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Admission Eeg Findings In Diverse Paediatric Cerebral Malaria Populations Predict Outcomes., Douglas G Postels, Xiaoting Wu, Chenxi Li, Peter W Kaplan, Karl B Seydel, Terrie E Taylor, Youssef A Kousa, Richard Idro, Robert Opoka, Chandy C John, Gretchen L Birbeck 2018 George Washington University

Admission Eeg Findings In Diverse Paediatric Cerebral Malaria Populations Predict Outcomes., Douglas G Postels, Xiaoting Wu, Chenxi Li, Peter W Kaplan, Karl B Seydel, Terrie E Taylor, Youssef A Kousa, Richard Idro, Robert Opoka, Chandy C John, Gretchen L Birbeck

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Electroencephalography at hospital presentation may offer important insights regarding prognosis that can inform understanding of cerebral malaria (CM) pathophysiology and potentially guide patient selection and risk stratification for future clinical trials. Electroencephalogram (EEG) findings in children with CM in Uganda and Malawi were compared and associations between admission EEG findings and outcome across this diverse population were assessed. Demographic, clinical and admission EEG data from Ugandan and Malawian children admitted from 2009 to 2012 with CM were gathered, and survivors assessed for neurological abnormalities at discharge.

RESULTS: 281 children were enrolled (Uganda n = 122, Malawi n = 159). The Malawian ...


Hiv Mortality Difference Between Black And White Women, CARLOS O. NESBETH, Rajiv Kandala, Syed Najeeb, Ruksana Nazneen, Banglore Murthy 2018 Meharry Medical College

Hiv Mortality Difference Between Black And White Women, Carlos O. Nesbeth, Rajiv Kandala, Syed Najeeb, Ruksana Nazneen, Banglore Murthy

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

OBJECTIVE

In the United States, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to be among the top 10 leading causes of mortality for black women between the ages of 20 and 54¹, but does not rank among the top 10 leading causes of death for white women amongst all age groups². This study describes the HIV mortality difference between black and white women and formulate hypotheses that may reduce or eliminate disparities.

METHODS

Information was accessed through public data, the US Census, and the US Compressed Mortality File.

RESULTS

In these descriptive data from 1987 through 2015, including reliable HIV mortality ...


A Pharmacist's Guide To The Treatment Of Lyme Disease, Karlee Miller 2018 University of Wyoming

A Pharmacist's Guide To The Treatment Of Lyme Disease, Karlee Miller

Honors Theses AY 17/18

Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness with significant impact on the United States healthcare system. An estimated 329,000 cases of Lyme disease occur annually in the United States, making it one of the top ten most common Nationally Notifiable diseases to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS). The treatment of Lyme disease is responsible for approximate direct medical costs between $712 million to $1.3 billion annually. This comprehensive guide is intended to be used by healthcare professionals, particularly pharmacists, to assist in the evidence-based treatment and management of Lyme disease.


Facilitating The Everyday Steward: Impact Of Mandatory Antimicrobial Indication/Duration And A 48 Hour Time Out, Ann L. Wirtz, Alaina N. Burns, Brian R. Lee, Tammy Frank, Laura Fitzmaurice, Richard Ogden, Brian O'Neal, Jennifer Goldman 2018 Children's Mercy Kansas City

Facilitating The Everyday Steward: Impact Of Mandatory Antimicrobial Indication/Duration And A 48 Hour Time Out, Ann L. Wirtz, Alaina N. Burns, Brian R. Lee, Tammy Frank, Laura Fitzmaurice, Richard Ogden, Brian O'Neal, Jennifer Goldman

Posters

Introduction: Required indication, duration, and a 48-hour antimicrobial timeout are an integral part of antimicrobial stewardship standards; however, limited data are available to demonstrate an effect on antimicrobial utilization and antimicrobial stewardship practice. Therefore, we evaluated the impact of mandatory declared indication/duration along with a pharmacy-driven 48-hour timeout on antimicrobial utilization and antimicrobial stewardship interventions.

