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Outbreak Of Dengue Fever In Karachi 2006: A Clinical Perspective, Muhammad Mehmood Riaz, Khalid Mumtaz, Muhammad Shoaib Khan, Junaid Patel, M. Tariq, Harith Hilal, Shaheryar Ahmed Siddiqui, Farrukh Shezad 2017 Aga Khan University

Outbreak Of Dengue Fever In Karachi 2006: A Clinical Perspective, Muhammad Mehmood Riaz, Khalid Mumtaz, Muhammad Shoaib Khan, Junaid Patel, M. Tariq, Harith Hilal, Shaheryar Ahmed Siddiqui, Farrukh Shezad

Muhammad Tariq

OBJECTIVE: This study reports clinical manifestations and spectrum of severity of dengue fever (DF), dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) in adult patients admitted during 2006 outbreak in Karachi. A rough estimation of cost of care was also calculated. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was done at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi from January to December 2006. Patients suspected of having DF with positive dengue IgM antibodies were included and records were reviewed. Patients were divided into DF, DHF and DSS as per WHO classification, and the severity of clinical manifestations was determined. RESULTS: A total of ...


Beta-Hemolytic Streptococcus Group A Endocarditis: A Rare Clinical Presentation, Aysha Almas, M. Tariq 2017 Aga Khan University

Beta-Hemolytic Streptococcus Group A Endocarditis: A Rare Clinical Presentation, Aysha Almas, M. Tariq

Muhammad Tariq

A case report of an elderly gentleman is reported herein, who presented with one week history of fever, drowsiness and left lower limb weakness. Examination revealed left lower limb weakness with power of grade 3/5. His workup showed evidence of infection and multiple cerebral infarcts on the right side. Blood culture grew Streptococcus pyogens. Echocardiogram showed two vegetations on the aortic valve. Fever was the main presenting feature in this case but it was the presentation of patient with multiple cerebral infarcts that lead to the diagnosis of infective endocarditis. The organism causing Infective Endocarditis (IE) in this patient ...


Tuberculous And Cryptococcal Meningitis In A Setting With High Tb And Low Hiv Prevalence, Afrasyab Khan, Bushra Jamil, Rahmat Ali, Sana Sultan 2017 Aga Khan University

Tuberculous And Cryptococcal Meningitis In A Setting With High Tb And Low Hiv Prevalence, Afrasyab Khan, Bushra Jamil, Rahmat Ali, Sana Sultan

Bushra Jamil

OBJECTIVE: To compare the differences in presentation and outcome of patients with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and cryptococcal meningitis (CCM). STUDY DESIGN: Case series. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from December 1995 to December 2005. METHODOLOGY: Patients with a confirmed diagnosis of TBM or CCM were included in this study. The signs and symptoms, laboratory findings and other variables of patients were entered and analyzed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Software version 14. RESULTS: We compared 16 patients of TBM with 11 of CCM. None of the patients with TBM were Human Immunodeficiency ...


Sepsis Management: An Evidence-Based Approach., Muhammad Akbar Baig, Hira Shahzad, Bushra Jamil, Erfan Hussain 2017 Aga Khan University

Sepsis Management: An Evidence-Based Approach., Muhammad Akbar Baig, Hira Shahzad, Bushra Jamil, Erfan Hussain

Bushra Jamil

The Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) guidelines have outlined an early goal directed therapy (EGDT) which demonstrates a standardized approach to ensure prompt and effective management of sepsis. Having said that, there are barriers associated with the application of evidence-based practice, which often lead to an overall poorer adherence to guidelines. Considering the global burden of disease, data from low- to middle-income countries is scarce. Asia is the largest continent but most Asian countries do not have a well-developed healthcare system and compliance rates to resuscitation and management bundles are as low as 7.6% and 3.5%, respectively. Intensive care ...


