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518 full-text articles. Page 1 of 22.

Tuberculous And Cryptococcal Meningitis In A Setting With High Tb And Low Hiv Prevalence, Afrasyab Khan, Bushra Jamil, Rahmat Ali, Sana Sultan 2017 Aga Khan University

Tuberculous And Cryptococcal Meningitis In A Setting With High Tb And Low Hiv Prevalence, Afrasyab Khan, Bushra Jamil, Rahmat Ali, Sana Sultan

Bushra Jamil

OBJECTIVE: To compare the differences in presentation and outcome of patients with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and cryptococcal meningitis (CCM). STUDY DESIGN: Case series. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from December 1995 to December 2005. METHODOLOGY: Patients with a confirmed diagnosis of TBM or CCM were included in this study. The signs and symptoms, laboratory findings and other variables of patients were entered and analyzed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Software version 14. RESULTS: We compared 16 patients of TBM with 11 of CCM. None of the patients with TBM were Human Immunodeficiency ...


Sepsis Management: An Evidence-Based Approach., Muhammad Akbar Baig, Hira Shahzad, Bushra Jamil, Erfan Hussain 2017 Aga Khan University

Sepsis Management: An Evidence-Based Approach., Muhammad Akbar Baig, Hira Shahzad, Bushra Jamil, Erfan Hussain

Bushra Jamil

The Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) guidelines have outlined an early goal directed therapy (EGDT) which demonstrates a standardized approach to ensure prompt and effective management of sepsis. Having said that, there are barriers associated with the application of evidence-based practice, which often lead to an overall poorer adherence to guidelines. Considering the global burden of disease, data from low- to middle-income countries is scarce. Asia is the largest continent but most Asian countries do not have a well-developed healthcare system and compliance rates to resuscitation and management bundles are as low as 7.6% and 3.5%, respectively. Intensive care ...


Mortality In Sepsis And Its Relationship With Gender., Nosheen Nasir, Bushra Jamil, Shahla Siddiqui, Fauzia A. Khan, Rabia Hussain 2017 Aga Khan University

Mortality In Sepsis And Its Relationship With Gender., Nosheen Nasir, Bushra Jamil, Shahla Siddiqui, Fauzia A. Khan, Rabia Hussain

Bushra Jamil

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:

Sepsis remains a leading cause of death across the world, carrying a mortality rate of 20-50%. Women have been reported to be less likely to suffer from sepsis and to have a lower risk of mortality from sepsis compared to men. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between gender and mortality in sepsis, and compare cytokine profiles of male and female patients.

METHODS:

This was a prospective case series on 97 patients admitted with sepsis. Clinical and microbiological data was gathered, blood samples were collected for cytokine (IL-10, IL-6 and TNFα) levels and ...


Guidelines For The Initial Management Of Adults With Sepsis/Severe Sepsis/Septic Shock: 2015, Erfan Hussain, Bushra Jamil, Naseem Salahuddin 2017 Aga Khan University

Guidelines For The Initial Management Of Adults With Sepsis/Severe Sepsis/Septic Shock: 2015, Erfan Hussain, Bushra Jamil, Naseem Salahuddin

Bushra Jamil

No abstract provided.


An Unusual Pathogen Causing Native Valve Endocarditis., Aneela Hussain, Nosheen Nasir, Bushra Jamil 2017 Aga Khan University

An Unusual Pathogen Causing Native Valve Endocarditis., Aneela Hussain, Nosheen Nasir, Bushra Jamil

Bushra Jamil

No abstract provided.


A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis On Herpes Zoster And The Risk Of Cardiac And Cerebrovascular Events, Nathaniel Erskine, Hoang Tran, Len L. Levin, Christine M. Ulbricht, Joyce D. Fingeroth, Catarina I. Kiefe, Robert J. Goldberg, Sonal Singh 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis On Herpes Zoster And The Risk Of Cardiac And Cerebrovascular Events, Nathaniel Erskine, Hoang Tran, Len L. Levin, Christine M. Ulbricht, Joyce D. Fingeroth, Catarina I. Kiefe, Robert J. Goldberg, Sonal Singh

Len Levin

BACKGROUND: Patients who develop herpes zoster or herpes zoster ophthalmicus may be at risk for cerebrovascular and cardiac complications. We systematically reviewed the published literature to determine the association between herpes zoster and its subtypes with the occurrence of cerebrovascular and cardiac events.

