Elevated Levels Of Matrix Metalloproteinases Reflect Severity And Extent Of Disease In Tuberculosis-Diabetes Co-Morbidity And Are Predominantly Reversed Following Standard Anti-Tuberculosis Or Metformin Treatment, 2018 National Institutes of Health-NIH-NIRT-ICER
Elevated Levels Of Matrix Metalloproteinases Reflect Severity And Extent Of Disease In Tuberculosis-Diabetes Co-Morbidity And Are Predominantly Reversed Following Standard Anti-Tuberculosis Or Metformin Treatment, Nathella P. Kumar, Kadar Moideen, Vijay Viswanathan, Basavaradhya S. Shruthi, Shanmugam Sivakumar, Pradeep A. Menon, Hardy Kornfeld, Subash Babu
Open Access Articles
BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are considered to be key mediators of tuberculosis (TB) pathology but their role in tuberculosis - diabetes comorbidity (TB-DM) is not well understood.
METHODS: To study the association of MMP levels with severity and extent of disease as well as bacterial burden in TB-DM, we examined the systemic levels of MMP-1, - 2, - 3, - 7, - 8, - 9, - 10, - 12 and - 13 in individuals with TB-DM and compared them to those with TB alone (TB) or healthy controls (HC). RESULTS: Circulating levels of MMP-1, - 2, - 3, - 7, - 10 and - 12 were significantly higher in TB-DM compared to both TB ...
Synovial Sarcoma Of Cervicodorsal Spine: A Case Report, 2018 Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad.
Synovial Sarcoma Of Cervicodorsal Spine: A Case Report, Wali Umer Shah, Syeda Dania Shujaat, Naseeb Ullah, Salman Mansoor
Section of Neurology
Synovial sarcoma is a soft-tissue sarcoma. Its involvement of the spine is extremely rare. We report a 40 year old male who presented with shoulder pain and progressive weakness in all four limbs for six months with a visible, slowly growing bulge in his upper back. On examination he had quadriparesis and diffuse sensory deficit. MRI of the cervical spine showed a large soft tissue mass, iso to hypointense, extending into the neural canal, compressing the cord. The mass had a few internal areas of contrast enhancement with extension into the right paraspinal regions involving the vertebral bodies. Sub-periosteal spine ...
Improving The Sensitivity Of Real-Time Pcr Detection Of Group B Streptococcus Using Consensus Sequence-Derived Oligonucleotides, Ameneh Khatami, Tara M. Randis, Anna Chamby, Thomas A. Hooven, Margaret Gegick, Evan Suzman, Brady A'Hearn-Thomas, Andrew P. Steenhoff, Adam J. Ratner
Stead Family Department of Pediatrics Publications
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a perinatal pathogen and an emerging cause of disease in adults. Culture-independent GBS detection relies on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of conserved genes, including sip. We demonstrate suboptimal sensitivity of the existing sip PCR strategy and validate an improved method based on consensus sequences from >100 GBS genomes.
Transcriptome Analysis Of Neisseria Gonorrhoeae During Natural Infection Reveals Differential Expression Of Antibiotic Resistance Determinants Between Men And Women, Kathleen Nudel, Ryan Mcclure, Matthew Moreau, Emma Briars, A. Jeanine Abrams, Brian Tjaden, Xiao-Hong Su, David Trees, Peter A. Rice, Paola Massari, Caroline A. Genco
Open Access Articles
Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a bacterial pathogen responsible for the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhea. Emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of N. gonorrhoeae worldwide has resulted in limited therapeutic choices for this infection. Men who seek treatment often have symptomatic urethritis; in contrast, gonococcal cervicitis in women is usually minimally symptomatic, but may progress to pelvic inflammatory disease. Previously, we reported the first analysis of gonococcal transcriptome expression determined in secretions from women with cervical infection. Here, we defined gonococcal global transcriptional responses in urethral specimens from men with symptomatic urethritis and compared these with transcriptional responses in specimens obtained from women ...
