Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Infectious Disease Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

810 Full-Text Articles 3,082 Authors 55,612 Downloads 77 Institutions

All Articles in Infectious Disease

Faceted Search

810 full-text articles. Page 1 of 32.

Atherosclerosis In Subjects Newly Diagnosed With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection., Tatiana V Kirichenko, Veronika A Myasoedova, Tatiana E Shimonova, Alexandra A Melnichenko, Dmitri Sviridov, Igor A Sobenin, Alexey I Mazus, Alexander N Orekhov, Michael I Bukrinsky 2018 George Washington University

Atherosclerosis In Subjects Newly Diagnosed With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection., Tatiana V Kirichenko, Veronika A Myasoedova, Tatiana E Shimonova, Alexandra A Melnichenko, Dmitri Sviridov, Igor A Sobenin, Alexey I Mazus, Alexander N Orekhov, Michael I Bukrinsky

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

HIV infection is associated with the increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), even in patients successfully treated with the combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). However, the relationship between HIV, cART, and pathogenesis of CVD remains controversial. In the present study, we evaluated the carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis, in HIV-infected subjects receiving or not receiving cART. One hundred nine newly diagnosed HIV-infected subjects and one hundred nine uninfected age-matched controls (all males) without the history of CVD, hypertension, or diabetes were recruited into the present study. Cross-sectional analysis at baseline (BL) showed significantly increased levels of triglycerides ...


Anidulafungin: A Noninferior Alternative To Fluconazole For Treatment Of Esophageal Candidiasis, Blake S. Sanford 2018 Wayne State University

Anidulafungin: A Noninferior Alternative To Fluconazole For Treatment Of Esophageal Candidiasis, Blake S. Sanford

Clinical Research in Practice: The Journal of Team Hippocrates

A critical appraisal and clinical application of Krause DS, Simjee AE, van Rensburg C, et al. A randomized, double-blind trial of anidulafungin versus fluconazole for the treatment of esophageal candidiasis. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;39(6):770-775. doi: 10.1086/423378.


Coping With Chronic Fungal Rhinosinusitis: Diagnosis To Therapy, Veronica Corcino, Leslie Beavin, Shengli Lu, Ashley Ross, Carmen V. Sciortino Jr. 2018 University of Louisville

Coping With Chronic Fungal Rhinosinusitis: Diagnosis To Therapy, Veronica Corcino, Leslie Beavin, Shengli Lu, Ashley Ross, Carmen V. Sciortino Jr.

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Use Of Ultrasound For Diagnosis Of Pneumonia In Adults, A Review, Dafang Chen, Rodrigo Cavallazzi 2018 University of Louisville

Use Of Ultrasound For Diagnosis Of Pneumonia In Adults, A Review, Dafang Chen, Rodrigo Cavallazzi

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Pneumonia is a common lung infection with significant morbidity and mortality. Currently, the diagnosis of pneumonia is made by patient history confirmed with chest radiograph or computed tomography. These modalities, however, have limitations including low accuracy, radiation exposure, and high cost. Lung ultrasound has become more prevalent in evaluating pulmonary conditions and has shown to be highly accurate in the diagnosis of pneumonia. The purpose of this review is to discuss sonographic findings associated with pneumonia, techniques used to obtain quality images, and the evidence in literature supporting the use of lung ultrasound in the diagnosis of pneumonia. Numerous studies ...


Comparison Of Mortality And Therapy In Community Acquired Pneumonia, Gina Maki, Daniela Moreno, Anthony Harris, Steven Lawrence, Andrew Masica, Lois Lamerato, Marcus J. Zervos 2018 Henry Ford Health System

Comparison Of Mortality And Therapy In Community Acquired Pneumonia, Gina Maki, Daniela Moreno, Anthony Harris, Steven Lawrence, Andrew Masica, Lois Lamerato, Marcus J. Zervos

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Background: Community associated pneumonia (CAP) is one the most common causes of hospital admissions, exceeding more than one million per year in the United States, contributing to 3.4% of inpatient mortality. Our objective was to compare 30-day mortality using therapies recommended for treatment of CAP.