Mortality In Sepsis And Its Relationship With Gender., Nosheen Nasir, Bushra Jamil, Shahla Siddiqui, Fauzia A. Khan, Rabia Hussain 2017 Aga Khan University

Mortality In Sepsis And Its Relationship With Gender., Nosheen Nasir, Bushra Jamil, Shahla Siddiqui, Fauzia A. Khan, Rabia Hussain

Bushra Jamil

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:

Sepsis remains a leading cause of death across the world, carrying a mortality rate of 20-50%. Women have been reported to be less likely to suffer from sepsis and to have a lower risk of mortality from sepsis compared to men. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between gender and mortality in sepsis, and compare cytokine profiles of male and female patients.

METHODS:

This was a prospective case series on 97 patients admitted with sepsis. Clinical and microbiological data was gathered, blood samples were collected for cytokine (IL-10, IL-6 and TNFα) levels and ...


Guidelines For The Initial Management Of Adults With Sepsis/Severe Sepsis/Septic Shock: 2015, Erfan Hussain, Bushra Jamil, Naseem Salahuddin 2017 Aga Khan University

Guidelines For The Initial Management Of Adults With Sepsis/Severe Sepsis/Septic Shock: 2015, Erfan Hussain, Bushra Jamil, Naseem Salahuddin

Bushra Jamil

No abstract provided.


An Unusual Pathogen Causing Native Valve Endocarditis., Aneela Hussain, Nosheen Nasir, Bushra Jamil 2017 Aga Khan University

An Unusual Pathogen Causing Native Valve Endocarditis., Aneela Hussain, Nosheen Nasir, Bushra Jamil

Bushra Jamil

No abstract provided.


A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis On Herpes Zoster And The Risk Of Cardiac And Cerebrovascular Events, Nathaniel Erskine, Hoang Tran, Len L. Levin, Christine M. Ulbricht, Joyce D. Fingeroth, Catarina I. Kiefe, Robert J. Goldberg, Sonal Singh 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis On Herpes Zoster And The Risk Of Cardiac And Cerebrovascular Events, Nathaniel Erskine, Hoang Tran, Len L. Levin, Christine M. Ulbricht, Joyce D. Fingeroth, Catarina I. Kiefe, Robert J. Goldberg, Sonal Singh

Len Levin

BACKGROUND: Patients who develop herpes zoster or herpes zoster ophthalmicus may be at risk for cerebrovascular and cardiac complications. We systematically reviewed the published literature to determine the association between herpes zoster and its subtypes with the occurrence of cerebrovascular and cardiac events.

METHODS/RESULTS: Systematic searches of PubMed (MEDLINE), SCOPUS (Embase) and Google Scholar were performed in December 2016. Eligible studies were cohort, case-control, and self-controlled case-series examining the association between herpes zoster or subtypes of herpes zoster with the occurrence of cerebrovascular and cardiac events including stroke, transient ischemic attack, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction. Data on ...


Child Contact Management In High Tuberculosis Burden Countries: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review, Daria Szkwarko, Yael Hirsch-Moverman, Lienki Du Plessis, Karen Du Preez, Catherine W. Carr, Anna M. Mandalakas 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Child Contact Management In High Tuberculosis Burden Countries: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review, Daria Szkwarko, Yael Hirsch-Moverman, Lienki Du Plessis, Karen Du Preez, Catherine W. Carr, Anna M. Mandalakas

Library Publications and Presentations

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Considering the World Health Organization recommendation to implement child contact management (CCM) for TB, we conducted a mixed-methods systematic review to summarize CCM implementation, challenges, predictors, and recommendations. We searched the electronic databases of PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science for studies published between 1996-2017 that reported CCM data from high TB-burden countries. Protocol details for this systematic review were registered on PROSPERO: International prospective register of systematic reviews (#CRD42016038105). We formulated a search strategy to identify all available studies, published in English that specifically targeted a) population ...


A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis On Herpes Zoster And The Risk Of Cardiac And Cerebrovascular Events, Nathaniel Erskine, Hoang Tran, Len L. Levin, Christine M. Ulbricht, Joyce D. Fingeroth, Catarina I. Kiefe, Robert J. Goldberg, Sonal Singh 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis On Herpes Zoster And The Risk Of Cardiac And Cerebrovascular Events, Nathaniel Erskine, Hoang Tran, Len L. Levin, Christine M. Ulbricht, Joyce D. Fingeroth, Catarina I. Kiefe, Robert J. Goldberg, Sonal Singh

Library Publications and Presentations

BACKGROUND: Patients who develop herpes zoster or herpes zoster ophthalmicus may be at risk for cerebrovascular and cardiac complications. We systematically reviewed the published literature to determine the association between herpes zoster and its subtypes with the occurrence of cerebrovascular and cardiac events.

METHODS/RESULTS: Systematic searches of PubMed (MEDLINE), SCOPUS (Embase) and Google Scholar were performed in December 2016. Eligible studies were cohort, case-control, and self-controlled case-series examining the association between herpes zoster or subtypes of herpes zoster with the occurrence of cerebrovascular and cardiac events including stroke, transient ischemic attack, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction. Data on ...


Recurrent Clostridium Difficile Infection Among Medicare Patients In Nursing Homes: A Population-Based Cohort Study, Marya D. Zilberberg, Andrew F. Shorr, William M. Jesdale, Jennifer Tjia, Kate L. Lapane 2017 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Recurrent Clostridium Difficile Infection Among Medicare Patients In Nursing Homes: A Population-Based Cohort Study, Marya D. Zilberberg, Andrew F. Shorr, William M. Jesdale, Jennifer Tjia, Kate L. Lapane

Jennifer Tjia

We explored the epidemiology and outcomes of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) recurrence among Medicare patients in a nursing home (NH) whose CDI originated in acute care hospitals. We conducted a retrospective, population-based matched cohort combining Medicare claims with Minimum Data Set 3.0, including all hospitalized patients age > /=65 years transferred to an NH after hospitalization with CDI 1/2011-11/2012. Incident CDI was defined as ICD-9-CM code 008.45 with no others in prior 60 days. CDI recurrence was defined as (within 60 days of last day of CDI treatment): oral metronidazole, oral vancomycin, or fidaxomicin for > /=3 days ...


Risk Factors For Bk Virus Infection After Kidney Transplantation, London, Ontario 2016, Seyed M Hosseini-Moghaddam 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Risk Factors For Bk Virus Infection After Kidney Transplantation, London, Ontario 2016, Seyed M Hosseini-Moghaddam

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Our objective was to determine the risk factors for BK virus infection in renal allograft recipients in the first year after transplantation. In this cohort, we included all patients who received renal allograft at London Health Sciences Centre (LHSC) between 2012 and 2014. We continued post-transplantation follow-up for one year. Of 175 patients (37% female) with median age (range) of 53 (14-82) years, 40 (22.9%) developed BK viremia (median interval:100 days, range: 35-264). Recipient age, recipient gender, hemodialysis (HD) vs peritoneal dialysis (PD), Human Leukocyte Antigens A1, B35 and Cw4 increased the risk of post-transplant BKV infection. However ...


Association Of C-Reactive Protein With Bacterial And Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Associated Pneumonia Among Children Aged <5 Years In The Perch Study., Melissa M Higdon, Tham Le, Katherine L O'Brien, David R Murdoch, Christine Prosperi, Henry C Baggett, Daniel E Park, +several additional authors 2017 George Washington University

Association Of C-Reactive Protein With Bacterial And Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Associated Pneumonia Among Children Aged <5 Years In The Perch Study., Melissa M Higdon, Tham Le, Katherine L O'Brien, David R Murdoch, Christine Prosperi, Henry C Baggett, Daniel E Park, +Several Additional Authors

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

Background.

Lack of a gold standard for identifying bacterial and viral etiologies of pneumonia has limited evaluation of C-reactive protein (CRP) for identifying bacterial pneumonia. We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of CRP for identifying bacterial vs respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) pneumonia in the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) multicenter case-control study. Methods.

We measured serum CRP levels in cases with World Health Organization–defined severe or very severe pneumonia and a subset of community controls. We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of elevated CRP for “confirmed” bacterial pneumonia (positive blood culture or positive lung aspirate or pleural ...


The Diagnostic Utility Of Induced Sputum Microscopy And Culture In Childhood Pneumonia., David R Murdoch, Susan C Morpeth, Laura L Hammitt, Amanda J Driscoll, Nora L Watson, Daniel E Park, +several additional authors 2017 George Washington University

The Diagnostic Utility Of Induced Sputum Microscopy And Culture In Childhood Pneumonia., David R Murdoch, Susan C Morpeth, Laura L Hammitt, Amanda J Driscoll, Nora L Watson, Daniel E Park, +Several Additional Authors

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

Background.

Sputum microscopy and culture are commonly used for diagnosing the cause of pneumonia in adults but are rarely performed in children due to difficulties in obtaining specimens. Induced sputum is occasionally used to investigate lower respiratory infections in children but has not been widely used in pneumonia etiology studies. Methods.

We evaluated the diagnostic utility of induced sputum microscopy and culture in patients enrolled in the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) study, a large study of community-acquired pneumonia in children aged 1–59 months. Comparisons were made between induced sputum samples from hospitalized children with radiographically confirmed ...


Microscopic Analysis And Quality Assessment Of Induced Sputum From Children With Pneumonia In The Perch Study., David R Murdoch, Susan C Morpeth, Laura L Hammitt, Amanda J Driscoll, Daniel E Park, +several additional authors 2017 George Washington University

Microscopic Analysis And Quality Assessment Of Induced Sputum From Children With Pneumonia In The Perch Study., David R Murdoch, Susan C Morpeth, Laura L Hammitt, Amanda J Driscoll, Daniel E Park, +Several Additional Authors

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

Background.

It is standard practice for laboratories to assess the cellular quality of expectorated sputum specimens to check that they originated from the lower respiratory tract. The presence of low numbers of squamous epithelial cells (SECs) and high numbers of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells are regarded as indicative of a lower respiratory tract specimen. However, these quality ratings have never been evaluated for induced sputum specimens from children with suspected pneumonia. Methods.

We evaluated induced sputum Gram stain smears and cultures from hospitalized children aged 1–59 months enrolled in a large study of community-acquired pneumonia. We hypothesized that a specimen ...


Is Higher Viral Load In The Upper Respiratory Tract Associated With Severe Pneumonia? Findings From The Perch Study., Daniel R Feikin, Wei Fu, Daniel E Park, Qiyuan Shi, Melissa M Higdon, Henry C Baggett, +several additional authors 2017 George Washington University

Is Higher Viral Load In The Upper Respiratory Tract Associated With Severe Pneumonia? Findings From The Perch Study., Daniel R Feikin, Wei Fu, Daniel E Park, Qiyuan Shi, Melissa M Higdon, Henry C Baggett, +Several Additional Authors

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

Background.

The etiologic inference of identifying a pathogen in the upper respiratory tract (URT) of children with pneumonia is unclear. To determine if viral load could provide evidence of causality of pneumonia, we compared viral load in the URT of children with World Health Organization–defined severe and very severe pneumonia and age-matched community controls.

Methods.

In the 9 developing country sites, nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs from children with and without pneumonia were tested using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for 17 viruses. The association of viral load with case status was evaluated using logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves ...


Data Management And Data Quality In Perch, A Large International Case-Control Study Of Severe Childhood Pneumonia., Nora L Watson, Christine Prosperi, Amanda J Driscoll, Melissa M Higdon, Daniel E Park, Megan Sanza, Andrea N DeLuca, Juliet O Awori, Doli Goswami, Emily Hammond, Lokman Hossain, Catherine Johnson, Alice Kamau, Locadiah Kuwanda, David P Moore, Omid Neyzari, Uma Onwuchekwa, David Parker, Patranuch Sapchookul 2017 George Washington University

Data Management And Data Quality In Perch, A Large International Case-Control Study Of Severe Childhood Pneumonia., Nora L Watson, Christine Prosperi, Amanda J Driscoll, Melissa M Higdon, Daniel E Park, Megan Sanza, Andrea N Deluca, Juliet O Awori, Doli Goswami, Emily Hammond, Lokman Hossain, Catherine Johnson, Alice Kamau, Locadiah Kuwanda, David P Moore, Omid Neyzari, Uma Onwuchekwa, David Parker, Patranuch Sapchookul

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

The Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) study is the largest multicountry etiology study of pediatric pneumonia undertaken in the past 3 decades. The study enrolled 4232 hospitalized cases and 5325 controls over 2 years across 9 research sites in 7 countries in Africa and Asia. The volume and complexity of data collection in PERCH presented considerable logistical and technical challenges. The project chose an internet-based data entry system to allow real-time access to the data, enabling the project to monitor and clean incoming data and perform preliminary analyses throughout the study. To ensure high-quality data, the project developed ...


Safety Of Induced Sputum Collection In Children Hospitalized With Severe Or Very Severe Pneumonia., Andrea N DeLuca, Laura L Hammitt, Julia Kim, Melissa M Higdon, Henry C Baggett, Daniel E Park, +several additional authors 2017 George Washington University

Safety Of Induced Sputum Collection In Children Hospitalized With Severe Or Very Severe Pneumonia., Andrea N Deluca, Laura L Hammitt, Julia Kim, Melissa M Higdon, Henry C Baggett, Daniel E Park, +Several Additional Authors

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

Background.: Induced sputum (IS) may provide diagnostic information about the etiology of pneumonia. The safety of this procedure across a heterogeneous population with severe pneumonia in low- and middle-income countries has not been described.

Methods.: IS specimens were obtained as part a 7-country study of the etiology of severe and very severe pneumonia in hospitalized childrenbefore, during, and after the procedure to record oxygen requirement, oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, consciousness level, and other evidence of clinical deterioration. Criteria for IS contraindications were predefined and serious adverse events (SAEs) were reported to ethics committees and a central safety monitor.

Results.: A ...


Standardization Of Clinical Assessment And Sample Collection Across All Perch Study Sites., Jane Crawley, Christine Prosperi, Henry C Baggett, W Abdullah Brooks, Maria Deloria Knoll, Daniel E Park, +several additional authors 2017 George Washington University

Standardization Of Clinical Assessment And Sample Collection Across All Perch Study Sites., Jane Crawley, Christine Prosperi, Henry C Baggett, W Abdullah Brooks, Maria Deloria Knoll, Daniel E Park, +Several Additional Authors

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

Background.: Variable adherence to standardized case definitions, clinical procedures, specimen collection techniques, and laboratory methods has complicated the interpretation of previous multicenter pneumonia etiology studies. To circumvent these problems, a program of clinical standardization was embedded in the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) study.

Methods.: Between March 2011 and August 2013, standardized training on the PERCH case definition, clinical procedures, and collection of laboratory specimens was delivered to 331 clinical staff at 9 study sites in 7 countries (The Gambia, Kenya, Mali, South Africa, Zambia, Thailand, and Bangladesh), through 32 on-site courses and a training website. Staff competency ...


Strategic Approach Of An Urban 900-Bed Academic Medical Center To Combat Clostridium Difficile Infection Transmission Using Staff Engagement, Courtney Mitchell, MPH, Kelly Zabriskie, CIC 2017 Thomas Jefferson University

Strategic Approach Of An Urban 900-Bed Academic Medical Center To Combat Clostridium Difficile Infection Transmission Using Staff Engagement, Courtney Mitchell, Mph, Kelly Zabriskie, Cic

Department of Medicine Posters

BACKGROUND

  • Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) caused nearly 500,000 illnesses with 29,000 deaths in the United States
  • Preventing hospital-associated Clostridium difficile infection (HA-CDI) is crucial to modern healthcare systems for reducing mortality, healthcare costs and length of stay
  • There are multiple risk factors for CDI transmission in healthcare settings:
    • Failure to comply with hand hygiene
    • Ineffective equipment and surface cleaning
    • Diagnosis delays

Poster presented at: APIC 2017 in Portland Oregon, United States.


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