METHODS/RESULTS: Systematic searches of PubMed (MEDLINE), SCOPUS (Embase) and Google Scholar were performed in December 2016. Eligible studies were cohort, case-control, and self-controlled case-series examining the association between herpes zoster or subtypes of herpes zoster with the occurrence of cerebrovascular and cardiac events including stroke, transient ischemic attack, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction. Data on ...


Child Contact Management In High Tuberculosis Burden Countries: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review, Daria Szkwarko, Yael Hirsch-Moverman, Lienki Du Plessis, Karen Du Preez, Catherine W. Carr, Anna M. Mandalakas 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Child Contact Management In High Tuberculosis Burden Countries: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review, Daria Szkwarko, Yael Hirsch-Moverman, Lienki Du Plessis, Karen Du Preez, Catherine W. Carr, Anna M. Mandalakas

Library Publications and Presentations

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Considering the World Health Organization recommendation to implement child contact management (CCM) for TB, we conducted a mixed-methods systematic review to summarize CCM implementation, challenges, predictors, and recommendations. We searched the electronic databases of PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science for studies published between 1996-2017 that reported CCM data from high TB-burden countries. Protocol details for this systematic review were registered on PROSPERO: International prospective register of systematic reviews (#CRD42016038105). We formulated a search strategy to identify all available studies, published in English that specifically targeted a) population ...


A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis On Herpes Zoster And The Risk Of Cardiac And Cerebrovascular Events, Nathaniel Erskine, Hoang Tran, Len L. Levin, Christine M. Ulbricht, Joyce D. Fingeroth, Catarina I. Kiefe, Robert J. Goldberg, Sonal Singh 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis On Herpes Zoster And The Risk Of Cardiac And Cerebrovascular Events, Nathaniel Erskine, Hoang Tran, Len L. Levin, Christine M. Ulbricht, Joyce D. Fingeroth, Catarina I. Kiefe, Robert J. Goldberg, Sonal Singh

Library Publications and Presentations

BACKGROUND: Patients who develop herpes zoster or herpes zoster ophthalmicus may be at risk for cerebrovascular and cardiac complications. We systematically reviewed the published literature to determine the association between herpes zoster and its subtypes with the occurrence of cerebrovascular and cardiac events.

METHODS/RESULTS: Systematic searches of PubMed (MEDLINE), SCOPUS (Embase) and Google Scholar were performed in December 2016. Eligible studies were cohort, case-control, and self-controlled case-series examining the association between herpes zoster or subtypes of herpes zoster with the occurrence of cerebrovascular and cardiac events including stroke, transient ischemic attack, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction. Data on ...


Recurrent Clostridium Difficile Infection Among Medicare Patients In Nursing Homes: A Population-Based Cohort Study, Marya D. Zilberberg, Andrew F. Shorr, William M. Jesdale, Jennifer Tjia, Kate L. Lapane 2017 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Recurrent Clostridium Difficile Infection Among Medicare Patients In Nursing Homes: A Population-Based Cohort Study, Marya D. Zilberberg, Andrew F. Shorr, William M. Jesdale, Jennifer Tjia, Kate L. Lapane

Jennifer Tjia

We explored the epidemiology and outcomes of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) recurrence among Medicare patients in a nursing home (NH) whose CDI originated in acute care hospitals. We conducted a retrospective, population-based matched cohort combining Medicare claims with Minimum Data Set 3.0, including all hospitalized patients age > /=65 years transferred to an NH after hospitalization with CDI 1/2011-11/2012. Incident CDI was defined as ICD-9-CM code 008.45 with no others in prior 60 days. CDI recurrence was defined as (within 60 days of last day of CDI treatment): oral metronidazole, oral vancomycin, or fidaxomicin for > /=3 days ...