Methods: A multicenter retrospective analysis from four different hospitals was assessed from 2008 to 2013. The data was obtained from electronic medical records which included more than 70,000 patients. CAP patients were identified using discharge diagnostic codes during the years 2008-2013, as well as receiving therapy with ceftriaxone and azithromycin or a respiratory ...


The Epidemiology Of Infective Endocarditis Among People Who Inject Drugs In London, Ontario., Brian Hallam 2018 The University of Western Ontario

The Epidemiology Of Infective Endocarditis Among People Who Inject Drugs In London, Ontario., Brian Hallam

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Infective endocarditis is an infectious disease that affects the valves of the heart. Injection drug use is currently a leading risk factor among patients with endocarditis. We conducted a prospective study using data from hospital chart records among patients with endocarditis in London, Ontario, which has a relatively high prevalence of people who inject drugs to assess the severity of the issue and the major risk factors of mortality pertaining to this population. This study had a sample size of 353 and included a review of the incidence of admissions of endocarditis, as well as a survival analysis, using both ...


Fecal Microbiota Transplantation May Have Clinical Utility In Reducing Incidence Of Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection, Jeremy A. Grekin 2018 Wayne State University School of Medicine

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation May Have Clinical Utility In Reducing Incidence Of Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection, Jeremy A. Grekin

Clinical Research in Practice: The Journal of Team Hippocrates

A critical appraisal and clinical application of Tariq R, Pardi DS, Tosh PK, Walker RC, Razonable RR, Khanna S. Fecal microbiota transplantation for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection reduces recurrent urinary tract infection frequency. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2017 Oct 30;65(10):1745–1747. doi: 10.1093/cid/cix618


There Is No Mortality Benefit To Using Quinolones Instead Of Azithromycin For Legionella Pneumonia, David B. Witcher 2018 Wayne State University School of Medicine

There Is No Mortality Benefit To Using Quinolones Instead Of Azithromycin For Legionella Pneumonia, David B. Witcher

Clinical Research in Practice: The Journal of Team Hippocrates

A critical appraisal and clinical application of Gershengorn HB, Keene A, Dzierba AL, Wunsch H. The association of antibiotic treatment regimen and hospital mortality in patients hospitalized with Legionella pneumonia. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2015;60(11):e66-e79. doi: 10.1093/cid/civ157


Exploring The Role Of Ceftaroline In The Treatment Of Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Zachary Meyer 2018 Wayne State University School of Medicine

Exploring The Role Of Ceftaroline In The Treatment Of Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Zachary Meyer

Clinical Research in Practice: The Journal of Team Hippocrates

A critical appraisal and clinical application of File TM Jr, Low DE, Eckburg PB, Talbot GH, Friedland HD, Lee J, Llorens L, Critchley IA, Thye DA, FOCUS 1 investigators. FOCUS 1: a randomized, double-blinded, multicentre, Phase III trial of the efficacy and safety of ceftaroline fosamil versus ceftriaxone in community-acquired pneumonia. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2011 Apr;66 Suppl 3:iii19-32. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkr096


Educational Prevention Program Of Surgical Site Infections (Ssi), Carena Leung 2018 The University of San Francisco

Educational Prevention Program Of Surgical Site Infections (Ssi), Carena Leung

Master's Projects and Capstones

Surgical site infections (SSI) cause negative health care effects to patients and hospitals. SSI is one of the most common types of healthcare-associated infections (HAI) accounting for 31% among hospitalized patients (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2012). It is associated with prolonged length of stays (LOS), higher morbidity and mortality, and increased healthcare costs. The purpose of this quality improvement project is to decrease SSI rates by enhancing patient education and engagement in preoperative care and hygiene before surgery. In a metropolitan pediatric hospital, a microsystem analysis of the preoperative unit was conducted before generating the SSI Prevention ...