Methods: We performed a retrospective evaluation of ASP interventions and antimicrobial use following implementation of mandatory antimicrobial indication/duration at the point of computerized physician order entry (CPOE). A pharmacist-driven 48-hour antimicrobial timeout was introduced on the same date. This study was conducted at ...


Infections Not Fought: Antibiotic Resistance In Underserved Communities, Derek Lillestolen 2018 Liberty University

Infections Not Fought: Antibiotic Resistance In Underserved Communities, Derek Lillestolen

Senior Honors Theses

In 1928, the profound effects of penicillin were discovered and antibiotic treatments became extremely popular. Broad-spectrum antibiotics, like tetracyclines, have been since branded as cure-all prescriptions and used profusely in the Western World and abroad. Due to ignorance of specific biochemical mechanisms and the misuse of antibiotics these drugs inadvertently allowed the rise in prevalence of antibiotic resistant strains of certain bacteria as the century progressed. Now, the specific genetic causes and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance are being understood, but the fight against antimicrobial resistance is far from over. In the United States, thousands of fatalities are caused annually by ...


Herpes Zoster Patient Education: A Coloring Book Approach, Sophia Charuhas 2018 Liberty University

Herpes Zoster Patient Education: A Coloring Book Approach, Sophia Charuhas

Senior Honors Theses

Shingles, the disease caused by the herpes zoster virus, is a widespread and widely misunderstood illness in the United States. It is preventable, but many at-risk patients do not know what measures they may take to prevent it. Clear communication from physician to patient is crucial for patient understanding of diseases. Many patient education materials on herpes zoster currently available are often unused. It is therefore beneficial to public health to disseminate new mediums of medical communication, and one way of accomplishing this is through adult coloring books. The pathophysiology of herpes zoster virus is here explored and the idea ...


Use Of Urine Antigen Testing For Blastomyces In An Integrated Health System, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2018 Aurora UW Medical Group, Aurora Health Care

Use Of Urine Antigen Testing For Blastomyces In An Integrated Health System, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Purpose: Blastomycosis, an endemic fungal infection, mimics many other diseases. We explored the use of Blastomyces urine antigen (BuAg), reportedly the most sensitive noninvasive test, in clinical practice and compared it to other noninvasive tests.

Methods: A total of 836 BuAg tests performed on unique patients (first test only) at one large integrated health system from June 2013 to May 2016 were retrospectively reviewed to examine test characteristics and demographic features. Of these, 100 cases from 2015, a year containing a large local blastomycosis outbreak, were randomly selected for detailed analysis.

Results: Demographics for the BuAg-tested population: mean age 54 ...


Tetanus In An Unvaccinated Amish Woman After A Breech Home Delivery In Kentucky, 2016, Veronica Corcino, Anna Q. Yaffee, Maydelin Pecchio, Mary E. Powell, Forest W. Arnold 2018 University of Louisville

Tetanus In An Unvaccinated Amish Woman After A Breech Home Delivery In Kentucky, 2016, Veronica Corcino, Anna Q. Yaffee, Maydelin Pecchio, Mary E. Powell, Forest W. Arnold

Journal of Refugee & Global Health

No abstract provided.


Differential Diagnosis Of Pan-Uveitis: Behçet’S Disease, Peter Blosser, Remil Simon, Courtney Ridner 2018 East Tennessee State University

Differential Diagnosis Of Pan-Uveitis: Behçet’S Disease, Peter Blosser, Remil Simon, Courtney Ridner

Appalachian Student Research Forum

This report describes the case of a 56-year-old man who presented with blurry vision, increased intraocular pressure, and conjunctival injection after posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation. Initially post-operative endophalmitis and foreign body inflammation were considered as differential diagnoses, but after further examination pan-uveitis was diagnosed. Uveitis is an ocular finding that may indicate several diseases, one of which is Behçet’s Disease. During the interview, the patient mentioned a history of apthous ulcers and genital ulcers which then lead to the clinical diagnosis of Behçet’s Disease. This report emphasizes that Behçet’s Disease is rare in Caucasians. Therefore, is ...


