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The Economic Interest Concept: A Historical And Policy Perspective, Edmund D. Fenton Jr., P. Michael Davis 2021 Eastern Kentucky University

The Economic Interest Concept: A Historical And Policy Perspective, Edmund D. Fenton Jr., P. Michael Davis

Journal of Natural Resources & Environmental Law

No abstract provided.


Consent By Registration: The "Back-Door Thief", Nate Arrington 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Consent By Registration: The "Back-Door Thief", Nate Arrington

Arkansas Law Review

Consider this personal jurisdiction quandary: A growing Arizona company wants to start expanding into other states. The company is incorporated in Delaware and has its principal place of business in Arizona. It decides to make the leap and begins registering to do business in a few surrounding states, including New Mexico. The registration seems straightforward and does not mention anything about jurisdiction. After the registration, but before conducting any business in New Mexico, a Kentucky resident decides to sue the Arizona-based corporation. The suit is based on an alleged tort occurring in Utah, and the plaintiff files the lawsuit in ...


A Lesson From Startups: Contracting Out Of Shareholder Appraisal, Jill E. Fisch 2021 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School

A Lesson From Startups: Contracting Out Of Shareholder Appraisal, Jill E. Fisch

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Appraisal is a controversial topic. Policymakers have debated the goals served by the appraisal remedy, and legislatures have repeatedly revised appraisal statutes in an effort to meet those goals while minimizing the cost and potential abuse associated with appraisal litigation. Courts have struggled to determine the most appropriate valuation methodology and the extent to which that methodology should depend on case-specific factors. These difficulties are exacerbated by variation in the procedures by which mergers are negotiated and the potential for conflict-of-interest transactions.

Private ordering offers a market-based alternative to continued legislative or judicial efforts to refine the appraisal remedy. Through ...


Stealth Governance: Shareholder Agreements And Private Ordering, Jill E. Fisch 2021 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School

Stealth Governance: Shareholder Agreements And Private Ordering, Jill E. Fisch

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Corporate law has embraced private ordering -- tailoring a firm’s corporate governance to meet its individual needs. Firms are increasingly adopting firm-specific governance through dual-class voting structures, forum selection provisions and tailored limitations on the duty of loyalty. Courts have accepted these provisions as consistent with the contractual theory of the firm, and statutes, in many cases, explicitly endorse their use. Commentators too support private ordering for its capacity to facilitate innovation and enhance efficiency.

Private ordering typically occurs through firm-specific charter and bylaw provisions. VC-funded startups, however, frequently use an alternative tool – shareholder agreements. These agreements, which have largely ...


Lifting Labor’S Voice: A Principled Path Toward Greater Worker Voice And Power Within American Corporate Governance, Leo E. Strine Jr., Aneil Kovvali, Oluwatomi O. Williams 2021 University of Pennsylvania

Lifting Labor’S Voice: A Principled Path Toward Greater Worker Voice And Power Within American Corporate Governance, Leo E. Strine Jr., Aneil Kovvali, Oluwatomi O. Williams

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In view of the decline in gain sharing by corporations with American workers over the last forty years, advocates for American workers have expressed growing interest in allowing workers to elect representatives to corporate boards. Board level representation rights have gained appeal because they are a highly visible part of codetermination regimes that operate in several successful European economies, including Germany’s, in which workers have fared better.

But board-level representation is just one part of the comprehensive codetermination regulatory strategy as it is practiced abroad. Without a coherent supporting framework that includes representation from the ground up, as is ...


Formation And Development Of The Prosecutor's Supervision Over The Compliance Of Laws In Investigation Of Crimes In The Sphere Of Information Technologies, Atobek Ravshanovich Davronov, Atobek Davronov 2021 Academy of the General Prosecution office

Formation And Development Of The Prosecutor's Supervision Over The Compliance Of Laws In Investigation Of Crimes In The Sphere Of Information Technologies, Atobek Ravshanovich Davronov, Atobek Davronov

ProAcademy

The rapid growth of information technologies naturally determines the interest of researchers in them from various fields of science. Law, including criminal law, is no exception. Currently: a separate branch of law is being formed - information law. Despite this, until now in science unified approaches to the analysis of information and legal phenomena have not been developed. The article analyzes the formation and development of prosecutorial supervision over the execution of laws in the investigation of crimes in the field of information technology, and also studied the process of the emergence of information technology as a type of crime abroad ...


Duty And Diversity, Chris Brummer, Leo E. Strine Jr. 2021 Georgetown University Law Center

Duty And Diversity, Chris Brummer, Leo E. Strine Jr.