Implementing A Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Intervention For Safer Conception Among Hiv Serodiscordant Couples: Recommendations For Health Care Providers, Mari-Lynn Drainoni, Dea L. Biancarelli, Ashley A. Leech, Meg Sullivan, Angela R. Bazzi 2018 Boston University School of Public Health

Implementing A Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Intervention For Safer Conception Among Hiv Serodiscordant Couples: Recommendations For Health Care Providers, Mari-Lynn Drainoni, Dea L. Biancarelli, Ashley A. Leech, Meg Sullivan, Angela R. Bazzi

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Couples in HIV serodiscordant relationships frequently desire children. Although partners who are virally suppressed pose almost no risk of transmitting HIV to their partners, partners who are inconsistently on therapy may transmit HIV to their partners when attempting to conceive. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an available safer conception strategy for these couples but is not consistently offered. We sought to better understand barriers to PrEP implementation for couples seeking conception and patient perceptions on what providers could do to encourage use. We conducted in-depth, qualitative interviews with 11 participants representing six couples taking PrEP for safer conception in a safety-net ...


Using Clinical Decision Support Within The Electronic Health Record To Reduce Incorrect Prescribing For Acute Sinusitis, Regina Ginzburg, Justin J. Conway, Eve Waltermaurer, Wendy Song, Samantha P. Jellinek-Cohen 2018 College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, St. John's University; Institute for Family Health

Using Clinical Decision Support Within The Electronic Health Record To Reduce Incorrect Prescribing For Acute Sinusitis, Regina Ginzburg, Justin J. Conway, Eve Waltermaurer, Wendy Song, Samantha P. Jellinek-Cohen

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Purpose: Acute sinusitis has viral etiology in more than 90% of cases, but antibiotics are prescribed for more than 80% of adults in the United States. While applications of computer-assisted guidelines have been found effective in reducing inaccurate prescribing for acute respiratory infections, there is a paucity of research focused specifically on the utilization of electronic best practice alerts (BPA) in improving treatment for acute sinusitis.

Methods: This observational cohort study examined prescribing behavior for sinusitis at a single Federally Qualified Health Center 1 year prior and during the first year of implementation of a BPA in the electronic health ...


Limiting Antibiotic Use In Acute Sinusitis: Partly A Matter Of Vocabulary?, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2018 Aurora UW Medical Group, Aurora Health Care

Limiting Antibiotic Use In Acute Sinusitis: Partly A Matter Of Vocabulary?, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

In his issue introduction, the editor-in-chief of Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews comments on an included article that describes the successful use of an electronic medical record best practice alert to reduce the rate of antibiotic prescription for acute sinusitis. Various methods previously tried to improve antibiotic stewardship in this illness are briefly reviewed. Borrowing on the model of acute bronchitis, it is suggested that a change in conveyed diagnostic vocabulary to “sinus cold” when describing acute sinusitis may help limit antibiotics for this predominantly viral infection.


Transcriptome Analysis Of Neisseria Gonorrhoeae During Natural Infection Reveals Differential Expression Of Antibiotic Resistance Determinants Between Men And Women, Kathleen Nudel, Ryan McClure, Matthew Moreau, Emma Briars, A. Jeanine Abrams, Brian Tjaden, Xiao-Hong Su, David Trees, Peter A. Rice, Paola Massari, Caroline A. Genco 2018 Tufts University

Transcriptome Analysis Of Neisseria Gonorrhoeae During Natural Infection Reveals Differential Expression Of Antibiotic Resistance Determinants Between Men And Women, Kathleen Nudel, Ryan Mcclure, Matthew Moreau, Emma Briars, A. Jeanine Abrams, Brian Tjaden, Xiao-Hong Su, David Trees, Peter A. Rice, Paola Massari, Caroline A. Genco

Open Access Articles

Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a bacterial pathogen responsible for the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhea. Emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of N. gonorrhoeae worldwide has resulted in limited therapeutic choices for this infection. Men who seek treatment often have symptomatic urethritis; in contrast, gonococcal cervicitis in women is usually minimally symptomatic, but may progress to pelvic inflammatory disease. Previously, we reported the first analysis of gonococcal transcriptome expression determined in secretions from women with cervical infection. Here, we defined gonococcal global transcriptional responses in urethral specimens from men with symptomatic urethritis and compared these with transcriptional responses in specimens obtained from women ...