Involuntary Sterilization Among Hiv-Positive Garifuna Women From Honduras Seeking Asylum In The United States: Two Case Reports, Holly G. Atkinson, Deborah Ottenheimer 2018 CUNY City College

Involuntary Sterilization Among Hiv-Positive Garifuna Women From Honduras Seeking Asylum In The United States: Two Case Reports, Holly G. Atkinson, Deborah Ottenheimer

Publications and Research

Voluntary sterilization is one of the most widely used forms of contraception by women worldwide; however, involuntary sterilization is considered a violation of multiple human rights and grounds for asylum in the United States. Women have been disproportionately affected by this practice. We report two cases of involuntary sterilization in HIV-positive Garifuna women from Honduras who sought asylum in America and were medically evaluated at the request of their attorneys. Key lessons can be drawn from these cases with regard to the importance of medical evaluations in establishing persecution. These include the need for a detailed account of the events ...


Under The Needle: Understanding The Benefits And Misconceptions Of Vaccinations, Desmond Davis 2018 Germanna Community College

Under The Needle: Understanding The Benefits And Misconceptions Of Vaccinations, Desmond Davis

Student Writing

By and large, medical and government institutions such as the CDC have been primarily responsible for educating the public on the necessities of vaccinations, and quelling fears regarding them. As the world becomes more connected, proponents of the anti-vaccination movement find common ground via social media platforms and other outlets from which to confirm preexisting notions that vaccines are detrimental to recipients. This places a burden on both the aforementioned institutions as well as the general public to deal with potential outbreaks before they either resurge from previously low infectivity rates, or before they reach epidemic proportions.


Autism And Vaccines: Exploring Misperceptions In Science, Arsenio Menendez 2018 Germanna Community College

Autism And Vaccines: Exploring Misperceptions In Science, Arsenio Menendez

Student Writing

This paper will be exploring the supposed link between vaccines and autism which is a hot button topic as of late. Starting at the roots of where this myth began with the infamous and long since disproved initial paper penned by Andrew Wakefield. As of late with the ever-rising numbers of parents deciding to forego the vaccination of their children there is an increasing risk of herd immunity failing leading to old diseases that had been wiped out making a massive resurgence. Detailed in my research findings will be data driven explorations of psychology and human nature changing perception of ...


The Link Between Vaccination And Autism, Erika Tellez 2018 Germanna Community College

The Link Between Vaccination And Autism, Erika Tellez

Student Writing

Vaccination provides individuals with protection against many preventable diseases, yet many claims against vaccination have causes vaccination rates to drop. Vaccination rates have dropped after a claim that vaccines offset autism was published. Although vaccination is necessary in order to prevent the spread of diseases throughout the population and in order to protect individuals who cannot be vaccinated. The claim that there is a link between vaccines and autism has been disproven based on lack of communication between the scientific community and public, discovery of falsified evidence, and further studies which demonstrate there is no link.


Management Of Deep Space Infections Of The Neck, Emil Mărginean, Sargarovschi Egor, Ciprian Venter, Alina Pantiș, Oana Vălenaș, Ildiko Sorban, Maria Domuța, Cristian Bălălău, Razvan V. Scaunasu MD, Bogdan Popescu 2018 Oradea University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Surgery and Neurosurgery

Management Of Deep Space Infections Of The Neck, Emil Mărginean, Sargarovschi Egor, Ciprian Venter, Alina Pantiș, Oana Vălenaș, Ildiko Sorban, Maria Domuța, Cristian Bălălău, Razvan V. Scaunasu Md, Bogdan Popescu

