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Path To Resistance: Risk Factors Associated With Carbapenem-Resistant Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Kushal Patel, Jessica J.F. Kram, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2016 Department of Internal Medicine, Aurora Sinai Medical Center

Path To Resistance: Risk Factors Associated With Carbapenem-Resistant Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Kushal Patel, Jessica J.F. Kram, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Background: An estimated 51,000 health care-associated Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections occur in the United States annually. More than 13% are secondary to non-carbapenem multidrug-resistant strains, which result in 400 yearly deaths. Traditional risk factors for resistance include ICU stay, mechanical ventilation, previous hospitalization and major comorbidities. As microbes evolve, risk factors also may evolve.

Purpose: To determine if traditional and/or new risk factors for P. aeruginosa resistance are valid and predictive of infection with carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa.

Methods: We retrospectively studied inpatients and outpatients ≥ 18 years old who presented to an Aurora Health Care facility with a positive P ...


Proceedings Of 2016 Aurora Scientific Day, 2016 Aurora Health Care

Proceedings Of 2016 Aurora Scientific Day

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

This supplement includes select abstracts presented at the 42nd annual Aurora Scientific Day research symposium, held May 25, 2016, in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Aurora Scientific Day provides a forum for original research conducted by faculty, fellows, residents, students and other allied health professionals affiliated with Aurora Health Care, a not-for-profit health system comprised of integrated hospitals and clinics across eastern Wisconsin and northeastern Illinois.


Losing Ground: Awareness Of Congenital Cytomegalovirus In The United States, Sara M. Doutre, Tyson S. Barrett, Janelle Greenlee, Karl R. White 2016 Utah State University

Losing Ground: Awareness Of Congenital Cytomegalovirus In The United States, Sara M. Doutre, Tyson S. Barrett, Janelle Greenlee, Karl R. White

Journal of Early Hearing Detection and Intervention

One in 150 infants is born with cytomegalovirus (CMV) and one in 750 will have lifelong disabilities due to CMV. Even though congenital CMV is the leading viral cause of congenital disabilities and the leading non-genetic cause of childhood hearing loss, most adults have never heard of it. Data from the 2015 and 2016 HealthStylesTM surveys were analyzed and compared to data from similar studies and show an awareness rate of 7% for US adults (5% for men and 9% for women), a statistically significant decrease from 2005 and 2010 studies. Predictors of awareness include gender and education level ...


An Unusual Case Of Escherichia Coli Meningitis And Bacteremia In An Elderly Woman Presenting With Intractable Low Back Pain, Andrea M. Lauffer, Mahmoud Shorman, Carl McComas 2016 St. Mary's Medical Center, Huntington, WV

An Unusual Case Of Escherichia Coli Meningitis And Bacteremia In An Elderly Woman Presenting With Intractable Low Back Pain, Andrea M. Lauffer, Mahmoud Shorman, Carl Mccomas

Marshall Journal of Medicine

Abstract

Introduction:

We report an unusual case of E. coli meningitis in an elderly woman who presented to the emergency room with a chief complaint of intractable low back pain.

Case Description:

A 67 year old woman presented to the emergency room for a chief complaint of intractable low back pain. After admission, the patient developed delirium. Blood cultures were drawn. Patient underwent a lumbar puncture which revealed purulent cerebrospinal fluid. Results of the cerebrospinal fluid and blood cultures revealed pan-sensitive E. coli.

Conclusion:

In the geriatric population, delayed presentation of meningitis can occur for various reasons. With the older ...


Starting And Growing A Rural-Based Peer Coach Program, Nahuel Smith Becerra, Erin Plews-Ogan, Anna Greenlee, Ashley Shoell, Kathleen A. McManus, Gregory Townsend, Pamela Bickley, Veronica Ross, Linda Scruggs, Vanessa Johnson, Rebecca Dillingham 2016 University of Virginia

Starting And Growing A Rural-Based Peer Coach Program, Nahuel Smith Becerra, Erin Plews-Ogan, Anna Greenlee, Ashley Shoell, Kathleen A. Mcmanus, Gregory Townsend, Pamela Bickley, Veronica Ross, Linda Scruggs, Vanessa Johnson, Rebecca Dillingham

Rural HIV Research and Training Conference

People living with HIV in rural areas often have lower rates of retention in care and viral suppression. This workshop will discuss an innovative University of Virginia Peer Coach Program, which uses peers to help at-risk clients overcome stigma and engage in self-management of HIV. We will share lessons learned in moving the program from a pilot phase toward growth/sustainability.


