Building Up A Genomic Surveillance Platform For Sars-Cov-2 In The Middle Of A Pandemic: A True North-South Collaboration, Waqasuddin Khan, Furqan Kabir, Samiah Kanwar, Fatima Aziz, Sahrish Muneer, Adil Kalam, Mehdia Ali, Nadia Ansari, Fyezah Jehan, Muhammad Imran Nisar
Department of Paediatrics and Child Health
Next-generation sequencing technology has revolutionised pathogen surveillance over the last two decades. However, the benefits are not equitably distributed, with developing countries lagging far behind in acquiring the required technology and analytical capacity. Recent declines in the cost associated with sequencing-equipment and running consumables have created an opportunity for broader adoption. During the COVID-19 pandemic, rapid diagnostics development and DNA sequencing revolutionised the ability to diagnose and sequence SARS-CoV-2 rapidly. Socioeconomic inequalities substantially impact the ability to sequence SARS-CoV-2 strains and undermine a developing country's pandemic preparedness. Low- and middle-income countries face additional challenges in establishing, maintaining and expanding genomic …
Prevalence Of Comorbidities And Survival Analysis Of Covid-19 Patients – An Observational Study From A Tertiary Healthcare Center In North West Romania, Mihaela Simona Popoviciu, Lorena Paduraru, Roxana Adriana Stoica, Anca Pantea Stoian, Claudiu Teodorescu, Simona Cavalu
Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences
Objectives. The experience accumulated in the last two years shows that the prevention of COVID-19 in people with comorbidities (protective measures, vaccination, etc.) still remains a public health priority. In this context, the aim of our study was to perform a retrospective, observational study in order to assess the time-to-death and risk factors of mortality among COVID-19 patients. Materials and Methods. The study was conducted on 177 patients admitted to Oradea Emergency County Hospital, Bihor, Romania, between October and December 2021. Inclusion criteria were patients over 18 years positive for COVID-19 in upper respiratory tract samples using real-time PCR test. …
Best Therapeutic Practices In The Management Of Obstetric Sepsis, 2023 Titu Maiorescu University, Faculty of Medicine, Bucharest, Romania
Best Therapeutic Practices In The Management Of Obstetric Sepsis, Gabriel Petre Gorecki, Oana Denisa Balalau, Diana Elena Comandasu, Anca Daniela Stanescu, Dana Rodica Tomescu
Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences
Background. Physiological changes that occur during pregnancy make maternal sepsis a difficult condition to diagnose and treat, still having a fairly high mortality rate. Consequently, an early diagnosis and prompt therapeutic management of sepsis can significantly decrease mortality. The purpose of this study is to review literature data that present current practices in the management of obstetric sepsis. Methods. To collect the data required for the study, we performed a search of published articles in the PubMed and Google Scholar databases related to obstetric sepsis. Research paper articles from the period 2012-2022 were included in the analysis. In addition, 145 …
From Covid-19 To Long Covid; The Forms Of The Neurological Manifestations, 2023 Department of Pathology, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India
From Covid-19 To Long Covid; The Forms Of The Neurological Manifestations, Sana Ahuja, Sufian Zaheer
Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences
Ever since the SARS-CoV-2 infection was declared a global pandemic in 2020, numerous multisystemic manifestations have been discovered. The COVID-19 is known to cause a wide spectrum of neurological symptoms like fatigue, headache, brain fog, stroke, smell and taste disorders, encephalopathy and neurodegenerative disorders. The neurological manifestations are more prevalent in the post-COVID syndrome or long COVID. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence and WHO defined Ongoing Symptomatic COVID as 4-12 weeks post infection and post COVID-19 syndrome as persistence of symptoms beyond 12 weeks. So far there are limited data available regarding the pathophysiology of neurological symptoms …
Epidemiologic Understanding Of The Un Sustainable Development Goals, 2023 West Chester University of Pennsylvania
Epidemiologic Understanding Of The Un Sustainable Development Goals, Zeinab Baba
Sustainability Research & Practice Seminar Presentations
A Sustainability Research & Practice Seminar entitled "Epidemiologic Understanding of the UN Sustainable Development Goals," presented by Professor Zeinab Baba, Department of Public Health Sciences, West Chester University of Pennsylvania.
