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Coronary Flow And Unloading In Acute Myocardial Infarction Shock, Kiyo Ishikawa 2023 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

Coronary Flow And Unloading In Acute Myocardial Infarction Shock, Kiyo Ishikawa

Journal of Shock and Hemodynamics

In patients with cardiogenic shock that undergo successful coronary intervention, there are still factors complicating myocardial recovery. There is room for improvement in coronary flow using mechanical circulatory devices, specifically by left ventricular unloading. This idea was further explored in a research study using pigs. Results showed that subjects with acute myocardial infarction who have reduced cardiac contractility and/or high diastolic pressure would benefit from support strategies targeting left ventricular unloading.


Recurrent Cyanotic Spells In An Octogenarian, Chin Tong Kwok, Chun Kit Wong 2023 Department of Medicine and Geriatrics, Princess Margaret Hospital, Hong Kong

Recurrent Cyanotic Spells In An Octogenarian, Chin Tong Kwok, Chun Kit Wong

Journal of the Hong Kong College of Cardiology

We report rare case of an octogenarian who, after years of diagnostic delay, was found to have a patent foramen ovale, and due to an ascending aortic aneurysm that anatomically facilitated right-to-left shunt, presenting with life-threatening cyanotic attacks. The characteristic orthodeoxia-platypnea syndrome and high alveolar arterial gradient hint to the diagnosis. She was eventually treated successfully with urgent percutaneous PFO closure. Routine ordering of a transthoracic echocardiogram, without agitated saline injection under provocation maneuvers, may not be sufficient to rule out shunts.


The Challenges Of Conducting Clinical Trials For Patients With Cardiogenic Shock, Sunil Rao 2023 NYU Langone Health System

The Challenges Of Conducting Clinical Trials For Patients With Cardiogenic Shock, Sunil Rao

Journal of Shock and Hemodynamics

Cardiogenic shock due to ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Patients in shock are acutely ill, and clinicians may lack equipoise, thus presenting a challenge to developing high-quality evidence to guide practice. This review will summarize these challenges and offer possible solutions.


Comparison Of Parental In-Person Visitation And Webcam Usage Patterns At A Single-Center Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Shrea Goswami, Emily Mudd, John Chuo, Anirudha Das 2023 Riley Children’s Hospital

Comparison Of Parental In-Person Visitation And Webcam Usage Patterns At A Single-Center Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Shrea Goswami, Emily Mudd, John Chuo, Anirudha Das

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Purpose: Barriers to parents visiting the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in person for infant bonding include socioeconomic status, distance from NICU, and having children at home. Use of NICU bedside webcam can increase access to parent-infant interaction. This study aimed to describe the pattern of webcam logins by parents, relationship of logins to in-person visitation, and maternal factors affecting usage.

Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, data pertaining to parental webcam logins and in-person visitation, maternal screening for depression, anxiety, and stress, and family sociodemographics were collected from medical records. Relationships between chart variables and webcam or …


Shifting Perspectives: A Qualitative Study To Understand Family Expectations At The Time Of Their Child’S Admission, RosaMarie Maiorella, Avital Fischer, Sumeet L. Banker 2023 Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center; University of Cincinnati College of Medicine

Shifting Perspectives: A Qualitative Study To Understand Family Expectations At The Time Of Their Child’S Admission, Rosamarie Maiorella, Avital Fischer, Sumeet L. Banker

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Purpose: Patient-centered approaches to health care acknowledge the important role that families have in patients’ lives. Shared expectations between families and providers have the potential to improve patient and family experience, hospital care, and outcomes. We aimed to understand families’ expectations for their child’s admission from the vantage point of the start of a hospital stay.

Methods: This qualitative research studied families of hospitalized children at a large pediatric tertiary care center. Family members were approached if their child was admitted to the general pediatrics team, was under 18 years of age, had a length of stay less than 5 …


Pediatric In-Hospital Cardiac Arrests: We Have More To Learn About Patient Demographics And Outcomes, Nathan LaVoy, John Cowden, Jenna Miller, Asdis Finnsdottir Wagner, Shekinah Hensley, Stephen Pfeiffer 2023 Children's Mercy Hospital

Pediatric In-Hospital Cardiac Arrests: We Have More To Learn About Patient Demographics And Outcomes, Nathan Lavoy, John Cowden, Jenna Miller, Asdis Finnsdottir Wagner, Shekinah Hensley, Stephen Pfeiffer

