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Enhancing Informative Frame Filtering By Water And Bubble Detection In Colonoscopy Videos, Ashok Dahal, JungHwan Oh, Wallapak Tavanapong, Johnny S. Wong, Piet C. de Groen 2017 University of North Texas

Enhancing Informative Frame Filtering By Water And Bubble Detection In Colonoscopy Videos, Ashok Dahal, Junghwan Oh, Wallapak Tavanapong, Johnny S. Wong, Piet C. De Groen

Johnny Wong

Colonoscopy has contributed to a marked decline in the number of colorectal cancer related deaths. However, recent data suggest that there is a significant (4-12%) miss-rate for the detection of even large polyps and cancers. To address this, we have been investigating an ‘automated feedback system’ which informs the endoscopist of possible sub-optimal inspection during colonoscopy. A fundamental step of this system is to distinguish non-informative frames from informative ones. Existing methods for this cannot classify water/bubble frames as non-informative even though they do not carry any useful visual information of the colon mucosa. In this paper, we propose ...


Cable Footprint History: Spatio-Temporal Technique For Instrument Detection In Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Procedures, Chuanhai Zhang, Wallapak Tavanapong, Johnny S. Wong, Piet C. de Groen, JungHwan Oh 2017 Iowa State University

Cable Footprint History: Spatio-Temporal Technique For Instrument Detection In Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Procedures, Chuanhai Zhang, Wallapak Tavanapong, Johnny S. Wong, Piet C. De Groen, Junghwan Oh

Johnny Wong

We propose a new fast spatio-temporal technique that detects an operation scene---a video segment corresponding to a single purpose diagnosis action or a single purpose therapeutic action. The technique utilizes (1) color contrast of the cable region and the background, (2) the new area-based coordinate system to compute spatial features, and (3) the history of locations of detected cables of the instrument in a video to discard false regions. The proposed technique and software are useful for (1) automatic documentation of diagnostic or therapeutic operations at the end of the procedure, (2) a second review for causes of complications due ...


Prevalence Of Non Helicobacter Pylori Species In Patients Presenting With Dyspepsia, Javed Yakoob, Zaigham Abbas, Rustam Khan, Shagufta Naz, Zubair Ahmad, Muhammad Islam, Safia Awan, Fatima Jafri, Wasim Jafri 2017 Aga Khan University

Prevalence Of Non Helicobacter Pylori Species In Patients Presenting With Dyspepsia, Javed Yakoob, Zaigham Abbas, Rustam Khan, Shagufta Naz, Zubair Ahmad, Muhammad Islam, Safia Awan, Fatima Jafri, Wasim Jafri

Zubair Ahmad

Background: Helicobacter species associated with human infection include Helicobacter pylori, Helicobacter heilmannii and Helicobacter felis among others. In this study we determined the prevalence of H. pylori and non-Helicobacter pylori organisms H. felis and H. heilmannii and analyzed the association between coinfection with these organisms and gastric pathology in Patients presenting with dyspepsia. Biopsy specimens were obtained from Patients with dyspepsia on esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) for rapid urease test, histology and PCR examination for Helicobacter genus specific 16S rDNA, H. pylori phosphoglucosamine mutase (glmM) and urease B (ureB) gene of H. heilmannii and H. felis. Sequencing of PCR products of H ...


Size Or The Number Of Portal Tracts: Which Matters In A Liver Biopsy Core In Chronic Hepatitis C?, Om Parkash, Khalid Mumtaz, Zubair Ahmad, Saeed Hamid, Fatima Jafri, Wasim Jafri 2017 Agha Khan University

Size Or The Number Of Portal Tracts: Which Matters In A Liver Biopsy Core In Chronic Hepatitis C?, Om Parkash, Khalid Mumtaz, Zubair Ahmad, Saeed Hamid, Fatima Jafri, Wasim Jafri

Zubair Ahmad

Liver biopsy has an important role in staging of fibrosis (SoF) and grading of inflammation (GoI) in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients. The effect of size and number of portal tracts (NoP) on grading and staging of liver biopsy was evaluated. A total of 150 consecutive liver biopsy core (LBC) of patients with CHC were obtained. There were 98 (65.3%) males. Mean length of LBC was 1.45 ± 0.48 cm. Mean number of portal tracts (NoP) was 11±4.6. Mean length of LBC was greater (1.60±0.45 cm) in stage 4 (n=41; 27.3 ...


