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Alcohol Drives Oxidation-Dependent Desensitization Of Airway Cilia Motility Responsiveness, Michael Price 2018 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Alcohol Drives Oxidation-Dependent Desensitization Of Airway Cilia Motility Responsiveness, Michael Price

Theses & Dissertations

Alcohol abuse, which can impair clearance of pathogens and debris from the airway, is associated with an increase in complications and a higher mortality rate during the progression of pneumonia. With prolonged alcohol exposure, mucociliary clearance (MCC), which depends on the coordinated beating of cilia, is dysfunctional. Effective MCC relies on cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activation of ciliary beat frequency (CBF). PKA activation and stimulation of CBF are blunted with chronic exposure to alcohol. This phenomenon is known as alcohol-induced ciliary dysfunction (AICD). Previous studies have shown that concomitant feeding of mice with alcohol and antioxidants prevents AICD, suggesting a ...


Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis: A 17 Year Experience From A Tertiary Care Hospital In Pakistan, Omar Irfan, Haris Khan, Zarrar Khan, Alina Ashraf, Rimsha Ahmed, Javaid Khan, Ali Bin Sarwar Zubairi 2018 Aga Khan University

Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis: A 17 Year Experience From A Tertiary Care Hospital In Pakistan, Omar Irfan, Haris Khan, Zarrar Khan, Alina Ashraf, Rimsha Ahmed, Javaid Khan, Ali Bin Sarwar Zubairi

Section of Pulmonary & Critical Care

Objective: Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (GPA) is an autoimmune, multi-system, small and medium vessel vasculitis with granulomatous inflammation. Aim of this study was to assess the clinical and radiological presentations of patients with GPA amongst the Pakistani population. It is a single centre retrospective single observation study.

Results: Study was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi with records were reviewed from January 2000 to December 2017. Definitive diagnosis was made using a combination of serological anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) testing along with the clinical and radiological presentation. A total of 51 patients met the diagnostic criteria in the time ...


Spinal Cord Trauma: An Overview Of Normal Structure And Function, Primary And Secondary Mechanisms Of Injury, And Emerging Treatment Modalities, Daniel Morin 2018 Liberty University

Spinal Cord Trauma: An Overview Of Normal Structure And Function, Primary And Secondary Mechanisms Of Injury, And Emerging Treatment Modalities, Daniel Morin

Senior Honors Theses

The structures of the spinal cord and vertebral column are designed to provide flexibility, while still providing ample protection for the spinal cord deep within. While it does offer remarkable protection against most routine trauma, the spinal cord is still vulnerable to high-force etiologies of trauma and may become damaged as a result. These events are referred to as primary injury. Following the initial injury, the body’s own physiological responses cause a cascade of deleterious effects, known as secondary injury. Secondary injury is a major therapeutic target in mitigating the effects of spinal cord injury (SCI), and much research ...


Time Is Money: The True Cost Of Helicopter Ems (Hems), Jerome Rogich, Eike Blohm, Joseph Tennyson 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Time Is Money: The True Cost Of Helicopter Ems (Hems), Jerome Rogich, Eike Blohm, Joseph Tennyson

Senior Scholars Program

Background: Multiple studies have been published that attempt to examine relevant outcomes of utilizing helicopter transport over traditional ground-based emergency medical services (EMS). Unfortunately, these studies suffer from poor methodology and are confounded by substantial differences in training and expertise of the personnel involved in the medical transfer. The EMS system in Central Massachusetts is unique in that when a physician from an outside hospital calls for an HEMS transport, the pilot determines if weather conditions permit to fly without having any further knowledge about the patient. If flying is deemed unsafe, the helicopter personnel will retrieve the patient by ...