Risk Factors For Health Impairments In Children After Hospitalization For Acute Covid-19 Or Mis-C., 2023 Children's Mercy Hospital
Risk Factors For Health Impairments In Children After Hospitalization For Acute Covid-19 Or Mis-C., Aline B. Maddux, Cameron C. Young, Suden Kucukak, Laura D. Zambrano, Margaret M. Newhams, Caitlin K. Rollins, Natasha B. Halasa, Shira J. Gertz, Elizabeth H. Mack, Stephanie Schwartz, Michele Kong, Laura L. Loftis, Katherine Irby, Courtney M. Rowan, Keiko M. Tarquinio, Matt S. Zinter, Hillary Crandall, Natalie Z. Cvijanovich, Jennifer E. Schuster, Julie C. Fitzgerald, Mary A. Staat, Charlotte V. Hobbs, Ryan A. Nofziger, Steven Shein, Heidi Flori, Melissa L. Cullimore, Brandon M. Chatani, Emily R. Levy, Katri V. Typpo, Janet R. Hume, Angela P. Campbell, Adrienne G. Randolph, Overcoming Covid-19 Investigators
Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers
OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for persistent impairments after pediatric hospitalization for acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.
METHODS: Across 25 U.S. Overcoming COVID-19Network hospitals, we conducted a prospective cohort study of patients
RESULTS: Of 232 children with acute COVID-19, 71 (30.6%) had persistent symptoms and 50 (21.6%) had activity impairments at follow-up; for MIS-C (n = 241), 56 (23.2%) had persistent symptoms and 58 (24.1%) had activity impairments. In adjusted analyses of patients with acute COVID-19, receipt of mechanical ventilation was associated with persistent symptoms [aRR 1.83 …
Acute Aseptic Meningoencephalitis Due To Covid-19 In An Otherwise Healthy Patient: A Case Report, 2023 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley
Acute Aseptic Meningoencephalitis Due To Covid-19 In An Otherwise Healthy Patient: A Case Report, Shyama Appareddy, Norma Moncayo, Ronkino T. Mccoy, Jared Sperling, George Huddleston, Raza L. Kahn
Several studies have shown the extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19 disease caused by the SARS-CoV2 virus. Although extrapulmonary manifestation to the heart, kidney, blood, and skin are common, neurological and cerebrovascular manifestations are rare with most of these cases being described in patients who also have the pulmonary manifestation of the disease. Here we present the case of an 18 year-old male with no prior history of respiratory symptoms who presented to the emergency department with altered mental status. Neurology was consulted and the patient was started empirical on ceftriaxone, vancomycin, dexamethasone, and acyclovir for meningoencephalitis. Urine drug screen, head CT, …
Antibiotic Stewardship In Skin And Soft Tissue Infections, 2023 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley
Antibiotic Stewardship In Skin And Soft Tissue Infections, Shah Z. Ali, Stephen Gore, Jose E. Campo Maldonado
Introduction: Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are characterized by microbial invasion of the skin layers and are common in various healthcare settings. A study conducted between 2005-2010 in the United States, found a combined total of 2.3 million cases of SSTIs in ambulatory and inpatient settings. This was higher than the rates of pneumonia and urinary tract infections during the same time period. Another study found that between 2000 and 2012, there was a 40% increase (2.4 million to 3.3 million) in cases of SSTIs. Our aim is to study the primary uses of vancomycin and piperacillin/tazobactam and their …
Rare Case Of Prosthetic Joint Infection Caused By Salmonella Enterica - A Case Report, 2023 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley
Rare Case Of Prosthetic Joint Infection Caused By Salmonella Enterica - A Case Report, Carlos Ramos, Shyama Appareddy, Peter J. Gonzalez
Introduction: Collectively, over 1 million total knee arthroplasties (TKA) and total hip arthroplasties (THA) are performed in the United States each year. In 2010 it was estimated that 1.58% of the United States general population has received a TKA. Prosthetic joint infections (PJI) are the most common indication for a TKA revision1 . In total, S. aureus is responsible for about 50% of all prosthetic joint infections, and about 15% are caused by gram negative pathogens2 .