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Infections of the deep neck spaces often present a clinical challenge for the ENT surgeon. Management of these complex suppurations of the neck requires in fact a multidisciplinary approach due to possible complications like mediastinitis, septic shock and MSOF, life threatening bleeding and ICU management. The spread of infection from the primary site to other regions is possible through the lymphatic, arterial and venous vessels, or directly along the fasciae. There are several classifications for the etiology, pathogenic mechanism and site of evolution, the most frequently encountered clinical forms being peritonsillar abscess, retropharyngeal abscess, lateropharyngeal abscess, and the deep cervical ...


Indicators For Prediction Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Positivity Detected With Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid, Xi Liu, Xing-Fang Hou, Lei Gao, Guo-Fang Deng, Ming-Xia Zhang, Qun-Yi Deng, Tao-Sheng Ye, Qian-Ting Yang, Bo-Ping Zhou, Zhi-Hua Wen, Hai-Ying Liu, Hardy Kornfeld, Xin-Chun Chen 2018 Shenzhen University

Indicators For Prediction Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Positivity Detected With Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid, Xi Liu, Xing-Fang Hou, Lei Gao, Guo-Fang Deng, Ming-Xia Zhang, Qun-Yi Deng, Tao-Sheng Ye, Qian-Ting Yang, Bo-Ping Zhou, Zhi-Hua Wen, Hai-Ying Liu, Hardy Kornfeld, Xin-Chun Chen

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) remains a challenge in clinic, especially for sputum negative pulmonary TB. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) has higher sensitivity than sputum for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). However, bronchoscopy is invasive and costly, and not suitable for all patients. In order to make TB patients get more benefit from BALF for diagnosis, we explore which indicator might be used to optimize the choice of bronchoscopy.

METHODS: A total of 1539 sputum-smear-negative pulmonary TB suspects who underwent bronchoscopy were recruited for evaluation. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of Mtb detection in sputum and BALF ...


Don’T Bug Me…I’M Taking A Bath! A Case Study On Hot Tub Lung, Lindsay N. Renz, Virginia Reed, Theresa Rohr-Kirchgraber 2018 Marian University - Indianapolis

Don’T Bug Me…I’M Taking A Bath! A Case Study On Hot Tub Lung, Lindsay N. Renz, Virginia Reed, Theresa Rohr-Kirchgraber

Student Publications and Research

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is a unique form of interstitial lung disease that is diverse in its presentation and etiology. • Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is mediated by an inflammatory reaction to inhalation of an environmental antigen. It is described as a mixed III/IV hypersensitivity reaction that is characterized by lymphocyte predominance and high CD4:CD8 ratio. • Hot tub lung is one etiology of hypersensitivity pneumonitis which can occur from exposure to mycobacterium antigens in water-related contamination, most notably hot tubs. • It most commonly presents with patients who have underlying lung disease or are immunocompromised. However, there has recently been an increase in hot ...


New Vaccine Formulations Containing A Modified Version Of The Amastigote 2 Antigen And The Non-Virulent Trypanosoma Cruzi Cl-14 Strain Are Highly Antigenic And Protective Against Leishmania Infantum Challenge, Ana Paula M. M. Almeida, Leopoldo F.M. Machado, Daniel Doro, Frederico C. Nascimento, Leonardo Damasceno, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli, Ana Paula Fernandes, Caroline Junqueira 2018 Federal University of Minas Gerais

New Vaccine Formulations Containing A Modified Version Of The Amastigote 2 Antigen And The Non-Virulent Trypanosoma Cruzi Cl-14 Strain Are Highly Antigenic And Protective Against Leishmania Infantum Challenge, Ana Paula M. M. Almeida, Leopoldo F.M. Machado, Daniel Doro, Frederico C. Nascimento, Leonardo Damasceno, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli, Ana Paula Fernandes, Caroline Junqueira

Open Access Articles

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a major public health issue reported as the second illness in mortality among all tropical diseases. Clinical trials have shown that protection against VL is associated with robust T cell responses, especially those producing IFN-gamma. The Leishmania amastigote 2 (A2) protein has been repeatedly described as immunogenic and protective against VL in different animal models; it is recognized by human T cells, and it is also commercially available in a vaccine formulation containing saponin against canine VL. Moving toward a more appropriate formulation for human vaccination, here, we tested a new optimized version of the recombinant ...