Incidence Of Postpartum Infection, Outcomes And Associated Risk Factors At Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital In Uganda, 2018 Mbarara University of Science and Technology
Incidence Of Postpartum Infection, Outcomes And Associated Risk Factors At Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital In Uganda, Joseph Ngonzi, Lisa M. Bebell, Yarine Fajardo, Adeline A. Boatin, Mark J. Siedner, Ingrid V. Bassett, Yves Jacquemyn, Jean-Pierre Van Geertruyden, Jerome Kabakyenga, Blair J. Wylie, David R. Bangsberg, Laura E. Riley
OHSU-PSU School of Public Health Faculty Publications and Presentations
Background: There is a paucity of recent prospective data on the incidence of postpartum infections and associated risk factors in sub-Saharan Africa. Retrospective studies estimate that puerperal sepsis causes approximately 10% of maternal deaths in Africa.
Methods: We enrolled 4231 women presenting to a Ugandan regional referral hospital for delivery or postpartum care into a prospective cohort and measured vital signs postpartum. Women developing fever (> 38.0 °C) or hypothermia (< 36.0 °C) underwent symptom questionnaire, structured physical exam, malaria testing, blood, and urine cultures. Demographic, treatment, and post-discharge outcomes data were collected from febrile/hypothermic women and a random sample of 1708 normothermic women. The primary outcome was in-hospital postpartum infection. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine factors independently associated with postpartum fever/ hypothermia and with confirmed infection.
Results: Overall, 4176/4231 (99%) had ≥1 temperature measured and 205/4231 (5%) were febrile or hypothermic. An additional 1708 normothermic women were randomly selected for additional data collection, for ...
The Wide Utility Of Rabbits As Models Of Human Diseases, 2018 Universidade do Porto, Portugal
The Wide Utility Of Rabbits As Models Of Human Diseases, Pedro J. Esteves, Yuxing Chen, Shuying Liu, Shan Lu, Michael Vaine, Shixia Wang, Rose Mage
Open Access Articles
Studies using the European rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus contributed to elucidating numerous fundamental aspects of antibody structure and diversification mechanisms and continue to be valuable for the development and testing of therapeutic humanized polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. Additionally, during the last two decades, the use of the European rabbit as an animal model has been increasingly extended to many human diseases. This review documents the continuing wide utility of the rabbit as a reliable disease model for development of therapeutics and vaccines and studies of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying many human diseases. Examples include syphilis, tuberculosis, HIV-AIDS, acute hepatic ...
Admission Eeg Findings In Diverse Paediatric Cerebral Malaria Populations Predict Outcomes., 2018 George Washington University
Admission Eeg Findings In Diverse Paediatric Cerebral Malaria Populations Predict Outcomes., Douglas G Postels, Xiaoting Wu, Chenxi Li, Peter W Kaplan, Karl B Seydel, Terrie E Taylor, Youssef A Kousa, Richard Idro, Robert Opoka, Chandy C John, Gretchen L Birbeck
Pediatrics Faculty Publications
BACKGROUND: Electroencephalography at hospital presentation may offer important insights regarding prognosis that can inform understanding of cerebral malaria (CM) pathophysiology and potentially guide patient selection and risk stratification for future clinical trials. Electroencephalogram (EEG) findings in children with CM in Uganda and Malawi were compared and associations between admission EEG findings and outcome across this diverse population were assessed. Demographic, clinical and admission EEG data from Ugandan and Malawian children admitted from 2009 to 2012 with CM were gathered, and survivors assessed for neurological abnormalities at discharge.
RESULTS: 281 children were enrolled (Uganda n = 122, Malawi n = 159). The Malawian ...
Hiv Mortality Difference Between Black And White Women, 2018 Meharry Medical College
Hiv Mortality Difference Between Black And White Women, Carlos O. Nesbeth, Rajiv Kandala, Syed Najeeb, Ruksana Nazneen, Banglore Murthy
Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice
In the United States, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to be among the top 10 leading causes of mortality for black women between the ages of 20 and 54¹, but does not rank among the top 10 leading causes of death for white women amongst all age groups². This study describes the HIV mortality difference between black and white women and formulate hypotheses that may reduce or eliminate disparities.
Information was accessed through public data, the US Census, and the US Compressed Mortality File.
In these descriptive data from 1987 through 2015, including reliable HIV mortality ...