Objective: This is a case report which describes the presentation and clinical course of a 59-yearold female with Salmonella enterica septic arthritis of …
Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome In Children (Mis-C): Is There A Relationship To Typhus?, 2023 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley
Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome In Children (Mis-C): Is There A Relationship To Typhus?, Juliana Hager, Juliana Hager, Jacob Smith
The United Kingdom first reported in April 2020 a group of eight previously healthy children with a link to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) that presented with systemic inflammation and multi-organ involvement, now named multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). The Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have reported over 1000 cases since the primary discovery as of October 2020 with 20 total deaths.  The clinical features of MIS-C have been previously compared to inflammatory syndromes including Kawasaki disease (KD) and toxic shock syndrome (TSS). We describe the clinical presentation and management for 3 pediatric cases with …
Cmv? An Uncommon Etiology For Significant Disease In The Immunocompetent Individual, 2023 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley
Cmv? An Uncommon Etiology For Significant Disease In The Immunocompetent Individual, Ashley Sareen, Cade Call, Sonya Saenz
A 51-year-old Hispanic male with Type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia was admitted from the ED for evaluation of recurrent fevers, multiple joint pains, and tachycardia. Physical exam findings included cachectic appearance and right inguinal lymphadenopathy. Initial laboratory testing was significant for a WBC of 23,300 (80.2% neutrophils, 13.3% lymphocytes), Hb of 11.1, HCT of 33.1, and ESR of 120. Chest x-ray reported no acute findings and x-ray imaging of affected joints were unremarkable. Blood and urine cultures would eventually return negative. Despite acetaminophen and broad-spectrum antibiotic use, the patient continued with fevers and tachycardia, prompting further infectious and rheumatological …
Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia In A Newly Diagnosed Aids Geriatric Patient, 2023 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley
Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia In A Newly Diagnosed Aids Geriatric Patient, Ashley Sareen, Nathan Tanner, James Fahey
Background: Approximately 40% of new HIV infections originate from people who are unaware of their diagnosis. Median time from infection to diagnosis was 3 years in 2015. Cases of newly diagnosed HIV in the geriatric population are rare.
Case Presentation: 71 year old Hispanic man with history of diabetes and anemia presenting to the hospital with generalized weakness, presyncopal episodes, shortness of breath, loose stools, and falls for past two weeks. He is a poor historian so wife contacted to provide detailed history. Patient with 100 pound weight loss in 6 months. Intravenous drug use 30 years ago, and blood …
Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections: Patient Characteristics, Treatment, And Clinical Outcomes In One South Texas Acute Care Hospital, 2023 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley
Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections: Patient Characteristics, Treatment, And Clinical Outcomes In One South Texas Acute Care Hospital, Kimberly A. Ambrosini, Jose Campo Maldonado
Background: Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CA-UTIs) account for 40 percent of nosocomial infections worldwide. Their elimination is at the forefront of quality improvement in one South Texas acute care hospital.
Methods: Over a period of 6 months, five CA-UTIs occurred in one South Texas acute care hospital. These cases were identified via regular surveillance by Infection Prevention staff and the Laboratory Department of the hospital. This research reviews patient age, sex, length of stay, bacteria contracted, appropriate antibiotic use, patient characteristics, and overall outcomes.
Results: Between the months of July and December 2021, 5 CAUTIs were contracted. Patients ranged in …
A Simple Case Of Viral Myopericarditis Or A Complication Of Monoclonal Antibody Infusion?, 2023 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley
A Simple Case Of Viral Myopericarditis Or A Complication Of Monoclonal Antibody Infusion?, Jose A. Rivera, Michael Menowsky
Background: Myocarditis has been a rare, but well-documented side effect of the mRNA-based vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 as well as a complication of viral infections including SARS-CoV-2. However, myopericarditis as a complication of monoclonal antibody infusion or as complication of allergic reaction to antibody infusions might be and underreported.