Bibliometric Analysis Of Scholarly Publications On The Zika Virus, 1952-2016, Frances A. Delwiche 2018 University of Vermont

Bibliometric Analysis Of Scholarly Publications On The Zika Virus, 1952-2016, Frances A. Delwiche

University Libraries Faculty and Staff Publications

The 2015-2016 epidemic in the Americas caused by the Zika Virus (ZIKV) triggered a dramatic increase in the number of scholarly publications on this topic. In an effort to understand and characterize this body of literature, a bibliometric study was conducted on all articles found in PubMed that were published on the Zika virus between 1952 and 2016. Study parameters included publication date, source journal, subject and category of source journal, and country of first author. The data was frequency-ranked, enabling identification of the most highly productive journal titles, subject areas, and countries. The study concluded with a comparison between ...


Electronic Cigarettes Use And Perception Amongst Medical Students: A Cross Sectional Survey From Sindh, Pakistan, Nousheen Iqbal, Zain A. KHAN, Syed Muhammad Hamza Anwar, Omar Irfan, Babar Irfan, Ammar Mushtaq, Maria Bibi, Faraz Siddiqui, Javaid Khan 2018 Aga Khan University

Electronic Cigarettes Use And Perception Amongst Medical Students: A Cross Sectional Survey From Sindh, Pakistan, Nousheen Iqbal, Zain A. Khan, Syed Muhammad Hamza Anwar, Omar Irfan, Babar Irfan, Ammar Mushtaq, Maria Bibi, Faraz Siddiqui, Javaid Khan

Section of Pulmonary & Critical Care

Objective: The manufacturers of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are actively marketing their product through electronic and social media. Undergraduate medical students are expected to have better knowledge and awareness as they directly interact with patients in their training, The purpose of this study is therefore, to determine knowledge, use and perception regarding e-cigarettes among medical students from Sindh, Pakistan.

Results: A cross-sectional study was conducted between 1st July and 30th September 2016 at five different medical colleges situated in the second largest province of Sindh, Pakistan. The data was collected through a structured, self-administered questionnaire. Of the 500 students, the mean ...


Identification Of Herpes Zoster-Associated Temporal Arteritis Among Cases Of Giant Cell Arteritis, Erin M. Buckingham, Maria A. Foley, Charles Grose, Nasreen A. Syed, Morton E. Smith, Todd P. Margolis, Matthew J. Thurtell, Randy Kardon 2018 University of Iowa

Identification Of Herpes Zoster-Associated Temporal Arteritis Among Cases Of Giant Cell Arteritis, Erin M. Buckingham, Maria A. Foley, Charles Grose, Nasreen A. Syed, Morton E. Smith, Todd P. Margolis, Matthew J. Thurtell, Randy Kardon

Stead Family Department of Pediatrics Publications

PURPOSE: To examine whether herpes zoster antigen (also called varicella-zoster virus antigen) was detectable in temporal artery biopsies taken from individuals with giant cell arteritis (GCA).

DESIGN: Retrospective comparative case series.

METHODS: Sections of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded temporal arteries were examined first by hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining to establish the diagnosis of GCA. Adjacent sections of the same biopsy were then examined by immunohistochemistry, using 2 different monoclonal antibodies against a major antigen of varicella-zoster virus called gE. Pathologic specimens were obtained from patients cared for at the University of Iowa and Washington University in St. Louis ophthalmology clinics.

RESULTS: The ...


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