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In the wake of the brutal deaths of George Floyd and Breonna Taylor, a slew of reforms from Wall Street to the West Coast have been introduced, all aimed at increasing Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion (“DEI”) in corporations. Yet the reforms face difficulties ranging from possible constitutional challenges to critical limitations in their scale, scope and degree of legal obligation and practical effects. In this Article, we provide an old answer to the new questions facing DEI policy, and offer the first close examination of how corporate law duties impel and facilitate corporate attention to diversity. Specifically, we show that ...


The Deregulation Deception, Cary Coglianese, Natasha Sarin, Stuart Shapiro 2021 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School

The Deregulation Deception, Cary Coglianese, Natasha Sarin, Stuart Shapiro

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

President Donald Trump and his supporters repeatedly pointed to positive economic trends in the United States prior to the pandemic as proof of the growth delivered by his Administration, especially through deregulation. Yet, the Trump Administration actually accomplished much less by way of deregulation than it claimed—and much less than most commentators and scholars have surmised. In this Article, we perform an original analysis of data on federal regulation from the Trump Administration’s four years and find every claim made about its deregulatory record turned out either to be wrong or significantly exaggerated. The reality is that the ...


Prosecutor's Supervision Over The Legality Of The Preliminary Investigation And Inquiry During The Qualification Of Crimes In The Field Of Information Technology, Atobek Ravshanovich Davronov 2021 Academy of the General Prosecution office

Prosecutor's Supervision Over The Legality Of The Preliminary Investigation And Inquiry During The Qualification Of Crimes In The Field Of Information Technology, Atobek Ravshanovich Davronov

ProAcademy

Correct, that is, consistent with the principles of criminal law and criminal law, qualification of a crime ensures accurate and full application of the complex of norms of criminal and criminal procedure laws. Depending on the qualification of the crime, criminal law issues are resolved about punishment, release from criminal liability and punishment, parole, calculation of convictions, amnesty. The qualification of crimes is important for initiating a criminal case, determining the subject of proof, ensuring the rights of the accused and applying other criminal procedural norms. This scientific and practical article is devoted to the prosecutor's supervision over the ...


Should Corporations Have A Purpose?, Jill E. Fisch, Steven Davidoff Solomon 2021 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School

Should Corporations Have A Purpose?, Jill E. Fisch, Steven Davidoff Solomon

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The hot topic in corporate governance is the debate over corporate purpose and, in particular, whether corporations should shift their purpose from the pursuit of shareholder wealth to pursuing a broader conception of stakeholder or societal value. We argue that this debate has overlooked the critical predicate questions of whether a corporation should have a purpose at all and, if so, why,

We address these questions by examining the historical, legal and theoretical justifications for corporate purpose. We find that none of the three provides a basis for requiring a corporation to articulate a particular purpose or for a given ...


Propertizing Fair Use, Abraham Bell, Gideon Parchomovsky 2021 University of San Diego

Propertizing Fair Use, Abraham Bell, Gideon Parchomovsky

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In its current form, fair use doctrine provides a personal defense that applies narrowly to the specific use by the specific user. The landmark case of Google v. Oracle, currently pending before the Supreme Court, illustrates why this is problematic. Even if the Court were to rule that Google’s use of Oracle’s Java API’s was fair, the ruling would not protect the numerous parties that developed Java applications for the Android operating system; it would only shelter Google and Google’s particular use. This is not an isolated problem; the per use/per user rule cuts across ...


Do Mandatory Minimums Increase Racial Disparities In Federal Criminal Sentencing?, Caroline Gillette 2021 Boston College

Do Mandatory Minimums Increase Racial Disparities In Federal Criminal Sentencing?, Caroline Gillette

Undergraduate Economic Review

Black males received sentences about twenty percent longer than similarly situated white males from 2012 to 2016. Some of this inequality may be introduced by mandatory minimum sentences. Charges carrying a mandatory minimum sentence are brought against Black defendants at higher rates than white defendants. It has been argued that these sentences introduce bias in two ways: legislatively (the types of crimes that carry a mandatory minimum) and in the way these sentences are put into practice (increasing prosecutorial discretion). This brief explores whether mandatory minimum sentences increase racial inequality in criminal sentencing.


Egyptian Public Law Judge: Reviewing Public Economic Policies From Nationalization To Privatization, omar el menshawy 2021 American University in Cairo

Egyptian Public Law Judge: Reviewing Public Economic Policies From Nationalization To Privatization, Omar El Menshawy

Theses and Dissertations

Do public law judges play a role in public economic policies in Egypt? Egypt has witnessed rough changes, leading to the adoption of different public economic policies. Public law judges have played a key role in these economic shifts. However, the efficacy of this role is pending on the satisfaction or dissatisfaction of the government with the courts and the judicial decisions. This paper argues that the government posses the upper hand in dealing with the judicial influence in economic issues in Egypt. The paper scrutinizes the transformation in the judicial attitude towards government economic policies. Specifically, the paper demarcates ...