The Clinical, Endoscopic And Histological Spectrum Of The Solitary Rectal Ulcer Syndrome: A Single-Center Experience Of 116 Cases, Shahab Abid, Ali Khawaja, Salima Ahmed Bhimani, Zubair Ahmad, Saeed Hamid, Wasim Jafri 2017 Aga Khan University

The Clinical, Endoscopic And Histological Spectrum Of The Solitary Rectal Ulcer Syndrome: A Single-Center Experience Of 116 Cases, Shahab Abid, Ali Khawaja, Salima Ahmed Bhimani, Zubair Ahmad, Saeed Hamid, Wasim Jafri

Zubair Ahmad

Background Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) is an uncommon although benign defecation disorder. The aim of this study was to evaluate the variable endoscopic manifestations of SRUS and its association with other diseases. Methods All the patients diagnosed with SRUS histologically from January 1990 to February 2011 at The Aga Khan University, Karachi were included in the study. The medical records were reviewed retrospectively to evaluate the clinical spectrum of the patients along with the endoscopic and histological findings. Results A total of 116 patients were evaluated. The mean age was 37.4 ± 16.6 (range: 13–80) years, 61 ...


Gastric Juice For The Diagnosis Of H Pylori Infection In Patients On Proton Pump Inhibitors, Javed Yakoob, Shahid Rasool, Z Abbas, Wasim Jafri, Shahab Abid, Muhammad Islam, Zubair Ahmad 2017 Aga Khan University

Gastric Juice For The Diagnosis Of H Pylori Infection In Patients On Proton Pump Inhibitors, Javed Yakoob, Shahid Rasool, Z Abbas, Wasim Jafri, Shahab Abid, Muhammad Islam, Zubair Ahmad

Zubair Ahmad

Aim:To determine the efficacy of gastric juice polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of H pylori infection in comparison with histology and gastric antral biopsy PCR in Patients on a proton pump inhibitor (PPI). Methods: Eighty-five consecutive Patients with dyspeptic symptoms were enrolled. Gastric biopsies for histology, PCR and gastric juice were collected at endoscopy for PCR of the H pylori urease C gene (ure C). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), accuracy, positive and negative likelihood ratio for PCR of gastric juice for the H pylori ure C gene was compared to histology ...


Distribution Of Helicobacter Pylori Virulence Markers In Patients With Gastroduodenal Diseases In Pakistan, Javed Yakoob, Shahab Abid, Zaigham Abbas, Wasim Jafri, Zubair Ahmad, Rashida Ahmed, Muhammad Islam 2017 Aga Khan University

Distribution Of Helicobacter Pylori Virulence Markers In Patients With Gastroduodenal Diseases In Pakistan, Javed Yakoob, Shahab Abid, Zaigham Abbas, Wasim Jafri, Zubair Ahmad, Rashida Ahmed, Muhammad Islam

Zubair Ahmad

Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is known to be associated with a spectrum of gastroduodenal diseases. We studied the association of H. pylori virulence markers cytotoxin-associated gene (cagA) and vacuolating associated cytotoxin gene (vacA) alleles in Patients with non ulcer dyspepsia (NUD), gastric ulcer (GU), gastric carcinoma (GC) and duodenal ulcer (DU). Methods: H. pylori infection established by both rapid urease test and histology were studied. The cagA and vacA allelic status was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sequencing of vacA i1 and i2 PCR product was carried out. Results: Two hundred and twenty-four Patients were included, 141 ...


Gastric Corpus Polyps Associated With Proton Pump Inhibitors Therapy, Javed Yakoob, Zaigham Abbas, Wasim Jafri, Zubair Ahmad 2017 Aga Khan University

Gastric Corpus Polyps Associated With Proton Pump Inhibitors Therapy, Javed Yakoob, Zaigham Abbas, Wasim Jafri, Zubair Ahmad

Zubair Ahmad

The prevalence of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) is rapidly rising in Asia. We describe here a case of 51 years old man who had surgery for esophageal leiomyoma and received long-term therapy with Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs) for persisting reflux symptoms. On Esophago-Gastroduodenoscopy (EGD) several sessile polyps were seen in the gastric corpus. Earlier EGD done 15 years back had not demonstrated those polyps. Sections revealed polypoid fragments of glandular epithelium with dilated glands and negative histology for H. pylori. Polymerase chain reaction for 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S rRNA PCR) of H. pylori was also negative. This is the ...


Cytokine Changes In Colonic Mucosa Associated With Blastocystis Spp. Subtypes 1 And 3 In Diarrhoea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Javed Yakoob, Zaigham Abbas, Muhammad Waqas Usman, Aisha Sultana, Muhammad Islam, Safia Awan, Zubair Ahmad, Saeed Hamid, Wasim Jafri 2017 Aga Khan University

Cytokine Changes In Colonic Mucosa Associated With Blastocystis Spp. Subtypes 1 And 3 In Diarrhoea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Javed Yakoob, Zaigham Abbas, Muhammad Waqas Usman, Aisha Sultana, Muhammad Islam, Safia Awan, Zubair Ahmad, Saeed Hamid, Wasim Jafri

Zubair Ahmad

We determined cytokines (e.g. interleukin-8, 10, 12 and TNF-α) expression by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and in rectal mucosa in diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS) with Blastocystis spp. Eighty patients with D-IBS and Blastocystis spp. infection were classified as 'cases' and 80 with D-IBS without Blastocystis spp. infection were classified as 'control'. Cases were subdivided into D-IBS and Blastocystis sp. defined type 1 (subtype-specific primer SB83) and type 3 (SB227). Stool microscopy and culture were performed. Rectal biopsies were obtained for histology and cytokines by real-time PCR for mRNA expression of cytokines. PBMCs IL-8 was similar in different ...


Colorectal Carcinoma, Extent And Spread In Our Population. Resection Specimens Give Valuable Information, Zubair Ahmad, Rooma Idrees, Rashid Ahmed, Naila Kayani, Shahid Pervez, Sheema Habibul Hasan 2017 Aga Khan University

Colorectal Carcinoma, Extent And Spread In Our Population. Resection Specimens Give Valuable Information, Zubair Ahmad, Rooma Idrees, Rashid Ahmed, Naila Kayani, Shahid Pervez, Sheema Habibul Hasan

Zubair Ahmad

Objective: To acquire information about the extent and spread of colorectal carcinomas in our population by examining colon and colorectum resection specimens received.

Methods: All colon and colorectum resection specimens received in the section of Histopathology, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi from January 1, 2003 to July 31, 2003 were included in the study.

Results: Eighty five resection specimens were received during the study period, 69.41% patients were males, and 30.59% were females. The mean age for males was 49 years and for females 48 years. Tumor location was in left colon (58.82%), and in right colon ...


Hepatitis C Virus-Induced Monocyte Differentiation Into Polarized M2 Macrophages Promotes Stellate Cell Activation Via Tgf-Beta, Banishree Saha, Karen Kodys, Gyongyi Szabo 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Hepatitis C Virus-Induced Monocyte Differentiation Into Polarized M2 Macrophages Promotes Stellate Cell Activation Via Tgf-Beta, Banishree Saha, Karen Kodys, Gyongyi Szabo

Gyongyi Szabo

BACKGROUND and AIMS: Monocyte and macrophage (MPhi) activation contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Disease pathogenesis is regulated by both liver-resident MPhis and monocytes recruited as precursors of MPhis into the damaged liver. Monocytes differentiate into M1 (classic/proinflammatory) or M2 (alternative/anti-inflammatory) polarized MPhis in response to tissue microenvironment. We hypothesized that HCV-infected hepatoma cells (infected with Japanese fulminant hepatitis-1 [Huh7.5/JFH-1]) induce monocyte differentiation into polarized MPhis. METHODS: Healthy human monocytes were co-cultured with Huh7.5/JFH-1 cells or cell-free virus for 7 days and analyzed for MPhi markers and cytokine levels ...


Low Rate Of Recurrence Of Helicobacter Pylori Infection In Spite Of High Clarithromycin Resistance In Pakistan, Javed Yakoob, Shahab Abid, Wasim Jafri, Zaigham Abbas, Khalid Mumtaz, Saeed Hamid, Rashida Ahmed 2017 Aga Khan University

Low Rate Of Recurrence Of Helicobacter Pylori Infection In Spite Of High Clarithromycin Resistance In Pakistan, Javed Yakoob, Shahab Abid, Wasim Jafri, Zaigham Abbas, Khalid Mumtaz, Saeed Hamid, Rashida Ahmed

Rashida Ahmed

Background The aim was to investigate the reinfection rate of H. pylori during a follow-up period of 12 months in adults who had undergone eradication therapy. Methods One hundred-twenty patients; 116 with gastritis, 3 with duodenal ulcer and 1 gastric ulcer, were studied. Their mean age was 41 ± 13 years (range 18–77) and male: female ratio of 2:1. H. pylori were cultured and antibiotic sensitivity was determined by Epsilometer test (E-test) for clarithromycin (CLR) and amoxicillin (AMX). Primers of urease C gene of H. pylori and Sau-3 and Hha I restriction enzymes were used for polymerase chain reaction-restriction ...