The Corticosteroid Compounds Prednisolone And Vamorolone Do Not Alter The Nociception Phenotype And Exacerbate Liver Injury In Sickle Cell Mice., Luis E F Almeida, Jesse M Damsker, Sarah Albani, Nina Afsar, Sayuri Kamimura, Drew Pratt, David E Kleiner, Martha Quezado, Heather Gordish-Dressman, Zenaide M N Quezado 2018 George Washington University

The Corticosteroid Compounds Prednisolone And Vamorolone Do Not Alter The Nociception Phenotype And Exacerbate Liver Injury In Sickle Cell Mice., Luis E F Almeida, Jesse M Damsker, Sarah Albani, Nina Afsar, Sayuri Kamimura, Drew Pratt, David E Kleiner, Martha Quezado, Heather Gordish-Dressman, Zenaide M N Quezado

Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine Faculty Publications

Clinicians often hesitate prescribing corticosteroids to treat corticosteroid-responsive conditions in sickle cell disease (SCD) patients because their use can be associated with complications (increased hospital readmission, rebound pain, strokes, avascular necrosis, acute chest syndrome). Consequently, SCD patients may receive suboptimal treatment for corticosteroid-responsive conditions. We conducted a preclinical trial of dissociative (vamorolone) and conventional (prednisolone) corticosteroid compounds to evaluate their effects on nociception phenotype, inflammation, and organ dysfunction in SCD mice. Prednisolone and vamorolone had no significant effects on nociception phenotype or anemia in homozygous mice. Conversely, prednisolone and vamorolone significantly decreased white blood cell counts and hepatic inflammation. Interestingly ...


Mobile Critical Care Recovery Program (M-Ccrp) For Acute Respiratory Failure Survivors: Study Protocol For A Randomized Controlled Trial, Sikandar Khan, Ashok Biju, Sophia Wang, Sujuan Gao, Omar Irfan, Amanda Harrawood, Stephanie Martinez, Anthony Perkins, Frederick W. Unverzagt, Sue Lasiter 2018 Indiana University School of Medicine

Mobile Critical Care Recovery Program (M-Ccrp) For Acute Respiratory Failure Survivors: Study Protocol For A Randomized Controlled Trial, Sikandar Khan, Ashok Biju, Sophia Wang, Sujuan Gao, Omar Irfan, Amanda Harrawood, Stephanie Martinez, Anthony Perkins, Frederick W. Unverzagt, Sue Lasiter

Medical College Documents

Background: Patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU) with acute respiratory failure (ARF) face chronic complications that can impede return to normal daily function. A mobile, collaborative critical care model may enhance the recovery of ARF survivors.
Methods: The Mobile Critical Care Recovery Program (m-CCRP) study is a two arm, randomized clinical trial. We will randomize 620 patients admitted to the ICU with acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation in a 1:1 ratio to one of two arms (310 patients per arm) – m-CCRP intervention versus attention control. Those in the intervention group will meet with a care coordinator after ...


Evaluation Outcomes Of A Modified Early Warning System For Early Identification Of Sepsis In The Adult Population Requiring Acute Care, Gavin Mackenzie Turpin 2018 University of Kentucky

Evaluation Outcomes Of A Modified Early Warning System For Early Identification Of Sepsis In The Adult Population Requiring Acute Care, Gavin Mackenzie Turpin

DNP Projects

Abstract

Objectives: To examine the use of a Modified Early Warning System (MEWS) for sepsis identification and evaluate its effects on treatment and outcomes for those patients diagnosed with sepsis after admission, during their stay at an acute care facility.

Design: A retrospective chart audit was conducted on the electronic medical records (EMRs) of patients who developed, and were diagnosed with, sepsis post admission. Specifically, a retrospective separate sample pretest posttest design was used to examine the accuracy of the MEWS, differences in outcomes (ICU days, length of hospital stay, qSOFA Score and mortality rates), and treatment initiation time (fluid ...


Fluid Choice During Perioperative Care In Children: A Survey Of Present‑Day Proposing Practice By Anesthesiologists In A Intertiary Care Hospital, Muhammad Faisal Khan, Khalid Maudood Siddiqui, Ali Asghar 2018 Aga Khan University

Fluid Choice During Perioperative Care In Children: A Survey Of Present‑Day Proposing Practice By Anesthesiologists In A Intertiary Care Hospital, Muhammad Faisal Khan, Khalid Maudood Siddiqui, Ali Asghar

Department of Anaesthesia

Background: Perioperative fluid therapy in pediatrics has always been a challenging avenue for anesthesiologists.

Inappropriate choice of fluid leads to multiple side effects, for instance iatrogenic hyponatremia. Our aim was to observe the

current practice of perioperative fluid therapy in pediatric population undergoing surgery in a tertiary care hospital.