Getting Patients Aca Coverage, Access To Care, And Viral Suppression, Kathleen A. McManus, Anne Rhodes, Steven Bailey, Lauren Yerkes, Robert Rodney, Carolyn Engelhard, Karen Ingersoll, George Stukenborg, Rebecca Dillingham 2016 University of Virginia

Getting Patients Aca Coverage, Access To Care, And Viral Suppression, Kathleen A. Mcmanus, Anne Rhodes, Steven Bailey, Lauren Yerkes, Robert Rodney, Carolyn Engelhard, Karen Ingersoll, George Stukenborg, Rebecca Dillingham

Rural HIV Research and Training Conference

With the Affordable Care Act, there are opportunities to improve the health insurance coverage and access to care of people living with HIV (PLWH). The Virginia AIDS Drug Assistance Program transitioned from primarily direct medication provision to purchasing qualified health plans for eligible clients. With this change, the state saw an increase in access to care for clients and improved viral suppression.


Early Haart Should Be Used For Treatment-Naive Hiv Patients With Pneumocystis Pneumonia, Maxwell L. Winkler 2016 Wayne State University School of Medicine

Early Haart Should Be Used For Treatment-Naive Hiv Patients With Pneumocystis Pneumonia, Maxwell L. Winkler

Clinical Research in Practice: The Journal of Team Hippocrates

A critical appraisal and clinical application of Manzardo C, Esteve A, Ortega N, et al. Optimal timing for initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy in treatment-naïve human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected individuals presenting with AIDS-defining diseases: the experience of the PISCIS Cohort. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 2013 July;19(7):646-653. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2012.03991.x


Dynamic Host-Pathogen Interactions Result In Fungal Epitope Unmasking, Alex Hopke 2016 University of Maine

Dynamic Host-Pathogen Interactions Result In Fungal Epitope Unmasking, Alex Hopke

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Molecular camouflage is used by a diverse set of pathogens to disguise their identity and avoid recognition by protective host receptors. The opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans is a good example, as it masks the inflammatory component β-glucan in its cell wall to evade detection by the immune receptor Dectin-1. Interestingly, it has been seen that β-glucan becomes unmasked during infection in vivo, though the underlying mechanisms remained unclear. Exposure levels of this epitope may be important, as Dectin-1 mediates protection from some strains of C. albicans and alterations in the organization and composition of the Candida cell wall can ...


Herpes Zoster And Cardiovascular Events In Adults: A Systematic Review, Nathaniel A. Erskine, Hoang Tran, Len L. Levin, Christine M. Ulbricht, Joyce D. Fingeroth, Catarina I. Kiefe, Robert J. Goldberg 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Herpes Zoster And Cardiovascular Events In Adults: A Systematic Review, Nathaniel A. Erskine, Hoang Tran, Len L. Levin, Christine M. Ulbricht, Joyce D. Fingeroth, Catarina I. Kiefe, Robert J. Goldberg

Robert J. Goldberg

Background: Stroke and myocardial infarction have been reported to occur after the development of herpes zoster (shingles), a common and preventable disease.

Purpose: To evaluate literature describing the association between herpes zoster and its subtypes with the occurrence of cardiovascular events.

Data Sources: PubMed, SCOPUS (Embase), OAIster, Google Scholar (searched in January 2016)

Study Selection: Studies published up to January 2016 examining the association between herpes zoster or subtype of herpes zoster with the occurrence of cardiovascular events, including stroke, transient ischemic attack, or an acute coronary event, were selected. Case reports, case studies, and studies of non-general adult populations ...


White Blood Cell Count Versus Temperature As Predictors Of Pediatric Bacteremia, Ashley Ashby, Loren Moscinski 2016 James Madison University

White Blood Cell Count Versus Temperature As Predictors Of Pediatric Bacteremia, Ashley Ashby, Loren Moscinski

Physician Assistant Capstones

Introduction: Although the prevalence of bacteremia has largely declined with the development of the Haemophilus Influenza Type b (Hib) and pneumococcal vaccines, it continues to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Thus, it is crucial to differentiate bacteremia from other illnesses via the clinical picture and laboratory test results. Objective: The purpose of this research was to determine whether there is a clinically significant difference between temperature and white blood cell (WBC) count as determinants of bacteremia in the pediatric population. Methods: A PubMed search was conducted utilizing the following terms and filters: temperature, WBC, pediatrics ...


Fecal Transplant Vs Vancomycin For Recurrent Clostridium Diffile, Lauren M. Taylor, Todd E. Edwards 2016 James Madison University

Fecal Transplant Vs Vancomycin For Recurrent Clostridium Diffile, Lauren M. Taylor, Todd E. Edwards

Physician Assistant Capstones

Objective: To compare fecal transplant and vancomycin in the treatment of recurrent clostridium difficile to determine which has the higher cure rate. Design: Systematic literature review. Methods: Pubmed, Google Scholar, and TRIP database using the search terms “recurrent clostridium difficile.” Filters were implemented in the Pubmed database including: randomized control trials, English, and published in the past 5 years. Records were screened for RCT with fecal transplant and full-text. Results: van Nood et al. revealed an initial cure rate of 81% for the infusion group, and a re-treated cure rate of 94%, compared to the vancomycin alone group of 31 ...


