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841 full-text articles. Page 6 of 33.

A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis On Herpes Zoster And The Risk Of Cardiac And Cerebrovascular Events, Nathaniel Erskine, Hoang Tran, Len L. Levin, Christine M. Ulbricht, Joyce D. Fingeroth, Catarina I. Kiefe, Robert J. Goldberg, Sonal Singh 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis On Herpes Zoster And The Risk Of Cardiac And Cerebrovascular Events, Nathaniel Erskine, Hoang Tran, Len L. Levin, Christine M. Ulbricht, Joyce D. Fingeroth, Catarina I. Kiefe, Robert J. Goldberg, Sonal Singh

Catarina I. Kiefe

BACKGROUND: Patients who develop herpes zoster or herpes zoster ophthalmicus may be at risk for cerebrovascular and cardiac complications. We systematically reviewed the published literature to determine the association between herpes zoster and its subtypes with the occurrence of cerebrovascular and cardiac events. METHODS/RESULTS: Systematic searches of PubMed (MEDLINE), SCOPUS (Embase) and Google Scholar were performed in December 2016. Eligible studies were cohort, case-control, and self-controlled case-series examining the association between herpes zoster or subtypes of herpes zoster with the occurrence of cerebrovascular and cardiac events including stroke, transient ischemic attack, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction. Data on ...


Effects Of Acute Sepsis On Renal Structure And Sympathetic Innervation In Mice, Tuqa Alkhateeb 2017 East Tennessee State University

Effects Of Acute Sepsis On Renal Structure And Sympathetic Innervation In Mice, Tuqa Alkhateeb

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Sympathetic nerves are important for renal physiology and sepsis pathophysiology. A recent study showed sprouting of sympathetic nerves in spleen of septic mice. This study was done to test if renal sprouting of sympathetic nerves also happens and to investigate renal morphology in septic mice. Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) was used to induce sepsis and kidneys were removed for evaluation. Bowman’s space was diminished with cortical bubble cells present suggestive of acute renal pathology, however, renal function was unchanged. Acute sepsis did not affect either renal sympathetic innervation or non-neuronal cholinergic cells. Mouse kidneys had more epinephrine (EPI ...


Child Contact Management In High Tuberculosis Burden Countries: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review, Daria Szkwarko, Yael Hirsch-Moverman, Lienki Du Plessis, Karen Du Preez, Catherine W. Carr, Anna M. Mandalakas 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Child Contact Management In High Tuberculosis Burden Countries: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review, Daria Szkwarko, Yael Hirsch-Moverman, Lienki Du Plessis, Karen Du Preez, Catherine W. Carr, Anna M. Mandalakas

Library Publications and Presentations

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Considering the World Health Organization recommendation to implement child contact management (CCM) for TB, we conducted a mixed-methods systematic review to summarize CCM implementation, challenges, predictors, and recommendations. We searched the electronic databases of PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science for studies published between 1996-2017 that reported CCM data from high TB-burden countries. Protocol details for this systematic review were registered on PROSPERO: International prospective register of systematic reviews (#CRD42016038105). We formulated a search strategy to identify all available studies, published in English that specifically targeted a) population ...


Evaluation Of The Performance Of Tn Integrated Food Safety Center Of Excellence Online Training Courses, Amal S. Humidat 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Evaluation Of The Performance Of Tn Integrated Food Safety Center Of Excellence Online Training Courses, Amal S. Humidat

Masters Theses

Foodborne disease outbreaks are still a challenge in the United States even with the improvements that are continuously made to the food integrity system. The Center for Agriculture and Food Security and Preparedness (CAFSP), in conjunction with the Tennessee Integrated Food Safety Center of Excellence, has developed two web-based courses to support investigation of foodborne illnesses. These courses are entitled as “Foodborne Outbreak Investigation and Response Team Roles and Responsibilities, Part A and B” respectively. The overall goal of this study was to evaluate each course by assessing the participants' satisfaction, learning, and perception of knowledge gained and impact on ...