Methods: After obtaining approval from the Departmental Research Review Committee, a survey form including questions

was emailed to anesthesiologists from January 2015 to June 2015. Individual responses were recorded and analyzed.

Results: Overall response was 100% from consultant and resident, and total 55 anesthesiologists were participated in

this survey. Majority of ...


Awareness, Use And Perceptions About E-Cigarettes Among Adult Smokers In Karachi, Pakistan., Maryam Sarfraz, Hamza Abdur Rahim Khan, Amna Urooba, Zainab Manan, Omar Irfan, Ramlah Nadeem, Huma Baqir, Saad Farooq, Zarrar Khan, Javaid Khan, Sarah saleem 2018 Aga Khan University

Awareness, Use And Perceptions About E-Cigarettes Among Adult Smokers In Karachi, Pakistan., Maryam Sarfraz, Hamza Abdur Rahim Khan, Amna Urooba, Zainab Manan, Omar Irfan, Ramlah Nadeem, Huma Baqir, Saad Farooq, Zarrar Khan, Javaid Khan, Sarah Saleem

Section of Pulmonary & Critical Care

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of awareness, current use and intention to use of e-cigarettes among adult smokers.

METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was carried out at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from July to August 2016, and comprised people aged above 18 years who had smoked more than 100 cigarettes in their lifetime. Convenience sampling method was used. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. SPSS 22 was used for data analysis..

RESULTS: Of the 387 participants, 359(92.8%) were male. The overall mean age was 32.4±12.6 years. Moreover, 215(55.5%) respondents belonged ...


Nontypeable Haemophilus Influenzae Meningitis In The Context Of Endoscopic Endonasal Surgery – A Case Report., Ricky Buckshaw DO, Casey Judge DO, Jennifer Strow DO 2018 Lehigh Valley Health Network

Nontypeable Haemophilus Influenzae Meningitis In The Context Of Endoscopic Endonasal Surgery – A Case Report., Ricky Buckshaw Do, Casey Judge Do, Jennifer Strow Do

Department of Medicine

No abstract provided.


An Occurrence Of Apnea, Bradycardia, And Desaturation Events Resulting In A Delay Of Discharge In Late Preterm And Full Term Infants, Brian Montenegro, Christina Freiberger, Lauren Veit, Michael Amberson, Sagori Mukhopadhyay, Lawrence M. Rhein 2017 Boston Children's Hospital

An Occurrence Of Apnea, Bradycardia, And Desaturation Events Resulting In A Delay Of Discharge In Late Preterm And Full Term Infants, Brian Montenegro, Christina Freiberger, Lauren Veit, Michael Amberson, Sagori Mukhopadhyay, Lawrence M. Rhein

Open Access Articles

In a 5-year retrospective study, we identified a population of late preterm and full term infants with apnea, bradycardia, and oxygen desaturation (ABD) events as the last discharge-delaying diagnosis.


Intermediate-Term Risk Of Stroke Following Cardiac Procedures In A Nationally Representative Data Set., Laura Stein, Alison Thaler, John W. Liang, Stanley Tuhrim, Amit S. Dhamoon, Mandip S. Dhamoon 2017 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

Intermediate-Term Risk Of Stroke Following Cardiac Procedures In A Nationally Representative Data Set., Laura Stein, Alison Thaler, John W. Liang, Stanley Tuhrim, Amit S. Dhamoon, Mandip S. Dhamoon

Department of Neurology Faculty Papers

BACKGROUND: Studies on stroke risk following cardiac procedures addressed only perioperative and long-term risk following limited higher-risk procedures, were poorly generalizable, and often failed to stratify by stroke type. We calculated stroke risk in the intermediate risk period following cardiac procedures compared with common noncardiac surgeries and medical admissions.

METHODS AND RESULTS: The Nationwide Readmissions Database contains readmission data for 49% of US admissions in 2013. We compared age-adjusted stroke readmission rates up to 90 days postdischarge. We used Cox regression to calculate hazard ratios, up to 1 year, of stroke risk comparing transcatheter aortic valve replacement versus surgical aortic ...