Case presentation: In this case, we report a 30-year-old man with a previous diagnosis of COVID infection 1 week prior to presentation, unvaccinated for SARS-CoV-2 who was referred from a monoclonal infusion center where he received casirivimab and imdevimab and 15 minutes after infusion began to complain of chills, chest pain, shortness …
Covid-19 As A Second Hit For Anti-Phospholipid Syndrome, 2023 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley
Covid-19 As A Second Hit For Anti-Phospholipid Syndrome, Himabindu Kolli, Pooja Maknoor, Celin Rajan, Nevin Varghese
Background: Anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by venous and arterial thrombosis, usually in setting of underlying autoimmune disorders. Here, we present a case of anti-phospholipid syndrome post covid infection.
Case Presentation: 41-year-old lady presented to the ER with complaints of left sided facial droop for 3-day duration. On further evaluation, she was found to have subacute ischemic stroke and was managed with anticoagulation and supportive treatment. Past medical history is significant for a recent diagnosis of Covid infection and for subsequent development of lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT). She was started on anticoagulation with rivaroxaban for …
Comparison Of Bacterial Culture With Biofire® Filmarray® Multiplex Pcr Screening Of Archived Cerebrospinal Fluid Specimens From Children With Suspected Bacterial Meningitis In Nigeria, 2023 Thomas Jefferson University
Comparison Of Bacterial Culture With Biofire® Filmarray® Multiplex Pcr Screening Of Archived Cerebrospinal Fluid Specimens From Children With Suspected Bacterial Meningitis In Nigeria, S Obaro, F Hassan-Hanga, N Medugu, Rasaq Olaosebikan, G Olanipekun, B Jibir, S Gambo, Theresa Ajose, Carissa Duru, B Ebruke, H D Davies
Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Faculty Papers
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of bacterial meningitis remains a challenge in most developing countries due to low yield from bacterial culture, widespread use of non-prescription antibiotics, and weak microbiology laboratories. The objective of this study was to compare the yield from standard bacterial culture with the multiplex nested PCR platform, the BioFire® FilmArray® Meningitis/Encephalitis Panel (BioFire ME Panel), for cases with suspected acute bacterial meningitis.
METHODS: Following Gram stain and bacterial culture on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected from children aged less than 5 years with a clinical suspicion of acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) as defined by the WHO guidelines, residual CSF specimens …
Increasing Vaccination Rates Of 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine Among Patients At High-Risk For Invasive Pneumococcal Disease., 2023 Children's Mercy Kansas City
Increasing Vaccination Rates Of 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine Among Patients At High-Risk For Invasive Pneumococcal Disease., Edward Lyon, Tracey Wetzel, Ann L. Wirtz, Douglas Swanson, Rachel Moran, Jessica Peters, Christine Symes, Liset Olarte, Rana El Feghaly
Introduction: Pneumococcal disease causes significant morbidity and mortality in children. Routine childhood immunizations protect for 13 or 15 pneumococcal serotypes via two pneumococcal conjugated vaccines. Patients with immunocompromising and chronic medical conditions are at high risk of invasive pneumococcal disease. A 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) is recommended in these patients to protect against more pneumococcal serotypes, but many patients have not received it. Our AIM is to increase PPSV23 vaccination rates among eligible patients in both the inpatient and outpatient infectious diseases (ID) settings from a baseline of 44% to 55% by October 2024. Methods: In collaboration with Children’s …
Factors Associated With Respiratory Pathogen Panel Utilization In Children Hospitalized With Acute Respiratory Illness — New Vaccine Surveillance Network, Kansas City, 2017–2021, 2023 Children's Mercy Kansas City
Factors Associated With Respiratory Pathogen Panel Utilization In Children Hospitalized With Acute Respiratory Illness — New Vaccine Surveillance Network, Kansas City, 2017–2021, Edward Lyon, Brian R. Lee, Benjamin Clopper, Heidi L. Moline, Rangaraj Selvarangan, Jennifer Schuster