A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis On Herpes Zoster And The Risk Of Cardiac And Cerebrovascular Events, Nathaniel Erskine, Hoang Tran, Len L. Levin, Christine M. Ulbricht, Joyce D. Fingeroth, Catarina I. Kiefe, Robert J. Goldberg, Sonal Singh 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis On Herpes Zoster And The Risk Of Cardiac And Cerebrovascular Events, Nathaniel Erskine, Hoang Tran, Len L. Levin, Christine M. Ulbricht, Joyce D. Fingeroth, Catarina I. Kiefe, Robert J. Goldberg, Sonal Singh

Library Publications and Presentations

BACKGROUND: Patients who develop herpes zoster or herpes zoster ophthalmicus may be at risk for cerebrovascular and cardiac complications. We systematically reviewed the published literature to determine the association between herpes zoster and its subtypes with the occurrence of cerebrovascular and cardiac events.

METHODS/RESULTS: Systematic searches of PubMed (MEDLINE), SCOPUS (Embase) and Google Scholar were performed in December 2016. Eligible studies were cohort, case-control, and self-controlled case-series examining the association between herpes zoster or subtypes of herpes zoster with the occurrence of cerebrovascular and cardiac events including stroke, transient ischemic attack, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction. Data on ...


Recurrent Clostridium Difficile Infection Among Medicare Patients In Nursing Homes: A Population-Based Cohort Study, Marya D. Zilberberg, Andrew F. Shorr, William M. Jesdale, Jennifer Tjia, Kate L. Lapane 2017 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Recurrent Clostridium Difficile Infection Among Medicare Patients In Nursing Homes: A Population-Based Cohort Study, Marya D. Zilberberg, Andrew F. Shorr, William M. Jesdale, Jennifer Tjia, Kate L. Lapane

Jennifer Tjia

We explored the epidemiology and outcomes of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) recurrence among Medicare patients in a nursing home (NH) whose CDI originated in acute care hospitals. We conducted a retrospective, population-based matched cohort combining Medicare claims with Minimum Data Set 3.0, including all hospitalized patients age > /=65 years transferred to an NH after hospitalization with CDI 1/2011-11/2012. Incident CDI was defined as ICD-9-CM code 008.45 with no others in prior 60 days. CDI recurrence was defined as (within 60 days of last day of CDI treatment): oral metronidazole, oral vancomycin, or fidaxomicin for > /=3 days ...


Risk Factors For Bk Virus Infection After Kidney Transplantation, London, Ontario 2016, Seyed M Hosseini-Moghaddam 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Risk Factors For Bk Virus Infection After Kidney Transplantation, London, Ontario 2016, Seyed M Hosseini-Moghaddam

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Our objective was to determine the risk factors for BK virus infection in renal allograft recipients in the first year after transplantation. In this cohort, we included all patients who received renal allograft at London Health Sciences Centre (LHSC) between 2012 and 2014. We continued post-transplantation follow-up for one year. Of 175 patients (37% female) with median age (range) of 53 (14-82) years, 40 (22.9%) developed BK viremia (median interval:100 days, range: 35-264). Recipient age, recipient gender, hemodialysis (HD) vs peritoneal dialysis (PD), Human Leukocyte Antigens A1, B35 and Cw4 increased the risk of post-transplant BKV infection. However ...


Fungal Infections From Human And Animal Contact, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2017 Aurora UW Medical Group, Aurora Health Care; University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health; Center for Urban Population Health

Fungal Infections From Human And Animal Contact, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Dennis J. Baumgardner. MD

Fungal infections in humans resulting from human or animal contact are relatively uncommon, but they include a significant proportion of dermatophyte infections. Some of the most commonly encountered diseases of the integument are dermatomycoses. Human or animal contact may be the source of all types of tinea infections, occasional candidal infections, and some other types of superficial or deep fungal infections. This narrative review focuses on the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of anthropophilic dermatophyte infections primarily found in North America. Other human-acquired and zoonotic fungal infections also are discussed in brief.


Freshwater Fungal Infections, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2017 Aurora UW Medical Group, Aurora Health Care

Freshwater Fungal Infections, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Dennis J. Baumgardner. MD

Fungal infections as a result of freshwater exposure or trauma are fortunately rare. Etiologic agents are varied, but commonly include filamentous fungi and Candida. This narrative review describes various sources of potential freshwater fungal exposure and the diseases that may result, including fungal keratitis, acute otitis externa and tinea pedis, as well as rare deep soft tissue or bone infections and pulmonary or central nervous system infections following traumatic freshwater exposure during natural disasters or near-drowning episodes. Fungal etiology should be suspected in appropriate scenarios when bacterial cultures or molecular tests are normal or when the infection worsens or fails ...