Two Cases Of Vibrio Infection And Sepsis In The Delaware Estuary, René Daniel, MD, Joseph Yoo, MD, Roberto Fratamico, MD, Robert Measley, MD 2016 Center for Human Virology, Division of Infectious Diseases and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medicine, Thomas Jefferson University, 1020 Locust Street, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA

Two Cases Of Vibrio Infection And Sepsis In The Delaware Estuary, René Daniel, Md, Joseph Yoo, Md, Roberto Fratamico, Md, Robert Measley, Md

The Medicine Forum

INTRODUCTION

Vibrio is a genus of Gram-negative motile rods. Several species are pathogenic, including Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The interest in this genus is due to its extreme virulence and often fatal outcomes. In healthy patients, these infections are typically self-limited; however, in immunocompromised and cirrhotic patients, infections can result in bacteremia, which has a high fatality rate1. Both pathogens may cause acute gastroenteritis, necrotizing wound infections, and if severe, subsequent bacteremia. In this report, we present two cases of Vibrio infections recently identified in the Delaware River Estuary that resulted in severe sepsis and, in one case, death.


Unexplained Recurrent Fevers And The Importance Of Inquiring About Occupation: A Case Report, Zachary Reese, MS4, Poonam Maru, DO 2016 Thomas Jefferson University

Unexplained Recurrent Fevers And The Importance Of Inquiring About Occupation: A Case Report, Zachary Reese, Ms4, Poonam Maru, Do

The Medicine Forum

INTRODUCTION

Many different tick-borne diseases are identified in various geographical areas throughout the United States. Ixodes scapularis tick-borne diseases can present unique diagnostic challenges because of their constellation of vague symptoms. The Ixodes scapularis tick, more commonly known as the blacklegged tick, is responsible for three specific tick-borne infections: Lyme disease (Borellia burgdorferii), Babesiosis (Babesia microti), and Anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum) also known as human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Although these three tick-borne diseases are characteristically found in the New England area, the geographical distribution of the Ixodes tick has expanded to encompass much of the northeastern United States and even states in ...


Reviews Of Science For Science Librarians: The Challenge Of The Zika Virus: An Emerging Arbovirus Disease, Frances A. Delwiche 2016 University of Vermont

Reviews Of Science For Science Librarians: The Challenge Of The Zika Virus: An Emerging Arbovirus Disease, Frances A. Delwiche

University Libraries Faculty and Staff Publications

First identified in Uganda in 1947, the Zika virus simmered quietly for sixty years, occasionally causing a mild dengue-like illness across parts of central Africa and equatorial Asia. However, since 2007, three large outbreaks have occurred: first in Micronesia, then in French Polynesia in 2013-2014, and as an epidemic involving Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central and South America in 2015-2016. This paper reviews the virology of the Zika virus, its modes of transmission, symptoms of Zika Virus Disease, the association of Zika infections with microcephaly and Guillain-Barre Syndrome, prevention of Zika infections, and ongoing efforts to develop a vaccine.


A Survey Of Tuberculosis Infection Control Practices At The Nih/Niaid/Daids-Supported Clinical Trial Sites In Low And Middle Income Countries., Catherine Godfrey, Gail Tauscher, Sally Hunsberger, Melissa Austin, Lesley Scott, Jeffrey T. Schouten, Anne F. Luetkemeyer, Constance Benson, Robert Coombs, Susan Swindells 2016 National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

A Survey Of Tuberculosis Infection Control Practices At The Nih/Niaid/Daids-Supported Clinical Trial Sites In Low And Middle Income Countries., Catherine Godfrey, Gail Tauscher, Sally Hunsberger, Melissa Austin, Lesley Scott, Jeffrey T. Schouten, Anne F. Luetkemeyer, Constance Benson, Robert Coombs, Susan Swindells

Journal Articles: Infectious Diseases

BACKGROUND: Health care associated transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) is well described. A previous survey of infection control (IC) practices at clinical research sites in low and middle income countries (LMIC) funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) conducting HIV research identified issues with respiratory IC practices. A guideline for TB IC based on international recommendations was developed and promulgated. This paper reports on adherence to the guideline at sites conducting or planning to conduct TB studies with the intention of supporting improvement.

METHODS: A survey was developed that assessed IC activities in three domains: facility ...


