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Letter To The Editor: Management Of Pfo: More Evidence, Same Recommendation, Halima Ali, MD 2018 Beaumont Wayne Family Medicine Residency

Letter To The Editor: Management Of Pfo: More Evidence, Same Recommendation, Halima Ali, Md

Clinical Research in Practice: The Journal of Team Hippocrates

The author offers more evidence to support Zhang's assertion in CRP 3(2) that closure of patent foramen ovale or medical therapy alone are both appropriate choices for preventing recurrent cryptogenic strokes (https://doi.org/10.22237/crp/1518739380).


Cognitive Impairment, Vulnerability, And Mortality Post Ischemic Stroke: A Five-Year Follow-Up Of The Action On Secondary Prevention Interventions And Rehabilitation In Stroke (Aspire-S) Cohort, Eva Gaynor, Daniela Rohde, Margaret Large, Lisa Mellon, Patricia Hall, Linda Brewer, Orla Conway, Anne Hickey, Kathleen Bennett, Eamon Dolan, Elizabeth Callaly, David Williams 2018 Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland

Cognitive Impairment, Vulnerability, And Mortality Post Ischemic Stroke: A Five-Year Follow-Up Of The Action On Secondary Prevention Interventions And Rehabilitation In Stroke (Aspire-S) Cohort, Eva Gaynor, Daniela Rohde, Margaret Large, Lisa Mellon, Patricia Hall, Linda Brewer, Orla Conway, Anne Hickey, Kathleen Bennett, Eamon Dolan, Elizabeth Callaly, David Williams

Psychology Articles

Background

The aim of this study was to examine predictors of mortality in patients 5 years after ischemic stroke, focusing on cognitive impairment, vulnerability, and vascular risk factors assessed at 6 months post stroke.

Materials and Methods

Patients from the Action on Secondary Prevention Interventions and Rehabilitation in Stroke (ASPIRE-S) cohort were followed up 5 years post ischemic stroke. Vascular risk factors, cognitive impairment, and vulnerability were assessed at 6 months post stroke. Cognitive impairment was assessed using a cutoff score lower than 26 on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Vulnerability was defined as a score of 3 or higher ...


Magneto-Electric Nano-Particles For Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation, Kun Yue, Rakesh Guduru, Jeongmin Hong, Ping Liang, Madhavan Nair, Sakhrat Khizroev 2018 Center for Nanomedicine, College of Engineering and Computing, Florida International University, Miami, Florida

Magneto-Electric Nano-Particles For Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation, Kun Yue, Rakesh Guduru, Jeongmin Hong, Ping Liang, Madhavan Nair, Sakhrat Khizroev

Sakhrat Khizroev

This paper for the first time discusses a computational study of using magneto-electric (ME) nanoparticles to artificially stimulate the neural activity deep in the brain. The new technology provides a unique way to couple electric signals in the neural network to the magnetic dipoles in the nanoparticles with the purpose to enable a non-invasive approach. Simulations of the effect of ME nanoparticles for non-invasively stimulating the brain of a patient with Parkinson’s Disease to bring the pulsed sequences of the electric field to the levels comparable to those of healthy people show that the optimized values for the concentration ...


Regional Microglia Are Transcriptionally Distinct But Similarly Exacerbate Neurodegeneration In A Culture Model Of Parkinson's Disease., Eric Wildon Kostuk, Jingli Cai, Lorraine Iacovitti 2018 Farber Institute for Neurosciences, Thomas Jefferson University

Regional Microglia Are Transcriptionally Distinct But Similarly Exacerbate Neurodegeneration In A Culture Model Of Parkinson's Disease., Eric Wildon Kostuk, Jingli Cai, Lorraine Iacovitti

Department of Neuroscience

BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by selective degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SN) while neighboring ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA neurons are relatively spared. Mechanisms underlying the selective protection of the VTA and susceptibility of the SN are still mostly unknown. Here, we demonstrate the importance of balance between astrocytes and microglia in the susceptibility of SN DA neurons to the PD mimetic toxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP

METHODS: Previously established methods were used to isolate astrocytes and microglia from the cortex (CTX), SN, and VTA, as well as embryonic midbrain DA neurons from ...


Treating Adhd With Suggestion: Neurofeedback And Placebo Therapeutics, Robert T. Thibault, Samuel Vassière, Jay A. Olson, Amir Raz 2018 McGill University

Treating Adhd With Suggestion: Neurofeedback And Placebo Therapeutics, Robert T. Thibault, Samuel Vassière, Jay A. Olson, Amir Raz

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

Objective: We propose that clinicians can use suggestion to help treat conditions such as ADHD. Methods: We use EEG neurofeedback as a case study, alongside evidence from a recent pilot experiment utilizing a sham MRI scanner to highlight the therapeutic potential of suggestion-based treatments. Results: The medical literature demonstrates that many practitioners already prescribe treatments that hardly outperform placebo comparators. Moreover, the sham MRI experiment showed that, even with full disclosure of the procedure, suggestion alone can reduce the symptomatology of ADHD. Conclusion: Non-deceptive suggestion-based treatments, especially those drawing on accessories from neuroscience, may offer a safe complement and potential ...


Environment And Neurological Diseases: Growing Evidence For Direct Relationship, Mohammad Wasay, Adeel Khoja 2018 Aga Khan University

Environment And Neurological Diseases: Growing Evidence For Direct Relationship, Mohammad Wasay, Adeel Khoja

Section of Neurology

No abstract provided.


Effect Of Trinucleotide Repeats In The Huntington's Gene On Intelligence, Jessica K. Lee, Amy Conrad, Eric Epping, Kathy Mathews, Vincent Magnotta, Jeffrey D. Dawson, Peg Nopoulos 2018 University of Iowa

Effect Of Trinucleotide Repeats In The Huntington's Gene On Intelligence, Jessica K. Lee, Amy Conrad, Eric Epping, Kathy Mathews, Vincent Magnotta, Jeffrey D. Dawson, Peg Nopoulos

Stead Family Department of Pediatrics Publications

BACKGROUND: Huntington's Disease (HD) is caused by an abnormality in the HTT gene. This gene includes trinucleotide repeats ranging from 10 to 35, and when expanded beyond 39, causes HD. We previously reported that CAG repeats in the normal range had a direct and beneficial effect on brain development with higher repeats being associated with higher cognitive function. The current study now expands this line of inquiry to evaluate the effects of CAG repeat throughout the entire spectrum of repeats from 15 to 58.

METHODS: We evaluated brain function in children ages 6-18 years old. DNA samples were processed ...


Spinal Cord Trauma: An Overview Of Normal Structure And Function, Primary And Secondary Mechanisms Of Injury, And Emerging Treatment Modalities, Daniel Morin 2018 Liberty University

Spinal Cord Trauma: An Overview Of Normal Structure And Function, Primary And Secondary Mechanisms Of Injury, And Emerging Treatment Modalities, Daniel Morin

Senior Honors Theses

The structures of the spinal cord and vertebral column are designed to provide flexibility, while still providing ample protection for the spinal cord deep within. While it does offer remarkable protection against most routine trauma, the spinal cord is still vulnerable to high-force etiologies of trauma and may become damaged as a result. These events are referred to as primary injury. Following the initial injury, the body’s own physiological responses cause a cascade of deleterious effects, known as secondary injury. Secondary injury is a major therapeutic target in mitigating the effects of spinal cord injury (SCI), and much research ...


A Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (Fnirs) Replication Of The Sunscreen Persuasion Paradigm, Shannon M. Burns, Lianne N. Barnes, Perri L. Katzman, Daniel L. Ames, Emily B. Falk, Matthew D. Lieberman 2018 University of Pennsylvania

A Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (Fnirs) Replication Of The Sunscreen Persuasion Paradigm, Shannon M. Burns, Lianne N. Barnes, Perri L. Katzman, Daniel L. Ames, Emily B. Falk, Matthew D. Lieberman

Departmental Papers (ASC)

Activity in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during persuasive messages predicts future message-consistent behavior change, but there are significant limitations to the types of persuasion processes that can be invoked inside an MRI scanner. For instance, real world persuasion often involves multiple people in conversation. Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) allows us to move out of the scanner and into more ecologically valid contexts. As a first step, the current study used fNIRS to replicate an existing fMRI persuasion paradigm (i.e. the sunscreen paradigm) to determine if mPFC shows similar predictive value with this technology. Consistent with prior fMRI work ...


Amygdala Corticofugal Input Shapes Mitral Cell Responses In The Accessory Olfactory Bulb, Livio Oboti, Eleonora Russo, Tuyen Tran, Daniel Durstewitz, Joshua G. Corbin 2018 George Washington University

Amygdala Corticofugal Input Shapes Mitral Cell Responses In The Accessory Olfactory Bulb, Livio Oboti, Eleonora Russo, Tuyen Tran, Daniel Durstewitz, Joshua G. Corbin

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

Interconnections between the olfactory bulb and the amygdala are a major pathway for triggering strong behavioral responses to a variety of odorants. However, while this broad mapping has been established, the patterns of amygdala feedback connectivity and the influence on olfactory circuitry remain unknown. Here, using a combination of neuronal tracing approaches, we dissect the connectivity of a cortical amygdala [posteromedial cortical nucleus (PmCo)] feedback circuit innervating the mouse accessory olfactory bulb. Optogenetic activation of PmCo feedback mainly results in feedforward mitral cell (MC) inhibition through direct excitation of GABAergic granule cells. In addition, LED-driven activity of corticofugal afferents increases ...


Oxytocin Promotes Face-Sensitive Neural Responses To Infant And Adult Faces In Mothers, Mikko J. Peltola, Lane Strathearn, Kaija Puura 2018 University of Iowa

Oxytocin Promotes Face-Sensitive Neural Responses To Infant And Adult Faces In Mothers, Mikko J. Peltola, Lane Strathearn, Kaija Puura

Stead Family Department of Pediatrics Publications

Research utilizing intranasal oxytocin (OT) administration has shown that OT may increase attention and sensitivity to social cues, such as faces. Given the pivotal role of OT in parental behaviors across mammals, the paucity of intranasal OT research investigating responses to social cues in parents and particularly mothers of young children is a critical limitation. In the current study, we recorded cortical event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate whether intranasal OT affects the early neural responses to emotional faces in mothers of 1-year-old infants. Using a double-blind, within-subjects design, mothers (n = 38) were administered intranasal OT and placebo on separate sessions ...


Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Review Of Dsm Criteria And Functional Neuroanatomy, Cornelius W. Thomas 2018 Huntington VA Medical Center

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Review Of Dsm Criteria And Functional Neuroanatomy, Cornelius W. Thomas

Marshall Journal of Medicine

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) consist of over twenty possible symptoms that can be divided into six broad categories. These categories correlate with specific brain networks that regulate emotions, behaviors, and autonomic function. Normal functioning of these networks depends on two key regions; the prefrontal cortex and the amygdala. The prefrontal cortex provides top-down executive control over amygdala, whereas the amygdala is critical for threat detection and activation of the ‘fight or flight’ response. Events that trigger extreme and/or prolonged fear can cause persisting dysregulation within the prefrontal-amygdala circuit ...


Electromyographic And Joint Kinematic Patterns In Runner's Dystonia., Omar F Ahmad, Pritha Ghosh, Christopher Stanley, Barbara Karp, Mark Hallett, Codrin Lungu, Katharine Alter 2018 George Washington University

Electromyographic And Joint Kinematic Patterns In Runner's Dystonia., Omar F Ahmad, Pritha Ghosh, Christopher Stanley, Barbara Karp, Mark Hallett, Codrin Lungu, Katharine Alter

Neurology Faculty Publications

Runner’s dystonia (RD) is a task-specific focal dystonia of the lower limbs that occurs when running. In this retrospective case series, we present surface electromyography (EMG) and joint kinematic data from thirteen patients with RD who underwent instrumented gait analysis (IGA) at the Functional and Biomechanics Laboratory at the National Institutes of Health. Four cases of RD are described in greater detail to demonstrate the potential utility of EMG with kinematic studies to identify dystonic muscle groups in RD. In these cases, the methodology for muscle selection for botulinum toxin therapy and the therapeutic response is discussed. Lateral heel ...


Haplotype Analysis Of Apoe Intragenic Snps, Vladimir N. Babenko, Dmitry A. Afonnikov, Elena V. Ignatieva, Anton V. Klimov, Fedor E. Gusev, Evgeny I. Rogaev 2018 Novosibirsk State University

Haplotype Analysis Of Apoe Intragenic Snps, Vladimir N. Babenko, Dmitry A. Afonnikov, Elena V. Ignatieva, Anton V. Klimov, Fedor E. Gusev, Evgeny I. Rogaev

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: APOE epsilon4 allele is most common genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cognitive decline. However, it remains poorly understood why only some carriers of APOE epsilon4 develop AD and how ethnic variabilities in APOE locus contribute to AD risk. Here, to address the role of APOE haplotypes, we reassessed the diversity of APOE locus in major ethnic groups and in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) dataset on patients with AD, and subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and control non-demented individuals.

RESULTS: We performed APOE gene haplotype analysis for a short block of five SNPs ...


Effects On Recovery And Neuroplasticity In Brain Injury Patients, Rebekkah McLellan 2018 Lynchburg College

Effects On Recovery And Neuroplasticity In Brain Injury Patients, Rebekkah Mclellan

Student Scholar Showcase

Abstract

According to the Centers for Disease Control, approximately 1.7 million people sustain a Traumatic Brain Injury each year, making the topic of brain plasticity and patient recovery an important area of study. An added element is understanding whether biological, social, and environmental factors can impact the recovery and plasticity of the patient’s brain.The purpose of this literature review was to evaluate if the environment surrounding an individual who has sustained a brain injury affects their recovery and neuroplasticity. The databases used for the scope of this review included LC OneSearch, Medline, EBSCOhost, and Google Scholar. Keywords ...


Stochastic Modeling Of Radiation-Induced Dendritic Damage On In Silico Mouse Hippocampal Neurons, Eliedonna Cacao, Vipan K. Parihar, Charles L. Limoli, Francis A. Cucinotta 2018 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Stochastic Modeling Of Radiation-Induced Dendritic Damage On In Silico Mouse Hippocampal Neurons, Eliedonna Cacao, Vipan K. Parihar, Charles L. Limoli, Francis A. Cucinotta

Health Physics & Diagnostic Sciences Faculty Publications

Cognitive dysfunction associated with radiotherapy for cancer treatment has been correlated to several factors, one of which is changes to the dendritic morphology of neuronal cells. Alterations in dendritic geometry and branching patterns are often accompanied by deficits that impact learning and memory. The purpose of this study is to develop a novel predictive model of neuronal dendritic damages caused by exposure to low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, such as X-rays, gamma-rays and high-energy protons. We established in silico representations of mouse hippocampal dentate granule cell layer (GCL) and CA1 pyramidal neurons, which are frequently examined in radiation-induced cognitive ...


Depression In Adult Patients With Primary Brain Tumours: A Review Of Independent Risk Factors, Anum Sadruddin Pidani, Aaida Mumtaz Rao, Muhammad Shahzad Shamim 2018 Aga Khan University

Depression In Adult Patients With Primary Brain Tumours: A Review Of Independent Risk Factors, Anum Sadruddin Pidani, Aaida Mumtaz Rao, Muhammad Shahzad Shamim

Section of Neurosurgery

Depression is considered an under-diagnosed problem, especially in patients with malignancies. Patients with brain tumours in particular, have a relatively higher risk of developing depression, which is multifactorial. Herein, the authors review the recent literature on the prevalence of depression in patients with brain tumours, and explore the various risk factors involved. .


Prognostic Implications Of Histological Clear Cells In High-Grade Intracranial Ependymal Tumors: A Retrospective Analysis From A Tertiary Care Hospital In Pakistan, Fauzan Alam Hashmi, Hamid Hussain Rai, Muhammad Faheem Khan, Muhammad Ehsan Bari 2018 Aga Khan University

Prognostic Implications Of Histological Clear Cells In High-Grade Intracranial Ependymal Tumors: A Retrospective Analysis From A Tertiary Care Hospital In Pakistan, Fauzan Alam Hashmi, Hamid Hussain Rai, Muhammad Faheem Khan, Muhammad Ehsan Bari

Section of Neurosurgery

BACKGROUND: Clear cell variant in ependymal tumors is rare. We aimed to compare the features and outcome of the World Health Organization (WHO) Grade 3 ependymal tumors with clear cells to the WHO Grade 3 classic anaplastic ependymoma (AE).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study conducted at the Department of Neurosurgery, Aga Khan University, Pakistan, from 2003 to 2013. The medical records and radiology of patients with proven histopathology were reviewed. The analysis was done on SPSS 20.

RESULTS: Nine cases of clear cell variant and 23 cases of classic AE were found, both of which combined equated to ...


The Dynamics Of Concussion: Mapping Pathophysiology, Persistence, And Recovery With Causal-Loop Diagramming, Erin S. Kenzie, Elle L. Parks, Erin D. Bigler, David W, Wright, Miranda M. Lim, James C. Chesnutt, Gregory W.J. Hawryluk, Wayne Gordon, Wayne Wakeland 2018 Portland State University

The Dynamics Of Concussion: Mapping Pathophysiology, Persistence, And Recovery With Causal-Loop Diagramming, Erin S. Kenzie, Elle L. Parks, Erin D. Bigler, David W, Wright, Miranda M. Lim, James C. Chesnutt, Gregory W.J. Hawryluk, Wayne Gordon, Wayne Wakeland

Systems Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

Concussion, also known as mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI),1 is a significant public health issue responsible for a variety of cognitive, emotional, and somatic symptoms and deficits (3). It is unclear why some individuals appear to recover relatively quickly while others suffer prolonged symptoms and impairments (4–7). Robust clinical means of diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment are also lacking (8–11). Research is hindered by an inadequate classification system for traumatic brain injury (TBI) (12), “poor” study quality (13, 14), disagreement about appropriate inclusion and exclusion criteria for concussion (8, 15), and an incomplete understanding of underlying pathophysiology (16 ...


Modafinil For The Improvement Of Patient Outcomes Following Traumatic Brain Injury, Amne Borghol, Michael Aucoin, Ifeanyi Onor PharmD, BCPS, Dana Jamero, Fadi Hawawini 2018 Selected Works

Modafinil For The Improvement Of Patient Outcomes Following Traumatic Brain Injury, Amne Borghol, Michael Aucoin, Ifeanyi Onor Pharmd, Bcps, Dana Jamero, Fadi Hawawini

Ifeanyi Onor, Pharm.D., BCPS, FNKF

Objective.  The authors sought to assess the literature evidence on the efficacy of modafinil use in patients with fatigue or excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) secondary to traumatic brain injury (TBI).

Method of Research. A literature search of Medline and PubMed was performed using the EBSCOhost database. Primary literature, observational studies, meta-analyses, case reports, and systematic reviews were assessed for content regarding modafinil and psychostimulant use in patients with TBI. Of the 23 articles collected, three randomized, controlled studies, three observational studies, one case report, and two systematic reviews gave a description of modafinil use in TBI patients.

Results and Conclusion ...


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