Reduction Of Central Line Associated Bloodstream Infections In An Urban 40 Bed, Level Iii Neonatal Intensive Care Unit When New Practices Were Implemented, Roberta Glenn, BSMT (ASCP) CIC 2017 Thomas Jefferson University

Reduction Of Central Line Associated Bloodstream Infections In An Urban 40 Bed, Level Iii Neonatal Intensive Care Unit When New Practices Were Implemented, Roberta Glenn, Bsmt (Ascp) Cic

Department of Medicine Posters

BACKGROUND

  • Central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) in the neonatal population is a major source of morbidity and mortality.
  • The disruption of skin and mucus membranes by the use of invasive devices contributes to the susceptibility of this population.
  • In our Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), the CLABSI rate was continually increasing.
  • It became evident that new practice guidelines were necessary to reduce the CLABSI rate in this vulnerable population.

Poster presented at: APIC 2017 in Portland Oregon, United States.


The Diagnostic Utility Of Induced Sputum Microscopy And Culture In Childhood Pneumonia., David R Murdoch, Susan C Morpeth, Laura L Hammitt, Amanda J Driscoll, Nora L Watson, Daniel E Park, +several additional authors 2017 George Washington University

The Diagnostic Utility Of Induced Sputum Microscopy And Culture In Childhood Pneumonia., David R Murdoch, Susan C Morpeth, Laura L Hammitt, Amanda J Driscoll, Nora L Watson, Daniel E Park, +Several Additional Authors

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

Background.

Sputum microscopy and culture are commonly used for diagnosing the cause of pneumonia in adults but are rarely performed in children due to difficulties in obtaining specimens. Induced sputum is occasionally used to investigate lower respiratory infections in children but has not been widely used in pneumonia etiology studies. Methods.

We evaluated the diagnostic utility of induced sputum microscopy and culture in patients enrolled in the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) study, a large study of community-acquired pneumonia in children aged 1–59 months. Comparisons were made between induced sputum samples from hospitalized children with radiographically confirmed ...


Is Higher Viral Load In The Upper Respiratory Tract Associated With Severe Pneumonia? Findings From The Perch Study., Daniel R Feikin, Wei Fu, Daniel E Park, Qiyuan Shi, Melissa M Higdon, Henry C Baggett, +several additional authors 2017 George Washington University

Is Higher Viral Load In The Upper Respiratory Tract Associated With Severe Pneumonia? Findings From The Perch Study., Daniel R Feikin, Wei Fu, Daniel E Park, Qiyuan Shi, Melissa M Higdon, Henry C Baggett, +Several Additional Authors

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

Background.

The etiologic inference of identifying a pathogen in the upper respiratory tract (URT) of children with pneumonia is unclear. To determine if viral load could provide evidence of causality of pneumonia, we compared viral load in the URT of children with World Health Organization–defined severe and very severe pneumonia and age-matched community controls.

Methods.

In the 9 developing country sites, nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs from children with and without pneumonia were tested using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for 17 viruses. The association of viral load with case status was evaluated using logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves ...


Standardization Of Clinical Assessment And Sample Collection Across All Perch Study Sites., Jane Crawley, Christine Prosperi, Henry C Baggett, W Abdullah Brooks, Maria Deloria Knoll, Daniel E Park, +several additional authors 2017 George Washington University

Standardization Of Clinical Assessment And Sample Collection Across All Perch Study Sites., Jane Crawley, Christine Prosperi, Henry C Baggett, W Abdullah Brooks, Maria Deloria Knoll, Daniel E Park, +Several Additional Authors

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

Background.: Variable adherence to standardized case definitions, clinical procedures, specimen collection techniques, and laboratory methods has complicated the interpretation of previous multicenter pneumonia etiology studies. To circumvent these problems, a program of clinical standardization was embedded in the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) study.