Rapid Diagnostics For Infectious Disease Using Noble Metal Nanoparticles, Chun-Wan Yen, Helena de Puig, Justina Tam, José Gómez-Márquez, Irene Bosch, Lee Gehrke, Kimberly Hamad-Schifferli 2016 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Rapid Diagnostics For Infectious Disease Using Noble Metal Nanoparticles, Chun-Wan Yen, Helena De Puig, Justina Tam, José Gómez-Márquez, Irene Bosch, Lee Gehrke, Kimberly Hamad-Schifferli

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Rapid point-of-care (POC) diagnostic devices are needed for field-forward screening of severe acute systemic febrile illnesses such as dengue, Ebola, chikungunya, and others. Multiplexed rapid lateral flow diagnostics have the potential to distinguish among multiple pathogens, thereby facilitating diagnosis and improving patient care. We present a platform for multiplexed pathogen detection which uses gold or silver nanoparticles conjugated to antibodies to sense the presence of biomarkers for different infectious diseases. We exploit the size-dependent optical properties of Ag NPs to construct a multiplexed paperfluidic lateral flow POC sensor. AgNPs of different sizes were conjugated to antibodies that bind to specific ...


Herpes Zoster And Cardiovascular Events In Adults: A Systematic Review, Nathaniel A. Erskine, Hoang Tran, Len L. Levin, Christine M. Ulbricht, Joyce D. Fingeroth, Catarina I. Kiefe, Robert J. Goldberg 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Herpes Zoster And Cardiovascular Events In Adults: A Systematic Review, Nathaniel A. Erskine, Hoang Tran, Len L. Levin, Christine M. Ulbricht, Joyce D. Fingeroth, Catarina I. Kiefe, Robert J. Goldberg

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Background: Stroke and myocardial infarction have been reported to occur after the development of herpes zoster (shingles), a common and preventable disease.

Purpose: To evaluate literature describing the association between herpes zoster and its subtypes with the occurrence of cardiovascular events.

Data Sources: PubMed, SCOPUS (Embase), OAIster, Google Scholar (searched in January 2016)

Study Selection: Studies published up to January 2016 examining the association between herpes zoster or subtype of herpes zoster with the occurrence of cardiovascular events, including stroke, transient ischemic attack, or an acute coronary event, were selected. Case reports, case studies, and studies of non-general adult populations ...


Hiv Vaccines: Progress, Limitations And A Crispr/Cas9 Vaccine, Omar A. Garcia Martinez 2016 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Hiv Vaccines: Progress, Limitations And A Crispr/Cas9 Vaccine, Omar A. Garcia Martinez

Biology: Student Scholarship & Creative Works

ABSTRACT: The HIV-1 pandemic continues to thrive due to ineffective HIV-1 vaccines. Historically, the world’s most infectious diseases, such as polio and smallpox, have been eradicated or have come close to eradication due to the advent of effective vaccines. Highly active antiretroviral therapy is able to delay the onset of AIDS but can neither rid the body of HIV-1 proviral DNA nor prevent further transmission. A prophylactic vaccine that prevents the various mechanisms HIV-1 has to evade and attack our immune system is needed to end the HIV-1 pandemic. Recent advances in engineered nuclease systems, like the CRISPR/Cas9 ...


Geodemographic Features Of Human Blastomycosis In Eastern Wisconsin, Megan E. Huber, Dennis J. Baumgardner, Jessica J. F. Kram, Melissa A. Lemke 2016 Aurora Research Institute, Aurora Health Care

Geodemographic Features Of Human Blastomycosis In Eastern Wisconsin, Megan E. Huber, Dennis J. Baumgardner, Jessica J. F. Kram, Melissa A. Lemke

Dennis J. Baumgardner. MD

Purpose

Blastomycosis is an endemic fungal infection. In rural northern Wisconsin, blastomycosis cases are associated with certain environmental features including close proximity to waterways. Other studies have associated blastomycosis with particular soil chemicals. However, blastomycosis also occurs in urban and suburban regions. We explored the geodemographic associations of blastomycosis cases in the more urban/suburban landscape of eastern Wisconsin.

Methods

We conducted a retrospective study of 193 laboratory-identified blastomycosis cases in a single eastern Wisconsin health system, 2007–2015. Controls were 250 randomly selected cases of community-diagnosed pneumonia from a similar time period. Geographic features of home addresses were explored ...


Blastomyces: Why Be Dimorphic?, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2016 Aurora UW Medical Group, Aurora Health Care

Blastomyces: Why Be Dimorphic?, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Dennis J. Baumgardner. MD

In introducing the infectious disease focus for this edition of the Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews, the author describes the unsolved mysteries surrounding the dimorphic fungus Blastomyces and the related pathogenesis of pulmonary blastomycosis.


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