Presentations

Introduction: Prior pediatric studies show an association between patient demographics and mortality after in-hospital cardiac arrests (IHCA). To our knowledge, this has not been assessed in pediatric intensive care units (PICU). This study aims to evaluate the impact of demographics and code characteristics on outcomes after IHCA in a quaternary referral PICU. Methods: A single center retrospective review of PICU IHCA events from 2010-2021 was performed. Patient demographics included age, gender, race/ethnicity, and language. Primary diagnosis was defined as cardiac or non-cardiac. The use of ECMO, CRRT, or defibrillation were included as code characteristics. The primary outcome was survival to …


Acute Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura: Rare And Life-Threatening Side Effect Of Recent Bnt-162b2 Covid-19 Vaccination, Jay Patel, Muhammad Umair Jahngir, Ahmad Abdulzahir, Ismael Rodriguez 2022 Orange Park Medical Center, Orange Park, FL

Acute Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura: Rare And Life-Threatening Side Effect Of Recent Bnt-162b2 Covid-19 Vaccination, Jay Patel, Muhammad Umair Jahngir, Ahmad Abdulzahir, Ismael Rodriguez

HCA Healthcare Journal of Medicine

Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare, potentially life-threatening disorder characterized by uncontrolled and spontaneous clot formation throughout the body. Known secondary causes of TTP include malignancy, bone marrow transplantation, pregnancy, various medications, and HIV infection. TTP in the setting of COVID-19 vaccination is rare and not well reported. Reported cases have been confined primarily to the AstraZeneca and Johnson and Johnson COVID-19 Vaccines. TTP in the setting of Pfizer BNT-162b2 vaccination has only recently been reported. We present a patient with no obvious risk factors for TTP who presented with acute altered mental status and was found to have …


Ratio Of Vascular Pedicle Width And Thoracic Diameter To Differentiate Cardiogenic And Non-Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema, Rahmi Afifi, Achmad Fachri, Amir Sjarifuddin Madjid, Joedo Prihartono, Marcel Prasetyo, Andreas Christian 2022 Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia–Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National Central General Hospital, Jakarta 10430, Indonesia

Ratio Of Vascular Pedicle Width And Thoracic Diameter To Differentiate Cardiogenic And Non-Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema, Rahmi Afifi, Achmad Fachri, Amir Sjarifuddin Madjid, Joedo Prihartono, Marcel Prasetyo, Andreas Christian

Makara Journal of Health Research

Background: Excess intravascular volume evaluation is essential in the intensive care unit (ICU); however, clinical information to differentiate cardiogenic and non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema has been proven ineffective. Thus, this study aimed to distinguish cardiogenic from non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema using the ratio of vascular pedicle width (VPW) to thoracic diameter (VPTR).

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted based on secondary data from chest radiographs of 100 patients with clinical symptoms of pulmonary edema in the ICU from January 2013 to December 2015. Cardiogenic and non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema were distinguished using VPW and cardiothoracic ratio measurements (CTR). VPTR was measured …


Nursing Considerations For Post-Traumatic Amnesia After A Traumatic Brain Injury, Hannah Grant 2022 Liberty University

Nursing Considerations For Post-Traumatic Amnesia After A Traumatic Brain Injury, Hannah Grant

Senior Honors Theses

A period known as post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) often follows a traumatic brain injury (TBI). PTA is characterized by anterograde and retrograde amnesia, confusion, disorientation, and agitation. The duration and severity of PTA is a key indicator of the long-term prognosis after a TBI, so proper assessment and nursing care of a PTA patient is crucial. TBIs range from mild to severe, but primarily affect the fronto-temporal lobes. In PTA, both neural lesions and white matter damage within the parahippocampal region can cause PTA. A nurse must perform a thorough assessment of a TBI patient, but, since PTA is a key …


Why Is Epinephrine Not The Drug Of Choice In Cardiogenic Shock?, Esther Vorovich 2022 Northwestern University

Why Is Epinephrine Not The Drug Of Choice In Cardiogenic Shock?, Esther Vorovich

Journal of Shock and Hemodynamics

Through the years, epinephrine has been the drug of choice for patients with cardiogenic shock. However, epinephrine was clinically inferior to norepinephrine in comparison studies because of the negative patient outcomes, which were statistically significant. These effects include type B lactic acidosis, tachycardia, increased myocardial oxygen demand, and arrhythmias.