Methods.: Between March 2011 and August 2013, standardized training on the PERCH case definition, clinical procedures, and collection of laboratory specimens was delivered to 331 clinical staff at 9 study sites in 7 countries (The Gambia, Kenya, Mali, South Africa, Zambia, Thailand, and Bangladesh), through 32 on-site courses and a training website. Staff competency ...


Strategic Approach Of An Urban 900-Bed Academic Medical Center To Combat Clostridium Difficile Infection Transmission Using Staff Engagement, Courtney Mitchell, MPH, Kelly Zabriskie, CIC 2017 Thomas Jefferson University

Strategic Approach Of An Urban 900-Bed Academic Medical Center To Combat Clostridium Difficile Infection Transmission Using Staff Engagement, Courtney Mitchell, Mph, Kelly Zabriskie, Cic

Department of Medicine Posters

BACKGROUND

  • Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) caused nearly 500,000 illnesses with 29,000 deaths in the United States
  • Preventing hospital-associated Clostridium difficile infection (HA-CDI) is crucial to modern healthcare systems for reducing mortality, healthcare costs and length of stay
  • There are multiple risk factors for CDI transmission in healthcare settings:
    • Failure to comply with hand hygiene
    • Ineffective equipment and surface cleaning
    • Diagnosis delays

Poster presented at: APIC 2017 in Portland Oregon, United States.


Data Management And Data Quality In Perch, A Large International Case-Control Study Of Severe Childhood Pneumonia., Nora L Watson, Christine Prosperi, Amanda J Driscoll, Melissa M Higdon, Daniel E Park, Megan Sanza, Andrea N DeLuca, Juliet O Awori, Doli Goswami, Emily Hammond, Lokman Hossain, Catherine Johnson, Alice Kamau, Locadiah Kuwanda, David P Moore, Omid Neyzari, Uma Onwuchekwa, David Parker, Patranuch Sapchookul 2017 George Washington University

Data Management And Data Quality In Perch, A Large International Case-Control Study Of Severe Childhood Pneumonia., Nora L Watson, Christine Prosperi, Amanda J Driscoll, Melissa M Higdon, Daniel E Park, Megan Sanza, Andrea N Deluca, Juliet O Awori, Doli Goswami, Emily Hammond, Lokman Hossain, Catherine Johnson, Alice Kamau, Locadiah Kuwanda, David P Moore, Omid Neyzari, Uma Onwuchekwa, David Parker, Patranuch Sapchookul

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

The Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) study is the largest multicountry etiology study of pediatric pneumonia undertaken in the past 3 decades. The study enrolled 4232 hospitalized cases and 5325 controls over 2 years across 9 research sites in 7 countries in Africa and Asia. The volume and complexity of data collection in PERCH presented considerable logistical and technical challenges. The project chose an internet-based data entry system to allow real-time access to the data, enabling the project to monitor and clean incoming data and perform preliminary analyses throughout the study. To ensure high-quality data, the project developed ...


Microscopic Analysis And Quality Assessment Of Induced Sputum From Children With Pneumonia In The Perch Study., David R Murdoch, Susan C Morpeth, Laura L Hammitt, Amanda J Driscoll, Daniel E Park, +several additional authors 2017 George Washington University

Microscopic Analysis And Quality Assessment Of Induced Sputum From Children With Pneumonia In The Perch Study., David R Murdoch, Susan C Morpeth, Laura L Hammitt, Amanda J Driscoll, Daniel E Park, +Several Additional Authors

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

Background.

It is standard practice for laboratories to assess the cellular quality of expectorated sputum specimens to check that they originated from the lower respiratory tract. The presence of low numbers of squamous epithelial cells (SECs) and high numbers of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells are regarded as indicative of a lower respiratory tract specimen. However, these quality ratings have never been evaluated for induced sputum specimens from children with suspected pneumonia. Methods.

We evaluated induced sputum Gram stain smears and cultures from hospitalized children aged 1–59 months enrolled in a large study of community-acquired pneumonia. We hypothesized that a specimen ...