Association Of C-Reactive Protein With Bacterial And Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Associated Pneumonia Among Children Aged <5 Years In The Perch Study., Melissa M Higdon, Tham Le, Katherine L O'Brien, David R Murdoch, Christine Prosperi, Henry C Baggett, Daniel E Park, +several additional authors 2017 George Washington University

Association Of C-Reactive Protein With Bacterial And Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Associated Pneumonia Among Children Aged <5 Years In The Perch Study., Melissa M Higdon, Tham Le, Katherine L O'Brien, David R Murdoch, Christine Prosperi, Henry C Baggett, Daniel E Park, +Several Additional Authors

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

Background.

Lack of a gold standard for identifying bacterial and viral etiologies of pneumonia has limited evaluation of C-reactive protein (CRP) for identifying bacterial pneumonia. We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of CRP for identifying bacterial vs respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) pneumonia in the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) multicenter case-control study. Methods.

We measured serum CRP levels in cases with World Health Organization–defined severe or very severe pneumonia and a subset of community controls. We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of elevated CRP for “confirmed” bacterial pneumonia (positive blood culture or positive lung aspirate or pleural ...


Is Higher Viral Load In The Upper Respiratory Tract Associated With Severe Pneumonia? Findings From The Perch Study., Daniel R Feikin, Wei Fu, Daniel E Park, Qiyuan Shi, Melissa M Higdon, Henry C Baggett, +several additional authors 2017 George Washington University

Is Higher Viral Load In The Upper Respiratory Tract Associated With Severe Pneumonia? Findings From The Perch Study., Daniel R Feikin, Wei Fu, Daniel E Park, Qiyuan Shi, Melissa M Higdon, Henry C Baggett, +Several Additional Authors

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

Background.

The etiologic inference of identifying a pathogen in the upper respiratory tract (URT) of children with pneumonia is unclear. To determine if viral load could provide evidence of causality of pneumonia, we compared viral load in the URT of children with World Health Organization–defined severe and very severe pneumonia and age-matched community controls.

Methods.

In the 9 developing country sites, nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs from children with and without pneumonia were tested using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for 17 viruses. The association of viral load with case status was evaluated using logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves ...


Safety Of Induced Sputum Collection In Children Hospitalized With Severe Or Very Severe Pneumonia., Andrea N DeLuca, Laura L Hammitt, Julia Kim, Melissa M Higdon, Henry C Baggett, Daniel E Park, +several additional authors 2017 George Washington University

Safety Of Induced Sputum Collection In Children Hospitalized With Severe Or Very Severe Pneumonia., Andrea N Deluca, Laura L Hammitt, Julia Kim, Melissa M Higdon, Henry C Baggett, Daniel E Park, +Several Additional Authors

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

Background.: Induced sputum (IS) may provide diagnostic information about the etiology of pneumonia. The safety of this procedure across a heterogeneous population with severe pneumonia in low- and middle-income countries has not been described.

Methods.: IS specimens were obtained as part a 7-country study of the etiology of severe and very severe pneumonia in hospitalized childrenbefore, during, and after the procedure to record oxygen requirement, oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, consciousness level, and other evidence of clinical deterioration. Criteria for IS contraindications were predefined and serious adverse events (SAEs) were reported to ethics committees and a central safety monitor.

Results.: A ...


Standardization Of Clinical Assessment And Sample Collection Across All Perch Study Sites., Jane Crawley, Christine Prosperi, Henry C Baggett, W Abdullah Brooks, Maria Deloria Knoll, Daniel E Park, +several additional authors 2017 George Washington University

Standardization Of Clinical Assessment And Sample Collection Across All Perch Study Sites., Jane Crawley, Christine Prosperi, Henry C Baggett, W Abdullah Brooks, Maria Deloria Knoll, Daniel E Park, +Several Additional Authors

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

Background.: Variable adherence to standardized case definitions, clinical procedures, specimen collection techniques, and laboratory methods has complicated the interpretation of previous multicenter pneumonia etiology studies. To circumvent these problems, a program of clinical standardization was embedded in the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) study.

Methods.: Between March 2011 and August 2013, standardized training on the PERCH case definition, clinical procedures, and collection of laboratory specimens was delivered to 331 clinical staff at 9 study sites in 7 countries (The Gambia, Kenya, Mali, South Africa, Zambia, Thailand, and Bangladesh), through 32 on-site courses and a training website. Staff competency ...