A Pharmacist's Guide To The Treatment Of Lyme Disease, 2018 University of Wyoming
A Pharmacist's Guide To The Treatment Of Lyme Disease, Karlee Miller
Honors Theses AY 17/18
Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness with significant impact on the United States healthcare system. An estimated 329,000 cases of Lyme disease occur annually in the United States, making it one of the top ten most common Nationally Notifiable diseases to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS). The treatment of Lyme disease is responsible for approximate direct medical costs between $712 million to $1.3 billion annually. This comprehensive guide is intended to be used by healthcare professionals, particularly pharmacists, to assist in the evidence-based treatment and management of Lyme disease.
Facilitating The Everyday Steward: Impact Of Mandatory Antimicrobial Indication/Duration And A 48 Hour Time Out, 2018 Children's Mercy Kansas City
Facilitating The Everyday Steward: Impact Of Mandatory Antimicrobial Indication/Duration And A 48 Hour Time Out, Ann L. Wirtz, Alaina N. Burns, Brian R. Lee, Tammy Frank, Laura Fitzmaurice, Richard Ogden, Brian O'Neal, Jennifer Goldman
Introduction: Required indication, duration, and a 48-hour antimicrobial timeout are an integral part of antimicrobial stewardship standards; however, limited data are available to demonstrate an effect on antimicrobial utilization and antimicrobial stewardship practice. Therefore, we evaluated the impact of mandatory declared indication/duration along with a pharmacy-driven 48-hour timeout on antimicrobial utilization and antimicrobial stewardship interventions.
Methods: We performed a retrospective evaluation of ASP interventions and antimicrobial use following implementation of mandatory antimicrobial indication/duration at the point of computerized physician order entry (CPOE). A pharmacist-driven 48-hour antimicrobial timeout was introduced on the same date. This study was conducted at ...
Infections Not Fought: Antibiotic Resistance In Underserved Communities, 2018 Liberty University
Infections Not Fought: Antibiotic Resistance In Underserved Communities, Derek Lillestolen
Senior Honors Theses
In 1928, the profound effects of penicillin were discovered and antibiotic treatments became extremely popular. Broad-spectrum antibiotics, like tetracyclines, have been since branded as cure-all prescriptions and used profusely in the Western World and abroad. Due to ignorance of specific biochemical mechanisms and the misuse of antibiotics these drugs inadvertently allowed the rise in prevalence of antibiotic resistant strains of certain bacteria as the century progressed. Now, the specific genetic causes and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance are being understood, but the fight against antimicrobial resistance is far from over. In the United States, thousands of fatalities are caused annually by ...
Herpes Zoster Patient Education: A Coloring Book Approach, 2018 Liberty University
Herpes Zoster Patient Education: A Coloring Book Approach, Sophia Charuhas
Senior Honors Theses
Shingles, the disease caused by the herpes zoster virus, is a widespread and widely misunderstood illness in the United States. It is preventable, but many at-risk patients do not know what measures they may take to prevent it. Clear communication from physician to patient is crucial for patient understanding of diseases. Many patient education materials on herpes zoster currently available are often unused. It is therefore beneficial to public health to disseminate new mediums of medical communication, and one way of accomplishing this is through adult coloring books. The pathophysiology of herpes zoster virus is here explored and the idea ...
Use Of Urine Antigen Testing For Blastomyces In An Integrated Health System, 2018 Aurora UW Medical Group, Aurora Health Care
Use Of Urine Antigen Testing For Blastomyces In An Integrated Health System, Dennis J. Baumgardner
Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews
Purpose: Blastomycosis, an endemic fungal infection, mimics many other diseases. We explored the use of Blastomyces urine antigen (BuAg), reportedly the most sensitive noninvasive test, in clinical practice and compared it to other noninvasive tests.
Methods: A total of 836 BuAg tests performed on unique patients (first test only) at one large integrated health system from June 2013 to May 2016 were retrospectively reviewed to examine test characteristics and demographic features. Of these, 100 cases from 2015, a year containing a large local blastomycosis outbreak, were randomly selected for detailed analysis.
Results: Demographics for the BuAg-tested population: mean age 54 ...
Tetanus In An Unvaccinated Amish Woman After A Breech Home Delivery In Kentucky, 2016, 2018 University of Louisville
Tetanus In An Unvaccinated Amish Woman After A Breech Home Delivery In Kentucky, 2016, Veronica Corcino, Anna Q. Yaffee, Maydelin Pecchio, Mary E. Powell, Forest W. Arnold
Journal of Refugee & Global Health
No abstract provided.