Association Of C-Reactive Protein With Bacterial And Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Associated Pneumonia Among Children Aged <5 Years In The Perch Study., Melissa M Higdon, Tham Le, Katherine L O'Brien, David R Murdoch, Christine Prosperi, Henry C Baggett, Daniel E Park, +several additional authors 2017 George Washington University

Association Of C-Reactive Protein With Bacterial And Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Associated Pneumonia Among Children Aged <5 Years In The Perch Study., Melissa M Higdon, Tham Le, Katherine L O'Brien, David R Murdoch, Christine Prosperi, Henry C Baggett, Daniel E Park, +Several Additional Authors

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

Background.

Lack of a gold standard for identifying bacterial and viral etiologies of pneumonia has limited evaluation of C-reactive protein (CRP) for identifying bacterial pneumonia. We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of CRP for identifying bacterial vs respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) pneumonia in the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) multicenter case-control study. Methods.

We measured serum CRP levels in cases with World Health Organization–defined severe or very severe pneumonia and a subset of community controls. We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of elevated CRP for “confirmed” bacterial pneumonia (positive blood culture or positive lung aspirate or pleural ...


Safety Of Induced Sputum Collection In Children Hospitalized With Severe Or Very Severe Pneumonia., Andrea N DeLuca, Laura L Hammitt, Julia Kim, Melissa M Higdon, Henry C Baggett, Daniel E Park, +several additional authors 2017 George Washington University

Safety Of Induced Sputum Collection In Children Hospitalized With Severe Or Very Severe Pneumonia., Andrea N Deluca, Laura L Hammitt, Julia Kim, Melissa M Higdon, Henry C Baggett, Daniel E Park, +Several Additional Authors

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

Background.: Induced sputum (IS) may provide diagnostic information about the etiology of pneumonia. The safety of this procedure across a heterogeneous population with severe pneumonia in low- and middle-income countries has not been described.

Methods.: IS specimens were obtained as part a 7-country study of the etiology of severe and very severe pneumonia in hospitalized childrenbefore, during, and after the procedure to record oxygen requirement, oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, consciousness level, and other evidence of clinical deterioration. Criteria for IS contraindications were predefined and serious adverse events (SAEs) were reported to ethics committees and a central safety monitor.

Results.: A ...


Emerging Antimicrobial Resistance In Early And Late-Onset Neonatal Sepsis, Lamiaa Mohnsen, Nermin Ramy, Dalia Saied, Dina Akmal, Niveen Salama, Mona Abdel Haleim, Hany Aly 2017 George Washington University

Emerging Antimicrobial Resistance In Early And Late-Onset Neonatal Sepsis, Lamiaa Mohnsen, Nermin Ramy, Dalia Saied, Dina Akmal, Niveen Salama, Mona Abdel Haleim, Hany Aly

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

Background

Compared to developed countries, the use of antimicrobials in Egypt is less regulated and is available over the counter without the need for prescriptions. The impact of such policy on antimicrobial resistance has not been studied. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of early and late onset sepsis, and the frequency of antimicrobial resistance in a major referral neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).

Methods

The study included all neonates admitted to the NICU over a 12-month period. Prospectively collected clinical and laboratory data were retrieved, including blood cultures and endotracheal aspirate cultures if performed.

Results

A total of ...


Association Of Hypercapnia On Admission With Increased Length Of Hospital Stay And Severity In Patients Admitted With Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A Prospective Observational Study From Pakistan., Nousheen Iqbal, Muhammad Irfan, Ali Bin Sarwar Zubairi, Safia Awan, Javaid Khan 2017 Aga Khan University

Association Of Hypercapnia On Admission With Increased Length Of Hospital Stay And Severity In Patients Admitted With Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A Prospective Observational Study From Pakistan., Nousheen Iqbal, Muhammad Irfan, Ali Bin Sarwar Zubairi, Safia Awan, Javaid Khan

Department of Medicine

Objectives: To determine whether the presence of hypercapnia on admission in adult patients admitted to a university-based hospital in Karachi, Pakistan with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) correlates with an increased length of hospital stay and severity compared with no hypercapnia on admission.

Study Design: A prospective observational study.

Settings: Tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan.

Methods: Patients who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study. The severity of pneumonia was assessed by CURB-65 and PSI scores. An arterial blood gas analysis was obtained within 24 hours of admission. Based on arterial PaCO2 levels, patients were divided into three ...


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