The Diagnostic Utility Of Induced Sputum Microscopy And Culture In Childhood Pneumonia., David R Murdoch, Susan C Morpeth, Laura L Hammitt, Amanda J Driscoll, Nora L Watson, Daniel E Park, +several additional authors 2017 George Washington University

The Diagnostic Utility Of Induced Sputum Microscopy And Culture In Childhood Pneumonia., David R Murdoch, Susan C Morpeth, Laura L Hammitt, Amanda J Driscoll, Nora L Watson, Daniel E Park, +Several Additional Authors

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

Background.

Sputum microscopy and culture are commonly used for diagnosing the cause of pneumonia in adults but are rarely performed in children due to difficulties in obtaining specimens. Induced sputum is occasionally used to investigate lower respiratory infections in children but has not been widely used in pneumonia etiology studies. Methods.

We evaluated the diagnostic utility of induced sputum microscopy and culture in patients enrolled in the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) study, a large study of community-acquired pneumonia in children aged 1–59 months. Comparisons were made between induced sputum samples from hospitalized children with radiographically confirmed ...


Microscopic Analysis And Quality Assessment Of Induced Sputum From Children With Pneumonia In The Perch Study., David R Murdoch, Susan C Morpeth, Laura L Hammitt, Amanda J Driscoll, Daniel E Park, +several additional authors 2017 George Washington University

Microscopic Analysis And Quality Assessment Of Induced Sputum From Children With Pneumonia In The Perch Study., David R Murdoch, Susan C Morpeth, Laura L Hammitt, Amanda J Driscoll, Daniel E Park, +Several Additional Authors

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

Background.

It is standard practice for laboratories to assess the cellular quality of expectorated sputum specimens to check that they originated from the lower respiratory tract. The presence of low numbers of squamous epithelial cells (SECs) and high numbers of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells are regarded as indicative of a lower respiratory tract specimen. However, these quality ratings have never been evaluated for induced sputum specimens from children with suspected pneumonia. Methods.

We evaluated induced sputum Gram stain smears and cultures from hospitalized children aged 1–59 months enrolled in a large study of community-acquired pneumonia. We hypothesized that a specimen ...


Data Management And Data Quality In Perch, A Large International Case-Control Study Of Severe Childhood Pneumonia., Nora L Watson, Christine Prosperi, Amanda J Driscoll, Melissa M Higdon, Daniel E Park, Megan Sanza, Andrea N DeLuca, Juliet O Awori, Doli Goswami, Emily Hammond, Lokman Hossain, Catherine Johnson, Alice Kamau, Locadiah Kuwanda, David P Moore, Omid Neyzari, Uma Onwuchekwa, David Parker, Patranuch Sapchookul 2017 George Washington University

Data Management And Data Quality In Perch, A Large International Case-Control Study Of Severe Childhood Pneumonia., Nora L Watson, Christine Prosperi, Amanda J Driscoll, Melissa M Higdon, Daniel E Park, Megan Sanza, Andrea N Deluca, Juliet O Awori, Doli Goswami, Emily Hammond, Lokman Hossain, Catherine Johnson, Alice Kamau, Locadiah Kuwanda, David P Moore, Omid Neyzari, Uma Onwuchekwa, David Parker, Patranuch Sapchookul

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

The Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) study is the largest multicountry etiology study of pediatric pneumonia undertaken in the past 3 decades. The study enrolled 4232 hospitalized cases and 5325 controls over 2 years across 9 research sites in 7 countries in Africa and Asia. The volume and complexity of data collection in PERCH presented considerable logistical and technical challenges. The project chose an internet-based data entry system to allow real-time access to the data, enabling the project to monitor and clean incoming data and perform preliminary analyses throughout the study. To ensure high-quality data, the project developed ...