Differential Diagnosis Of Pan-Uveitis: Behçet’S Disease, 2018 East Tennessee State University
Differential Diagnosis Of Pan-Uveitis: Behçet’S Disease, Peter Blosser, Remil Simon, Courtney Ridner
Appalachian Student Research Forum
This report describes the case of a 56-year-old man who presented with blurry vision, increased intraocular pressure, and conjunctival injection after posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation. Initially post-operative endophalmitis and foreign body inflammation were considered as differential diagnoses, but after further examination pan-uveitis was diagnosed. Uveitis is an ocular finding that may indicate several diseases, one of which is Behçet’s Disease. During the interview, the patient mentioned a history of apthous ulcers and genital ulcers which then lead to the clinical diagnosis of Behçet’s Disease. This report emphasizes that Behçet’s Disease is rare in Caucasians. Therefore, is ...
Involuntary Sterilization Among Hiv-Positive Garifuna Women From Honduras Seeking Asylum In The United States: Two Case Reports, Holly G. Atkinson, Deborah Ottenheimer
Publications and Research
Voluntary sterilization is one of the most widely used forms of contraception by women worldwide; however, involuntary sterilization is considered a violation of multiple human rights and grounds for asylum in the United States. Women have been disproportionately affected by this practice. We report two cases of involuntary sterilization in HIV-positive Garifuna women from Honduras who sought asylum in America and were medically evaluated at the request of their attorneys. Key lessons can be drawn from these cases with regard to the importance of medical evaluations in establishing persecution. These include the need for a detailed account of the events ...
Under The Needle: Understanding The Benefits And Misconceptions Of Vaccinations, 2018 Germanna Community College
Under The Needle: Understanding The Benefits And Misconceptions Of Vaccinations, Desmond Davis
By and large, medical and government institutions such as the CDC have been primarily responsible for educating the public on the necessities of vaccinations, and quelling fears regarding them. As the world becomes more connected, proponents of the anti-vaccination movement find common ground via social media platforms and other outlets from which to confirm preexisting notions that vaccines are detrimental to recipients. This places a burden on both the aforementioned institutions as well as the general public to deal with potential outbreaks before they either resurge from previously low infectivity rates, or before they reach epidemic proportions.
Autism And Vaccines: Exploring Misperceptions In Science, 2018 Germanna Community College
Autism And Vaccines: Exploring Misperceptions In Science, Arsenio Menendez
This paper will be exploring the supposed link between vaccines and autism which is a hot button topic as of late. Starting at the roots of where this myth began with the infamous and long since disproved initial paper penned by Andrew Wakefield. As of late with the ever-rising numbers of parents deciding to forego the vaccination of their children there is an increasing risk of herd immunity failing leading to old diseases that had been wiped out making a massive resurgence. Detailed in my research findings will be data driven explorations of psychology and human nature changing perception of ...
The Link Between Vaccination And Autism, 2018 Germanna Community College
The Link Between Vaccination And Autism, Erika Tellez
Vaccination provides individuals with protection against many preventable diseases, yet many claims against vaccination have causes vaccination rates to drop. Vaccination rates have dropped after a claim that vaccines offset autism was published. Although vaccination is necessary in order to prevent the spread of diseases throughout the population and in order to protect individuals who cannot be vaccinated. The claim that there is a link between vaccines and autism has been disproven based on lack of communication between the scientific community and public, discovery of falsified evidence, and further studies which demonstrate there is no link.
Shigellosis And Giardiasis Among People Living With Hiv In Washington, Dc, 2012-2016, 2018 George Washington University
Shigellosis And Giardiasis Among People Living With Hiv In Washington, Dc, 2012-2016, Kimesha Linton, Kerri Dorsey, Sasha Mcgee, Preetha Iyengar, Garret Lum, Rupali Doshi
GW Research Days 2016 - Present
Background: Shigellosis and giardiasis are transmitted via food, water, and fecal-oral contact. CDC has recently reported increased shigellosis among men who have sex with men (MSM) and among people living with HIV (PLWH), particularly stage 3. Our goal was to characterize the incidence and risk factors associated with shigellosis and giardiasis among PLWH in Washington, DC, in an era of robust availability of antiretroviral treatment.
Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of HIV, shigellosis and giardiasis cases reported to the District of Columbia Department of Health from 2012 to 2016. We used LinkPlus to probabilistically match individuals with reported HIV ...