Profound Vasoplegia After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting, Subhasis Chatterjee 2022 Baylor College Medicine; Texas Heart Institute

Profound Vasoplegia After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting, Subhasis Chatterjee

Journal of Shock and Hemodynamics

Vasoplegic shock after cardiac surgery is characterized by a high cardiac output, low systemic vascular resistance, refractory hypotension, and ongoing need for vasopressors. In this case, management considerations are discussed, including vasoactive medications and other adjuncts to sustain a satisfactory mean arterial pressure and improve outcomes.


Reperfusion Injury In Acute Myocardial Infarction Shock- Role Of Mechanical Circulatory Support Devices, Finn Gustafsson 2022 University of Copenhagen

Reperfusion Injury In Acute Myocardial Infarction Shock- Role Of Mechanical Circulatory Support Devices, Finn Gustafsson

Journal of Shock and Hemodynamics

The efficacy of mechanical circulatory support in acute myocardial infarction is dependent upon the size of the infarct. If applied early, mechanical support to reduce reperfusion injury appears to be effective in reducing infarct size in animal studies. The optimal timing of reperfusion is uncertain and requires further investigation. Efficient unloading appears to be essential in increasing the efficacy of the type of mechanical support and may favor one over another.


Racial Variations In Shock Presentation And Outcome, Steven Bailey 2022 LSU Heath School of Medicine

Racial Variations In Shock Presentation And Outcome, Steven Bailey

Journal of Shock and Hemodynamics

Working toward inclusive strategies for data sampling, trials, and triage is essential. Whatever the approach, it is important to do better than what has been done in the past when considering race and ethnicity in patient care. Although there may be limited publications with information on this topic, they have shown clear differences in patient outcomes with possible associations with gender, race, and ethnicity. It is critical to view the implications of this on socioeconomic status, access, resources, patient phenotypes, and patient desires and expectations. The disparities must first be recognized before any treatment options can be identified.


Hemodynamic Goals In Shock Management: Is There One Target For All?, Maya Guglin 2022 Indiana University

Hemodynamic Goals In Shock Management: Is There One Target For All?, Maya Guglin

Journal of Shock and Hemodynamics

The current guidelines for managing cardiogenic shock lack specificity and clarification. The main criterion for cardiogenic shock is low cardiac output, and the most important goal is to achieve adequate output from a shock state. Because of the complex nature of cardiogenic shock, a “one-size-fits-all" outline may not be the best solution. Historically, hemodynamic goals in cardiogenic shock are copied from septic shock. Because septic shock and cardiogenic shock are different hemodynamic entities, the goals should be different.


Hemodynamics And Kinetics Of Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction Shock, Yevgeniy Brailovsky, J. Eduardo Rame, Thierry Le Jemtel, Indranee Rajapreyar 2022 Thomas Jefferson University

Hemodynamics And Kinetics Of Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction Shock, Yevgeniy Brailovsky, J. Eduardo Rame, Thierry Le Jemtel, Indranee Rajapreyar

Journal of Shock and Hemodynamics

The classical paradigm of cardiogenic shock is severe impairment of left ventricular, right ventricular, or biventricular contractility resulting in decreased cardiac output and end-organ failure. In patients with preserved ejection fraction, cardiogenic shock results from impaired left ventricular filling leading to decreased cardiac output and end-organ hypoperfusion. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) comprises a heterogenous group of myocardial and systemic metabolic derangements. Cardiogenic shock with preserved left ventricular ejection is thought to be less common than with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, and therapeutic approaches are not well standardized. We aim to review the pathophysiology of cardiogenic shock …


Eosinophilic Myocarditis Secondary To Hypereosinophilic Syndrome Vs. Eosinophilic Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis: A Diagnostic Dilemma, Nathan LaVoy, Brian Birnbaum, Julia G. Harris, Aarti Pandya, Allison Taber 2022 Children's Mercy Hospital

Eosinophilic Myocarditis Secondary To Hypereosinophilic Syndrome Vs. Eosinophilic Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis: A Diagnostic Dilemma, Nathan Lavoy, Brian Birnbaum, Julia G. Harris, Aarti Pandya, Allison Taber

Posters

Introduction: Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is a rare but detrimental diagnosis in the pediatric population. Cardiac involvement within HES can present as a diagnosis of Eosinophilic Myocarditis which can progress to irreversible damage and potentially death. This case report discusses a 16-year-old male treated for HES, although HES can have overlap with Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (EGPA) and requires a multi-disciplinary approach to patient management. Case Description: The patient was a 16-year-old male, with a history of asthma, presenting with acute onset of chest pain. He was found to have peripheral eosinophilia with an absolute eosinophil count of 11.71. He had …