Background: Respiratory pathogen panels (RPP) are multiplex PCR platforms that detect several respiratory viruses from one specimen. For most children hospitalized with acute respiratory illness (ARI), management is supportive, and detection of a specific virus from RPP does not impact clinical care. Therefore, clinical RPP use is not standardized, and ordering is at the discretion of the clinician. We sought to understand factors associated with RPP utilization among pediatric patients hospitalized with ARI. Methods: From October 2017 to September 2021, participants < 18 years hospitalized with ARI were enrolled at a single site in the New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN). Eligible patients were residents of Jackson County, MO, had one or more ARI symptoms (e.g., cough, fever, nasal congestion) lasting < 14 days, and were enrolled within 48 hours of admission. Parent interviews and medical chart reviews were conducted. All participants had a research RPP, but results were not available to the clinical providers. Clinical providers were able to order a clinical RPP (cRPP), for which they received test results. Characteristics of NVSN enrollees hospitalized with ARI with and without a cRPP are described. Lastly, medical complexity was assessed via the pediatric complex chronic conditions classification system (CCC) then analyzed via chi- square test between groups. Findings: During the study period, 1,038 participants were enrolled, and 555 (53.4%) received a cRPP. Most, 299 (53%), cRPPs were ordered in the emergency department or urgent care before admission. Age was a significant factor associated with cRPP use (Table 1). cRPP participants were more likely to have complex chronic conditions, and/or technology dependence. No difference in cRPP use was observed by race/ethnicity, payer status, or sex. More participants were enrolled in 2020-2021, but the overall usage of cRPP is similar between years (Table 2). Conclusions: In this large cohort of children hospitalized with ARI, medical complexity, technological dependence, and age < 2 months were associated with increased utilization of cRPPs. Understanding the impact of cRPP on clinical care requires further investigation to better understand the utility of these tests.
Reducing The Rate Of Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections; A Quality Improvement Project, 2023 Aga Khan University
Reducing The Rate Of Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections; A Quality Improvement Project, David Odaba, Hellen Munyi, Japhet Gatuiku, Ruth Thuku, Jared Nyandigisi, Anne Wangui, Emilie Ashihundu, Beatrice Nyakiringa, Jemimah Kimeu, Martin Musumbi, Rodney Adam
Internal Medicine, East Africa
Background The burden of central line-associated bloodstream infections is significant and has negative implications for healthcare, increasing morbidity and mortality risks, increasing inpatient hospital stays, and increasing the cost of hospitalization. Efforts to reduce the incidence of central line-associated bloodstream infections have utilized quality improvement projects that implement, measure, and monitor outcomes. However, variations in location, healthcare organization, patient risks, and practice gaps are key to the success of interventions and approaches. This study aims to evaluate interventions of a quality improvement project on the reduction of central line-associated bloodstream infection rates at a university teaching hospital.
Methods This was …
Manajemen Koinfeksi Malaria Berat Dengan Hiv Belum Mendapat Terapi Antiretrovirus Di Era Pandemi Covid-19: Sebuah Laporan Kasus, 2023 Departemen Ilmu Penyakit Dalam, Rumah Sakit Umum Bethesda, Tomohon, Indonesia
Manajemen Koinfeksi Malaria Berat Dengan Hiv Belum Mendapat Terapi Antiretrovirus Di Era Pandemi Covid-19: Sebuah Laporan Kasus, Paul Harijanto, Rosye Mawuntu, Novia Rusli, Randy Adiwinata, Agung Nugroho
Jurnal Penyakit Dalam Indonesia
Severe malaria is a serious infectious disease that required immediate diagnosis and prompt treatment. Severe malaria may result several organ failures which is similar with other infectious diseases like SARS-CoV-2, sepsis, dengue, and HIV infection. Most of those infection have similar symptoms such as fever, myalgia, and headache, therefore physician should have high suspicion regarding co-infection with other infectious agents. The overlapping symptoms of co-infections may become a challenge for physician in diagnosing and delivering prompt therapy. Failure to deliver prompt treatment may lead to fatal outcome such as in severe malaria case. Stigmatization of all patients with fever and …