Emergency Department Repair Of Blunt Right Atrial Rupture Utilizing Cardiopulmonary Bypass, Samuel P. Carmichael, Michael C. Bounds, Alexis E. Shafii, Phillip K. Chang 2017 University of Kentucky

Emergency Department Repair Of Blunt Right Atrial Rupture Utilizing Cardiopulmonary Bypass, Samuel P. Carmichael, Michael C. Bounds, Alexis E. Shafii, Phillip K. Chang

Internal Medicine Faculty Publications

Blunt cardiac injury (BCI) with free wall rupture carries a high risk of pre-hospital death. Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) has been utilized as a bridge to repair of cardiac lesions in select patients. We present an interesting case of emergency department repair of right atrial rupture with cardiopulmonary bypass.


Variations In Practice Of Apnea Test For Brain Death: Review From A Multihospital Health Care System, Jeffrey Stein, Marvi V. Rijhwani, Ernesto Brauer 2017 Department of Internal Medicine, Aurora Sinai Medical Center

Variations In Practice Of Apnea Test For Brain Death: Review From A Multihospital Health Care System, Jeffrey Stein, Marvi V. Rijhwani, Ernesto Brauer

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Background: Ventilation encompasses both active and passive processes. Air is initially drawn into the lungs due to a negative intrathoracic pressure created using the respiratory muscles, most importantly the diaphragm. In contrast, expiration is the passive relaxation of the respiratory muscles. Oxygenation occurs when oxygen diffuses across the alveolar-capillary membrane. The ability to oxygenate without ventilation has been termed apneic diffusion oxygenation or apneic oxygenation. We believe it is crucial to keep alveoli open in order for adequate oxygenation to occur. This can be achieved with the aid of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). We investigated this concept in patients who ...


Bronchial Carcinoid Presenting As Multiple Lung Abscesses, Zeeshan Waheed, Muhammad Irfan, Saulat Fatimi, Ruqaiya Shahid 2017 Aga Khan University

Bronchial Carcinoid Presenting As Multiple Lung Abscesses, Zeeshan Waheed, Muhammad Irfan, Saulat Fatimi, Ruqaiya Shahid

Saulat Fatimi

Bronchial carcinoid tumours is a rare group of pulmonary malignant neoplasm that is derived from neuroendocrine system. Bronchial carcinoid usually present with hilar masses, atelactasis, bronchiectasis, or post-obstructive pneumonia. This case describes a very unusual presentation of bronchial carcinoid tumour with multiple lung abscesses involving the whole lung. This report is of an adult lady who presented with multiple lung abscesses involving her whole of the right lung. She was found to have an endo-bronchial lesion in her right main bronchus which eventually turned out to be carcinoid tumour. She responded to resection and antibiotic therapy.


When Should A First-Aid Provider Stop Cpr: Answer From The American Red Cross Scientific Advisory Council, Stamatios Lerakis, Wendell Jones, Richard N. Bradley 2017 The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston

When Should A First-Aid Provider Stop Cpr: Answer From The American Red Cross Scientific Advisory Council, Stamatios Lerakis, Wendell Jones, Richard N. Bradley

International Journal of First Aid Education

No abstract provided.


Delirium Reduction Strategies For The Critically Ill, June Chaves, Sam Canonico, Will Cheney, Tammy Corey, Gil Fraser, Alex Kowalewski, Jen Low, Cardiac Intensive Care Unit, Haley Pelletier, Cathy Palleschi, Stephen Tyzik, Suneela Nayak, Ruth Hanselman 2017 Maine Medical Center

Delirium Reduction Strategies For The Critically Ill, June Chaves, Sam Canonico, Will Cheney, Tammy Corey, Gil Fraser, Alex Kowalewski, Jen Low, Cardiac Intensive Care Unit, Haley Pelletier, Cathy Palleschi, Stephen Tyzik, Suneela Nayak, Ruth Hanselman

Maine Medical Center

Delirium, an acute and fluctuating disturbance of consciousness and cognition, is a common manifestation of acute brain dysfunction in critically ill patients. Patients with delirium have longer hospital stays and a lower 6-month survival rate than do patients without delirium. Preliminary research suggests that delirium may be associated with cognitive impairment that persists months to years after discharge.