Emerging Antimicrobial Resistance In Early And Late-Onset Neonatal Sepsis, Lamiaa Mohnsen, Nermin Ramy, Dalia Saied, Dina Akmal, Niveen Salama, Mona Abdel Haleim, Hany Aly 2017 George Washington University

Emerging Antimicrobial Resistance In Early And Late-Onset Neonatal Sepsis, Lamiaa Mohnsen, Nermin Ramy, Dalia Saied, Dina Akmal, Niveen Salama, Mona Abdel Haleim, Hany Aly

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

Background

Compared to developed countries, the use of antimicrobials in Egypt is less regulated and is available over the counter without the need for prescriptions. The impact of such policy on antimicrobial resistance has not been studied. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of early and late onset sepsis, and the frequency of antimicrobial resistance in a major referral neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).

Methods

The study included all neonates admitted to the NICU over a 12-month period. Prospectively collected clinical and laboratory data were retrieved, including blood cultures and endotracheal aspirate cultures if performed.

Results

A total of ...


Association Of Hypercapnia On Admission With Increased Length Of Hospital Stay And Severity In Patients Admitted With Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A Prospective Observational Study From Pakistan., Nousheen Iqbal, Muhammad Irfan, Ali Bin Sarwar Zubairi, Safia Awan, Javaid Khan 2017 Aga Khan University

Association Of Hypercapnia On Admission With Increased Length Of Hospital Stay And Severity In Patients Admitted With Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A Prospective Observational Study From Pakistan., Nousheen Iqbal, Muhammad Irfan, Ali Bin Sarwar Zubairi, Safia Awan, Javaid Khan

Department of Medicine

Objectives: To determine whether the presence of hypercapnia on admission in adult patients admitted to a university-based hospital in Karachi, Pakistan with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) correlates with an increased length of hospital stay and severity compared with no hypercapnia on admission.

Study Design: A prospective observational study.

Settings: Tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan.

Methods: Patients who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study. The severity of pneumonia was assessed by CURB-65 and PSI scores. An arterial blood gas analysis was obtained within 24 hours of admission. Based on arterial PaCO2 levels, patients were divided into three ...


Seroprevalence Of Antibodies Against Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Among Hiv-Negative People In China, Tiejun Zhang, Zhenqiu Liu, Jun Wang, Veenu Minhas, Charles Wood, Gary M. Clifford, Na He, Silvia Franceschi 2017 Fudan University

Seroprevalence Of Antibodies Against Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Among Hiv-Negative People In China, Tiejun Zhang, Zhenqiu Liu, Jun Wang, Veenu Minhas, Charles Wood, Gary M. Clifford, Na He, Silvia Franceschi

Virology Papers

Background: Little information on the prevalence of Kaposi’s sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) among HIV-negative individuals is available from Asia.

Methods: In the present study, we report findings from a new survey of KSHV in 983 HIV-negative male migrants from Shanghai and their combination with previous similar surveys of 600 female migrants, 600 female sex-workers (FSW), 1336 sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic male patients, 439 intravenous drug-users (IVDU), and 226 men having sex with men (MSM) from China. KSHV-specific antibodies against latent and lytic antigens were assessed using Sf9 and BC3 monoclonal immunofluorescence assay. Age-adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) and 95 ...


The Presence Of Copd Does Not Influence Clinical Outcomes In Hospitalized Patients With Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Rosemeri Maurici, Alessandra Morello Gearhart, Vanessa Viríssimo Maciel, Forest Arnold, Francisco Fernandez, Annuradha K. Persaud, Stephen Furmanek, Timothy Wiemken, Julio Ramirez, Rodrigo Cavallazzi 2017 Postgraduate Program in Medical Sciences / Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil

The Presence Of Copd Does Not Influence Clinical Outcomes In Hospitalized Patients With Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Rosemeri Maurici, Alessandra Morello Gearhart, Vanessa Viríssimo Maciel, Forest Arnold, Francisco Fernandez, Annuradha K. Persaud, Stephen Furmanek, Timothy Wiemken, Julio Ramirez, Rodrigo Cavallazzi

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Introduction

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a leading cause of death worldwide. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a well-established risk factor for development of CAP. What is not as clear is the impact of COPD in the outcomes of patients with CAP. In this study, we compared the outcomes of CAP in COPD and non-COPD patients.

Methods

This was a retrospective cohort study. We conducted a secondary analysis of the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Organization (CAPO) international cohort study database, which includes patients with CAP admitted to several hospitals throughout the world. Outcomes were time to clinical stability, length of hospital stay ...


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