The Utilization Of The Rule Of Law For Economic Development In Developing States: The Case Of Egypt From Nasser To Mubarak, Mohamed M. Ahmed 2021 American University in Cairo

The Utilization Of The Rule Of Law For Economic Development In Developing States: The Case Of Egypt From Nasser To Mubarak, Mohamed M. Ahmed

Theses and Dissertations

Neoliberal development proponents argue that the rule of law is essential for achieving economic development. It demands adjusting legislative and legal institutional practices to enforce and protect market operations, and the minimizing of state intervention. The IFIs and the developed states adopted this development approach in dealing with developing states through conditional-based lending. Through attaching structural regulative adjustments and the reformation of juristic institutions as preconditions to their fiscal assistance, the IFIs, influenced by the developed states, were able to impose a system of legal economic governance over the developing economies. Across the different development stages, developing states who did ...


Beyond Algorithms: Toward A Normative Theory Of Automated Regulation, Felix Mormann 2021 Texas A&M University

Beyond Algorithms: Toward A Normative Theory Of Automated Regulation, Felix Mormann

Boston College Law Review

The proliferation of artificial intelligence in our daily lives has spawned a burgeoning literature on the dawn of dehumanized, algorithmic governance. Remarkably, the scholarly discourse overwhelmingly fails to acknowledge that automated, non-human governance has long been a reality. For more than a century, policy-makers have relied on regulations that automatically adjust to changing circumstances, without the need for human intervention. This Article surveys the track record of self-adjusting governance mechanisms to propose a normative theory of automated regulation. Effective policy-making frequently requires anticipation of future developments, from technology innovation to geopolitical change. Self-adjusting regulation offers an insurance policy against the ...


United States Food Law Update: The Fda Food Safety Modernization Act, Obesity And Deceptive Labeling Enforcement, A. Bryan Endres, Nicholas R. Johnson 2021 University of Illinois

United States Food Law Update: The Fda Food Safety Modernization Act, Obesity And Deceptive Labeling Enforcement, A. Bryan Endres, Nicholas R. Johnson

Journal of Food Law & Policy

The long-awaited enactment of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA), the most significant amendment to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act in several decades, provides the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with significantly enhanced jurisdiction to close some of the gaps in the domestic food safety system. The enhanced FDA authority, however, will have little impact on the shared governance system at the federal level that involves multiple agencies, as the Act does not address the U.S. General Accounting Office's (GAO) repeated calls for consolidation of the fragmented federal food safety system. Rather, the Act perpetuates ...


Food Entrepreneurs And Food Safety Regulation, Nina W. Tarr 2021 University of Illinois

Food Entrepreneurs And Food Safety Regulation, Nina W. Tarr

Journal of Food Law & Policy

The green wave of environmental advertising among organic food producers, distributors, and retailers begun during the 1990s has become an all-out green tsunami. The organic food market is the fastest growing segment of the American food industry. Consumers are increasingly becoming aware of the impact their purchases have on several environmental issues. As a result, those consumers are becoming more aware of their spending power and are willingly altering their buying practices to purchase from companies that emphasize environmental responsibility. In fact, some retailers' inventory is already being scanned for alternative green products by their customers' iPhones because, guess what ...


The History And Future Of Genetically Modified Crops: Frankenfoods, Superweeds, And The Developing World, Brooke Glass-O'Shea 2021 Haramaya University, Ethiopia

The History And Future Of Genetically Modified Crops: Frankenfoods, Superweeds, And The Developing World, Brooke Glass-O'Shea

Journal of Food Law & Policy

In a 1992 letter to the New York Times, a man named Paul Lewis referred to genetically modified (GM) crops as "Frankenfood," and wryly suggested it might be "time to gather the villagers, light some torches and head to the castle." Little did Lewis know that his neologism would become the rallying cry for activists around the world protesting the dangers of genetic engineering. The environmental activist group Greenpeace made great use of the "Frankenfood" epithet in their anti-GM campaigns of the 1990s, though they have since backed away from the word and the hardline stance it represents. But genetically ...


Renewable Energy And Trade: Meeting The Paris Agreement’S Goals Through A Two-Step Jurisprudential Advance, Lisa Benjamin 2021 University of Minnesota Law School

Renewable Energy And Trade: Meeting The Paris Agreement’S Goals Through A Two-Step Jurisprudential Advance, Lisa Benjamin

Minnesota Journal of Law, Science & Technology

No abstract provided.


Court-Appointment Compensation And Rural Access To Justice, Hannah Haksgaard 2021 University of St. Thomas, Minnesota

Court-Appointment Compensation And Rural Access To Justice, Hannah Haksgaard

University of St. Thomas Journal of Law and Public Policy

No abstract provided.


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