In a large acute care hospital, the cardiac intensive care staff became interested in mitigating their unit’s high delirium rate of ventilated patients. At baseline, many members of the healthcare team did not believe that delirium could be prevented and the ...


Differential Live Mycobacterium Tuberculosis- , M. Bovis Bcg-, Recombinant Esat6-, And Culture Filtrate Protein 10-Induced Immunity In Tuberculosis, Zahra Hasan, Bushra Jamil, Mussarat Ashraf, Muniba Islam, Maqboola Dojki, Muhammad Irfan, Rabia Hussain 2017 Aga Khan University

Differential Live Mycobacterium Tuberculosis- , M. Bovis Bcg-, Recombinant Esat6-, And Culture Filtrate Protein 10-Induced Immunity In Tuberculosis, Zahra Hasan, Bushra Jamil, Mussarat Ashraf, Muniba Islam, Maqboola Dojki, Muhammad Irfan, Rabia Hussain

Bushra Jamil

The high prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis makes it imperative that immune responses to evaluate could be predictive of infection. We investigated live Mycobacterium- and recombinant antigen-induced cytokine and chemokine responses in patients with active tuberculosis (TB) compared with those of healthy controls from an area where TB is endemic (ECs). M. tuberculosis-, M. bovis BCG-, ESAT6-, and culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP10)-induced responses were determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with pulmonary TB (n = 38) and ECs (n = 39). The levels of the cytokines gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) and the chemokines CCL2, CCL3, and CXCL9 ...


Ccl2 Responses To Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Are Associated With Disease Severity In Tuberculosis, Zahra Hasan, Jacqueline M. Cliff, Hazel M. Dockrell, Bushra Jamil, Muhammad Irfan, Mussarat Ashraf, Rabia Hussain 2017 Aga Khan University

Ccl2 Responses To Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Are Associated With Disease Severity In Tuberculosis, Zahra Hasan, Jacqueline M. Cliff, Hazel M. Dockrell, Bushra Jamil, Muhammad Irfan, Mussarat Ashraf, Rabia Hussain

Bushra Jamil

Background Leucocyte activating chemokines such as CCL2, CCL3, and CXCL8 together with proinflammatory IFNγ, TNFα and downmodulatory IL10 play a central role in the restriction of M. tuberculosis infections, but is unclear whether these markers are indicative of tuberculosis disease severity. Methodology We investigated live M. tuberculosis- and M. bovis BCG- induced peripheral blood mononuclear cell responses in patients with tuberculosis (TB) and healthy endemic controls (ECs, n = 36). TB patients comprised pulmonary (PTB, n = 34) and extrapulmonary groups, subdivided into those with less severe localized extrapulmonary TB (L-ETB, n = 16) or severe disseminated ETB (D-ETB, n = 16). Secretion of ...


Higher Midazolam Clearance In Obese Adolescents Compared With Morbidly Obese Adults., Anne van Rongen, Margreke J E Brill, Janelle D Vaughns, Pyry A J Välitalo, Eric P A van Dongen, Bert van Ramshorst, Jeffrey S Barrett, Johannes N van den Anker, Catherijne A J Knibbe 2017 George Washington University

Higher Midazolam Clearance In Obese Adolescents Compared With Morbidly Obese Adults., Anne Van Rongen, Margreke J E Brill, Janelle D Vaughns, Pyry A J Välitalo, Eric P A Van Dongen, Bert Van Ramshorst, Jeffrey S Barrett, Johannes N Van Den Anker, Catherijne A J Knibbe

Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine Faculty Publications

Background

The clearance of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A substrates is reported to be reduced with lower age, inflammation and obesity. As it is unknown what the overall influence is of these factors in the case of obese adolescents vs. morbidly obese adults, we studied covariates influencing the clearance of the CYP3A substrate midazolam in a combined analysis of data from obese adolescents and morbidly obese adults.

Methods

Data from 19 obese adolescents [102.7 kg (62–149.5 kg)] and 20 morbidly obese adults [144 kg (112–186 kg)] receiving intravenous midazolam were analysed, using population pharmacokinetic modelling (NONMEM 7 ...


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