Incidence Of Postpartum Infection, Outcomes And Associated Risk Factors At Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital In Uganda, Joseph Ngonzi, Lisa M. Bebell, Yarine Fajardo, Adeline A. Boatin, Mark J. Siedner, Ingrid V. Bassett, Yves Jacquemyn, Jean-Pierre van Geertruyden, Jerome Kabakyenga, Blair J. Wylie, David R. Bangsberg, Laura E. Riley 2018 Mbarara University of Science and Technology

Incidence Of Postpartum Infection, Outcomes And Associated Risk Factors At Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital In Uganda, Joseph Ngonzi, Lisa M. Bebell, Yarine Fajardo, Adeline A. Boatin, Mark J. Siedner, Ingrid V. Bassett, Yves Jacquemyn, Jean-Pierre Van Geertruyden, Jerome Kabakyenga, Blair J. Wylie, David R. Bangsberg, Laura E. Riley

OHSU-PSU School of Public Health Faculty Publications and Presentations

Background: There is a paucity of recent prospective data on the incidence of postpartum infections and associated risk factors in sub-Saharan Africa. Retrospective studies estimate that puerperal sepsis causes approximately 10% of maternal deaths in Africa.

Methods: We enrolled 4231 women presenting to a Ugandan regional referral hospital for delivery or postpartum care into a prospective cohort and measured vital signs postpartum. Women developing fever (> 38.0 °C) or hypothermia (< 36.0 °C) underwent symptom questionnaire, structured physical exam, malaria testing, blood, and urine cultures. Demographic, treatment, and post-discharge outcomes data were collected from febrile/hypothermic women and a random sample of 1708 normothermic women. The primary outcome was in-hospital postpartum infection. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine factors independently associated with postpartum fever/ hypothermia and with confirmed infection.

Results: Overall, 4176/4231 (99%) had ≥1 temperature measured and 205/4231 (5%) were febrile or hypothermic. An additional 1708 normothermic women were randomly selected for additional data collection, for ...


Admission Eeg Findings In Diverse Paediatric Cerebral Malaria Populations Predict Outcomes., Douglas G Postels, Xiaoting Wu, Chenxi Li, Peter W Kaplan, Karl B Seydel, Terrie E Taylor, Youssef A Kousa, Richard Idro, Robert Opoka, Chandy C John, Gretchen L Birbeck 2018 George Washington University

Admission Eeg Findings In Diverse Paediatric Cerebral Malaria Populations Predict Outcomes., Douglas G Postels, Xiaoting Wu, Chenxi Li, Peter W Kaplan, Karl B Seydel, Terrie E Taylor, Youssef A Kousa, Richard Idro, Robert Opoka, Chandy C John, Gretchen L Birbeck

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Electroencephalography at hospital presentation may offer important insights regarding prognosis that can inform understanding of cerebral malaria (CM) pathophysiology and potentially guide patient selection and risk stratification for future clinical trials. Electroencephalogram (EEG) findings in children with CM in Uganda and Malawi were compared and associations between admission EEG findings and outcome across this diverse population were assessed. Demographic, clinical and admission EEG data from Ugandan and Malawian children admitted from 2009 to 2012 with CM were gathered, and survivors assessed for neurological abnormalities at discharge.

RESULTS: 281 children were enrolled (Uganda n = 122, Malawi n = 159). The Malawian ...