Effectiveness Of Non-Invasive Respiratory Support Strategies In Patients With Covid-19: A Systematic Review And Meta Analysis, Vinesh Kumar, Umair Arshad Malik, Reshman Kumari, Berkha Berkha, Vijay Kumar, Manoj Kumar, Simran Simran, Suman Suman, Bushra Nasim 2022 Chandka Medical College, Pakistan

Effectiveness Of Non-Invasive Respiratory Support Strategies In Patients With Covid-19: A Systematic Review And Meta Analysis, Vinesh Kumar, Umair Arshad Malik, Reshman Kumari, Berkha Berkha, Vijay Kumar, Manoj Kumar, Simran Simran, Suman Suman, Bushra Nasim

Medical College Documents

Background: The effectiveness of non-invasive respiratory strategies, namely CPAP and HFNO, in reducing the risk of mortality and tracheal intubation in patients with severe COVID-19 is not well established.
Methods: A thorough literature search was conducted across 3 electronic databases (Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane Central) from inception through July 2022. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies assessing the impact of CPAP or HFNO on clinical outcomes in patients infected with COVID-19 were considered for inclusion. End-points included all-cause mortality and risk of tracheal intubation. Evaluations were reported as risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and analysis was …


Anticancer Effect Of Illicium Verum (Star Anise Fruit) Against Human Breast Cancer Mcf-7 Cell Line, Asra Khan Pahore, Shagufta Khan, Nasim Karim 2022 Altamash Institute of Dental Medicine, Pakistan

Anticancer Effect Of Illicium Verum (Star Anise Fruit) Against Human Breast Cancer Mcf-7 Cell Line, Asra Khan Pahore, Shagufta Khan, Nasim Karim

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

Objective: To investigate the anticancer effect of Illicium verum against human breast cancer MCF-7 cell line.
Methods: An experimental study was conducted in Multidisciplinary and Tissue Culture Laboratory, Aga Khan University in collaboration with Pharmacology Department of Bahria University Medical and Dental College, Karachi, Pakistan from January 2021 to June 2021. MCF-7 cells of Luminal-A breast cancer were seeded in 96-well plate and treated with I.verum methanol extract. After incubation, MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) dye was used for cell viability and cell proliferation assays to determine the number of dead and viable cells, and the absorbance was measured using an enzyme-linked …


A Quantification And Impact Of Incomplete Revascularization Using Residual Syntax Score In Nstemi Patients After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention, Syed Waqar Ahmed, Nasir Rahman 2022 Aga Khan University

A Quantification And Impact Of Incomplete Revascularization Using Residual Syntax Score In Nstemi Patients After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention, Syed Waqar Ahmed, Nasir Rahman

Section of Cardiology

Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic significance of rSS after PCI for NSTEMI in terms of all-cause mortality and MACE (Major adverse cardiac event) at 3 years of follow-up.
Methodology: A retrospective analysis of 115 consecutive NSTEMI patients who underwent PCI at the Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi between January 2016 and December 2016 was performed. 7 patients were excluded from the final analysis due to missing data (n=108). The SYNTAX scores before (baseline syntax=bSS) and after PCI (rSS) were calculated. Patients were stratified as CR if rSS =0, RICR if rSS >0 and ≤8 …


Assessment During Covid-19: Quality Assurance Of An Online Open Book Formative Examination For Undergraduate Medical Students, Javeria Rehman, Rahila Ali Mazhar, Azam Afzal, Sara Shakil, Amber Shahmim Sultan, Romana Idress, Syeda Sadia Fatima 2022 Aga Khan University

Assessment During Covid-19: Quality Assurance Of An Online Open Book Formative Examination For Undergraduate Medical Students, Javeria Rehman, Rahila Ali Mazhar, Azam Afzal, Sara Shakil, Amber Shahmim Sultan, Romana Idress, Syeda Sadia Fatima

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Background: The spread of COVID-19 pandemic in early 2020 compelled all the educational activities, including medical education to be shifted from face-to-face interaction to a virtual platform. This shift provided opportunities for exploring online assessment modalities. One such assessment method is an online open book exam which is a unique concept in medical education of Pakistan. Limited information is available in literature regarding open book exam for the basic science subjects. Hence, the objective of the study was to determine the quality of the open book exam administered as a pilot project to the first-year medical students.
Methods: It was …


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