Distribution Of Helicobacter Pylori Virulence Markers In Patients With Gastroduodenal Diseases In Pakistan, Javed Yakoob, Shahab Abid, Zaigham Abbas, Wasim Jafri, Zubair Ahmad, Rashida Ahmed, Muhammad Islam 2017 Aga Khan University

Distribution Of Helicobacter Pylori Virulence Markers In Patients With Gastroduodenal Diseases In Pakistan, Javed Yakoob, Shahab Abid, Zaigham Abbas, Wasim Jafri, Zubair Ahmad, Rashida Ahmed, Muhammad Islam

Rashida Ahmed

Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is known to be associated with a spectrum of gastroduodenal diseases. We studied the association of H. pylori virulence markers cytotoxin-associated gene (cagA) and vacuolating associated cytotoxin gene (vacA) alleles in Patients with non ulcer dyspepsia (NUD), gastric ulcer (GU), gastric carcinoma (GC) and duodenal ulcer (DU). Methods: H. pylori infection established by both rapid urease test and histology were studied. The cagA and vacA allelic status was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sequencing of vacA i1 and i2 PCR product was carried out. Results: Two hundred and twenty-four Patients were included, 141 ...


Frequent Cannabis Users Have Reduced Odds For Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Adeyinka Adejumo, Nnaemeka Onyeakusi, Samson Alliu, Ogooluwa A. Ojelabi 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Frequent Cannabis Users Have Reduced Odds For Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Adeyinka Adejumo, Nnaemeka Onyeakusi, Samson Alliu, Ogooluwa A. Ojelabi

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Background: Cannabis is the world's most widely used illicit drug. Though marijuana use has been revealed to impact the prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, and obesity - established risk factors for Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver (NAFLD), it's relationship with NAFLD remains unknown.

Aim: We sought to investigate the association between cannabis use and NAFLD.

Methods: From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988–1994) survey data, we retrieved data from individuals aged 20 to 60 years who had an abdominal ultrasound for evaluation for hepatic steatosis (n=10,682). We then identified three cannabis use groups: never used ...


The Utilization Of Video Capsule Endoscopy In Patients With Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome, Yasir Al-Azzawai, Erik Holzwanger, David R. Cave 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Utilization Of Video Capsule Endoscopy In Patients With Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome, Yasir Al-Azzawai, Erik Holzwanger, David R. Cave

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

AIM: Our aim is to demonstrate the utilization of VCE in the patients with Peutz–Jeghers syndrome (PJS) and evaluate the distribution of the polyps in each part of the small intestine and the percentage of patients with PJS who developed complications.

METHODS: Single center, retrospective chart review study of outpatients with PJS who underwent a video capsule endoscopy study between January 2006 and January2016.

RESULTS: A total of 16 patients were identified with PJS; mean age was 40 years. Female gender was predominant with 9 patients. Polyps were found in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum in 33%, 80% and ...


Infant Nutritional Status And Markers Of Environmental Enteric Dysfunction Are Associated With Midchildhood Anthropometry And Blood Pressure In Tanzania, Lindsey M. Locks, Ramadhani S. Mwiru, Expeditho Mtisi, Karim P. Manji, Christine M. McDonald, Enju Liu, Roland Kupka, Rodrick Kisenge, Said Aboud, Kerri B. Gosselin, Matthew Gillman, Andrew T. Gewirtz, Wafaie W. Fawzi, Christopher P. Duggan 2017 Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health

Infant Nutritional Status And Markers Of Environmental Enteric Dysfunction Are Associated With Midchildhood Anthropometry And Blood Pressure In Tanzania, Lindsey M. Locks, Ramadhani S. Mwiru, Expeditho Mtisi, Karim P. Manji, Christine M. Mcdonald, Enju Liu, Roland Kupka, Rodrick Kisenge, Said Aboud, Kerri B. Gosselin, Matthew Gillman, Andrew T. Gewirtz, Wafaie W. Fawzi, Christopher P. Duggan

Pediatric Publications and Presentations

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether growth and biomarkers of environmental enteric dysfunction in infancy are related to health outcomes in midchildhood in Tanzania.

STUDY DESIGN: Children who participated in 2 randomized trials of micronutrient supplements in infancy were followed up in midchildhood (4.6-9.8 years of age). Anthropometry was measured at age 6 and 52 weeks in both trials, and blood samples were available from children at 6 weeks and 6 months from 1 trial. Linear regression was used for height-for-age z-score, body mass index-for-age z-score, and weight for age z-score, and blood pressure analyses; log-binomial models were used to ...