The Wide Utility Of Rabbits As Models Of Human Diseases, Pedro J. Esteves, Yuxing Chen, Shuying Liu, Shan Lu, Michael Vaine, Shixia Wang, Rose Mage 2018 Universidade do Porto, Portugal

The Wide Utility Of Rabbits As Models Of Human Diseases, Pedro J. Esteves, Yuxing Chen, Shuying Liu, Shan Lu, Michael Vaine, Shixia Wang, Rose Mage

Open Access Articles

Studies using the European rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus contributed to elucidating numerous fundamental aspects of antibody structure and diversification mechanisms and continue to be valuable for the development and testing of therapeutic humanized polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. Additionally, during the last two decades, the use of the European rabbit as an animal model has been increasingly extended to many human diseases. This review documents the continuing wide utility of the rabbit as a reliable disease model for development of therapeutics and vaccines and studies of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying many human diseases. Examples include syphilis, tuberculosis, HIV-AIDS, acute hepatic ...


Hiv Mortality Difference Between Black And White Women, CARLOS O. NESBETH, Rajiv Kandala, Syed Najeeb, Ruksana Nazneen, Banglore Murthy 2018 Meharry Medical College

Hiv Mortality Difference Between Black And White Women, Carlos O. Nesbeth, Rajiv Kandala, Syed Najeeb, Ruksana Nazneen, Banglore Murthy

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

OBJECTIVE

In the United States, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to be among the top 10 leading causes of mortality for black women between the ages of 20 and 54¹, but does not rank among the top 10 leading causes of death for white women amongst all age groups². This study describes the HIV mortality difference between black and white women and formulate hypotheses that may reduce or eliminate disparities.

METHODS

Information was accessed through public data, the US Census, and the US Compressed Mortality File.

RESULTS

In these descriptive data from 1987 through 2015, including reliable HIV mortality ...


A Pharmacist's Guide To The Treatment Of Lyme Disease, Karlee Miller 2018 University of Wyoming

A Pharmacist's Guide To The Treatment Of Lyme Disease, Karlee Miller

Honors Theses AY 17/18

Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness with significant impact on the United States healthcare system. An estimated 329,000 cases of Lyme disease occur annually in the United States, making it one of the top ten most common Nationally Notifiable diseases to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS). The treatment of Lyme disease is responsible for approximate direct medical costs between $712 million to $1.3 billion annually. This comprehensive guide is intended to be used by healthcare professionals, particularly pharmacists, to assist in the evidence-based treatment and management of Lyme disease.


Facilitating The Everyday Steward: Impact Of Mandatory Antimicrobial Indication/Duration And A 48 Hour Time Out, Ann L. Wirtz, Alaina N. Burns, Brian R. Lee, Tammy Frank, Laura Fitzmaurice, Richard Ogden, Brian O'Neal, Jennifer Goldman 2018 Children's Mercy Kansas City

Facilitating The Everyday Steward: Impact Of Mandatory Antimicrobial Indication/Duration And A 48 Hour Time Out, Ann L. Wirtz, Alaina N. Burns, Brian R. Lee, Tammy Frank, Laura Fitzmaurice, Richard Ogden, Brian O'Neal, Jennifer Goldman

Posters

Introduction: Required indication, duration, and a 48-hour antimicrobial timeout are an integral part of antimicrobial stewardship standards; however, limited data are available to demonstrate an effect on antimicrobial utilization and antimicrobial stewardship practice. Therefore, we evaluated the impact of mandatory declared indication/duration along with a pharmacy-driven 48-hour timeout on antimicrobial utilization and antimicrobial stewardship interventions.

Methods: We performed a retrospective evaluation of ASP interventions and antimicrobial use following implementation of mandatory antimicrobial indication/duration at the point of computerized physician order entry (CPOE). A pharmacist-driven 48-hour antimicrobial timeout was introduced on the same date. This study was conducted at ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress