few have been evaluated in terms of usability (or even clinical effectiveness). Usability testing is the first level of evaluation in responsible mHealth efforts as it is one of the main barriers to usage and adoption. As ...
A General Neurologist's Perspective On The Urgent Need To Apply Resilience Thinking To The Prevention And Treatment Of Alzheimer's Disease, 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School
A General Neurologist's Perspective On The Urgent Need To Apply Resilience Thinking To The Prevention And Treatment Of Alzheimer's Disease, Grazyna Pomorska, Judith K. Ockene
Open Access Articles
The goal of this article was to look at the problem of Alzheimer's disease (AD) through the lens of a socioecological resilience-thinking framework to help expand our view of the prevention and treatment of AD. This serious and complex public health problem requires a holistic systems approach. We present the view that resilience thinking, a theoretical framework that offers multidisciplinary approaches in ecology and natural resource management to solve environmental problems, can be applied to the prevention and treatment of AD. Resilience thinking explains a natural process that occurs in all complex systems in response to stressful challenges. The ...
Adversity And Academic Performance Among Adolescent Youth: A Community-Based Participatory Research Study, 2017 Center for Youth Wellness
Adversity And Academic Performance Among Adolescent Youth: A Community-Based Participatory Research Study, Sukhdip Purewal Boparai, Tiffani Marie, Eduardo Aguayo, Jordan Brooks, Estefany Juarez, Sheana Soriano, Alasia Waters, Jaquez Donaldson, Joseph Reagans, Gracee Anguiano, Allison Ipsen
Journal of Adolescent and Family Health
Researchers and youth stakeholders devised a survey on 27 adversities based on youth expertise, clinical practice, and adversity literature. The aim of the study was to understand the prevalence of individual and cumulative adversities, and association of adversities to age, gender, race/ethnicity and academic performance among a community sample of urban high school students. All participants experienced two or more adversities and experienced greater overall adversity than youth in population-based studies. Youth-proposed stressors were among the most prevalent, and females, older youth, and African American youth reported disproportionately greater number of adversities. Specific types of adversities were endorsed differentially ...
The Association Between Breakfast Skipping And Body Weight, Nutrient Intake, And Metabolic Measures Among Participants With Metabolic Syndrome, 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School
The Association Between Breakfast Skipping And Body Weight, Nutrient Intake, And Metabolic Measures Among Participants With Metabolic Syndrome, Lijuan Zhang, Lorraine S. Cordeiro, Jinghua Liu, Yunsheng Ma
The effect of skipping breakfast on health, especially in adults, remains a controversial topic. A secondary data analysis was conducted to examine associations between breakfast eating patterns and weight loss, nutrient intake, and metabolic parameters among participants with metabolic syndrome (MetS) (n = 240). Three randomly selected 24-h dietary recalls were collected from each participant at baseline and at the one-year visit. Skipped breakfast was seen in 32.9% at baseline and in 17.4% at the one-year visit, respectively. At baseline, after adjustment for demographics and physical activity, participants who ate breakfast had a higher thiamin, niacin, and folate intake ...
Community Perception Of The Hiv Vaccine In Western Kenya: Acceptability, Potential Behavior Changes, And Views On Compulsory Vaccination, Deborah Keen
Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) suppresses the immune system by attacking T cells, leading to the development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV affects over 30 million people around the world and 1.6 million people in Kenya. On August 18, 1987, the FDA sanctioned the first human testing of a candidate vaccine for HIV. Currently, multiple HIV vaccines—projected to be on the market in five to ten years—are being tested for efficacy and safety. The goal of this study was to explore opinions related to the HIV vaccine so that there is a guide for future policy development ...
The Effect Of Health Insurance Coverage And The Doctor-Patient Relationship On Health Care Utilization In High Poverty Neighborhoods, 2017 George Washington University
The Effect Of Health Insurance Coverage And The Doctor-Patient Relationship On Health Care Utilization In High Poverty Neighborhoods, Destini Smith, Alan Akira, Kenneth Hudson, Andrea Hudson, Marcellus Hudson, Marcus Mitchell, Errol Crook
School of Medicine and Health Sciences Student Works
African Americans have higher rates of mortality than whites who are the same age and sex. We hypothesize that in low socioeconomic status neighborhoods, having health insurance coverage and a regular health care provider increases the likelihood of receiving diagnostic tests for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. We use data from a random two-stage cluster sample of 230 adults living in high poverty census tracts to examine the effects of insurance coverage and having a regular doctor on the likelihood receiving diagnostic tests for high cholesterol, high blood sugar, and blood pressure. We find that health insurance coverage increases the odds ...
Teens, Tweets, And Tanning Beds: Rethinking The Use Of Social Media For Skin Cancer Prevention, 2017 University of California, San Francisco
Teens, Tweets, And Tanning Beds: Rethinking The Use Of Social Media For Skin Cancer Prevention, Ashley E. Falzone, Claire D. Brindis, Mary-Margaret Chren, Alexandra Junn, Sherry L. Pagoto, Mackenzie Wehner, Eleni Linos
Open Access Articles
The incidence of skin cancer is rising in the U.S., and melanoma, the deadliest form, is increasing disproportionately among young white women. Indoor tanning is a modifiable risk factor for all skin cancers and continues to be used at the highest rates in young white women. Adolescents and young adults report personal appearance-based reasons for using indoor tanning. Previous research has explored the influences on tanning bed use, including individual factors as well as relationships with peers, family, schools, media influences, legislation, and societal beauty norms. Adolescents and young adults also have high rates of social media usage, and ...
Cancer-Related Risk Factors And Incidence Of Major Cancers By Race, Gender And Region; Analysis Of The Nih-Aarp Diet And Health Study, Tomi Akinyemiju, Howard Wiener, Maria Pisu
Epidemiology Faculty Publications
Background: Racial disparities in the incidence of major cancers may be attributed to differences in the prevalence of established, modifiable risk factors such as obesity, smoking, physical activity and diet.
Methods: Data from a prospective cohort of 566,398 adults aged 50–71 years, 19,677 African-American and 450,623 Whites, was analyzed. Baseline data on cancer-related risk factors such as smoking, alcohol, physical activity and dietary patterns were used to create an individual adherence score. Differences in adherence by race, gender and geographic region were assessed using descriptive statistics, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the ...
Schools As Potential Vaccination Venue For Vaccines Outside Regular Epi Schedule: Results From A School Census In Pakistan., Sajid Bashir Soofi, Inam-Ul Haq, M. Imran Khan, Muhammad Bilal Siddiqui, Mushtaq Mirani, Rehman Tahir, Imtiaz Hussain, Mahesh K Puri, Zamir Hussain Suhag, Asif R Khowaja, Abdul Razzaq Lasi, John D Clemens, Michael Favorov, R. Leon Ochiai, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta
Mohammad Imran Khan
Background: Vaccines are the most effective public health intervention. Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) provides routine vaccination in developing countries. However, vaccines that cannot be given in EPI schedule such as typhoid fever vaccine need alternative venues. In areas where school enrolment is high, schools provide a cost effective opportunity for vaccination. Prior to start of a school-based typhoid vaccination program, interviews were conducted with staff of educational institutions in two townships of Karachi, Pakistan to collect baseline information about the school system and to plan a typhoid vaccination program. Data collection teams administered a structured questionnaire to all schools ...
A Cross- Sectional Study Of Stress Biomarkers And Their Associations With Post-Trauma Complaints, And How Those Associations Are Moderated By Early Life Adversity, 2017 The University of Western Ontario
A Cross- Sectional Study Of Stress Biomarkers And Their Associations With Post-Trauma Complaints, And How Those Associations Are Moderated By Early Life Adversity, Sadia Siraj
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
Chronic musculoskeletal pain results in significant personal, economic, and social burden. Early identification and intervention in those people with acute pain that are likely to transition into a state of chronicity can prevent the onset of chronic pain before it emerges and becomes resistant to treatment. This study investigated the potential stress biomarkers associated with acute pain and disability and how those associations are influenced by early life adversities.
Stress level was determined according to the plasma level of stress biomarkers (cortisol, BDNF, TGFB1) and self-report measures of stress following musculoskeletal traumatic events. The magnitude and direction of associations of ...
A Mixed Methods Study Of Hiv-Related Services In Buprenorphine Treatment, 2017 University of Kentucky
A Mixed Methods Study Of Hiv-Related Services In Buprenorphine Treatment, Hannah K. Knudsen, Jennifer Cook, Michelle R. Lofwall, Sharon L. Walsh, Jamie L. Studts, Jennifer R. Havens
Behavioral Science Faculty Publications
Background: Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a major risk factor in the acquisition and transmission of HIV. Clinical practice guidelines call for the integration of HIV services in OUD treatment. This mixed methods study describes the integration of HIV services in buprenorphine treatment and examines whether HIV services vary by prescribers’ medical specialty and across practice settings.
Methods: Data were obtained via qualitative interviews with buprenorphine experts (n = 21) and mailed surveys from US buprenorphine prescribers (n = 1174). Survey measures asked about screening for HIV risk behaviors at intake, offering HIV education, recommending all new patients receive HIV testing, and ...
Abstracts From The 23rd Annual Health Care Systems Research Network Conference, March 21–23, 2017, San Diego, California
Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews
This proceedings supplement includes selected abstracts presented at the 23rd annual conference of the Health Care Systems Research Network (HCSRN), held March 21–23, 2017, in San Diego, California. Formerly called the HMO Research Network, HCSRN aims to improve individual and population health through research that connects the resources and capabilities of its member health care systems.
Teen, Parent, And Clinician Expectations About Obesity And Related Conditions During The Annual Well-Child Visit, 2017 Henry Ford Health System
Teen, Parent, And Clinician Expectations About Obesity And Related Conditions During The Annual Well-Child Visit, Andrew S. Bossick, Charles Barone, Gwen L. Alexander, Heather A. Olden, Tanya Troy, Andrea E. Cassidy-Bushrow
Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews
Purpose: This study aimed to examine family (patient, parent/guardian) and clinician preferences for identification and management of obesity and obesity-related conditions during the well-child visit.
Methods: Four focus groups with teen patients (n = 16), four focus groups with parents (n = 15) and one focus group with providers (n = 12) were conducted using a structured moderator guide tailored to each population. Eligible patients had a well-child visit during the past 12 months and a diagnosis of overweight, obesity, hyperlipidemia or elevated blood pressure. Parents who attended their child’s well-child visit and whose child met the diagnostic criteria were eligible ...