Role Of Differentially Expressed Microrna-139-5p In The Regulation Of Phenotypic Internal Anal Sphincter Smooth Muscle Tone., Jagmohan Singh, Ipsita Mohanty, Sankar Addya, Benjamin Philllips, Hwan Mee Yong, Steven S. An, Raymond B. Penn, Satish Rattan 2017 Thomas Jefferson University

Role Of Differentially Expressed Microrna-139-5p In The Regulation Of Phenotypic Internal Anal Sphincter Smooth Muscle Tone., Jagmohan Singh, Ipsita Mohanty, Sankar Addya, Benjamin Philllips, Hwan Mee Yong, Steven S. An, Raymond B. Penn, Satish Rattan

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Faculty Papers

The present study focused on the role of microRNA-139-5p (miRNA-139-5p) in the regulation of basal tone in internal anal sphincter (IAS). Applying genome-wide miRNA microarrays on the phenotypically distinct smooth muscle cells (SMCs) within the rat anorectrum, we identified miRNA-139-5p as differentially expressed RNA repressor with highest expression in the purely phasic smooth muscle of anococcygeus (ASM) vs. the truly tonic smooth muscle of IAS. This pattern of miRNA-139-5p expression, previously shown to target ROCK2, was validated by target prediction using ingenuity pathway (IPA) and by qPCR analyses. Immunoblotting, immunocytochemistry (ICC), and functional assays using IAS tissues and cells subjected ...


Decreasing Cost In The Gi Endoscopy Suite By Utilizing Best Sedation Practices, Casey Brianne Mancini 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

Decreasing Cost In The Gi Endoscopy Suite By Utilizing Best Sedation Practices, Casey Brianne Mancini

Doctoral Nursing Capstone Projects

Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in the United States (Mandel, Tanner, Lichtenstein, Metz, Katzka, Ginsberg, & Kochman, 2008; Siegel, DeSantis, & Jemal, 2014). Because this lethal disease claims lives of many people every year, more patients are undergoing screening colonoscopies, which have greatly aided in decreasing the number of colorectal cancer deaths (Siegel et al., 2014). The most common form of sedation for colonoscopies is moderate sedation with a benzodiazepine and an opioid (Cohen, Hightower, Wood, Miller, & Aisenberg, 2004; Lera dos Santos, et. al., 2013). However, sedation by anesthesia providers using propofol is becoming more common and may aid in reducing recovery and discharge times from the postoperative anesthesia care unit (PACU) as well as reducing overall costs. A retrospective chart review (N=176; 88 in propofol group and 88 in benzodiazepine and opioid group) was performed to determine if propofol sedation did reduce discharge times and decrease overall costs for the patient. Patients included in this study ...


Cannabis Use Is Associated With Reduced Prevalence Of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study, Adeyinka Adejumo, Samson Alliu, Tokunbo Opeyemi Ajayi, Kelechi Lauretta Adejumo, Oluwole Muyiwa Adegbala, Nnaemeka Egbuna Onyeakusi, Akintunde Micheal Akinjero, Modupeoluwa Durojaiye, Terence N. Bukong 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Cannabis Use Is Associated With Reduced Prevalence Of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study, Adeyinka Adejumo, Samson Alliu, Tokunbo Opeyemi Ajayi, Kelechi Lauretta Adejumo, Oluwole Muyiwa Adegbala, Nnaemeka Egbuna Onyeakusi, Akintunde Micheal Akinjero, Modupeoluwa Durojaiye, Terence N. Bukong

Open Access Articles

Cannabis use is associated with reduced prevalence of obesity and diabetes mellitus (DM) in humans and mouse disease models. Obesity and DM are a well-established independent risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most prevalent liver disease globally. The effects of cannabis use on NAFLD prevalence in humans remains ill-defined. Our objective is to determine the relationship between cannabis use and the prevalence of NAFLD in humans. We conducted a population-based case-control study of 5,950,391 patients using the 2014 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Nationwide Inpatient Survey (NIS) discharge records of patients 18 years and ...


Abdominal Pain With Rigidity Secondary To The Anti-Emetic Drug Metoclopramide, Nadeem Ullah Khan, Junaid A. Razzak 2017 Aga Khan University

Abdominal Pain With Rigidity Secondary To The Anti-Emetic Drug Metoclopramide, Nadeem Ullah Khan, Junaid A. Razzak

Nadeem Ullah Khan

We report a case of abdominal pain with rigidity, mimicking an acute abdomen, caused by metoclopramide, a common anti-emetic drug. Extrapyramidal symptoms are commonly reported side-effects of this medication. They generally include involuntary movements of limbs, torticollis, oculogyric crisis, rhythmic protrusion of tongue, trismus, or dystonic reactions resembling tetanus, etc. Abdominal rigidity due to this medication, resembling an acute abdomen, has not been reported previously. This case report illustrates the importance of considering medication side-effects when evaluating a patient with abdominal pain and rigidity.


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