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World War I And The Armenian Genocide: Laying The Groundwork For Crimes Against Humanity, Julia Koch 2022 Pace University

World War I And The Armenian Genocide: Laying The Groundwork For Crimes Against Humanity, Julia Koch

Pace International Law Review

For all of its advancements in international law, including delivering justice to the war criminals of the Second World War, the International Military Tribunal in Nuremberg has long been tainted with accusations of victors’ justice and criticized for violating the principle of nullem crimen sine lege. Such is the case for crimes against humanity, a crime that did not exist in positive international law until the 1945-46 legal proceedings in Nuremberg. But the historiography of the First World War—an era where punishment for war crimes is generally viewed as a wholesale failure—provides an additional, indeed novel, basis for ...


Srad Director's Corner: Russia’S Strategy And Its War On Ukraine, George Shatzer 2022 US Army War College

Srad Director's Corner: Russia’S Strategy And Its War On Ukraine, George Shatzer

The US Army War College Quarterly: Parameters

In this contribution, Colonel George Shatzer, director of the Strategy Research and Analysis Department of the Strategic Studies Institute at the US Army War College, discusses books of relevance to US Joint planners and strategists, as well as those of allies and strategic partners. He applies his experience and education as a US Army senior strategist to extract insights useful to anyone contemplating how to confront the challenges of today’s strategic environment.


Economic Statecraft And Us-Russian Policy, Ryan J. Orsini 2022 US Army War College

Economic Statecraft And Us-Russian Policy, Ryan J. Orsini

The US Army War College Quarterly: Parameters

This article assesses the American-Russian economic relationship, identifying how Russia exploits strategic asymmetries to gain advantage in the space below armed conflict and how the United States can modernize its economic statecraft. It draws upon a wide range of comparative research, from US-Russian military thought to the American-Eurasian economic interrelationship, to evaluate the full range of economic statecraft within a single dyad of countries in the context of coercion theory. This analysis will assist American policymakers in reforming priorities and processes according to principles of economic statecraft to sustain ongoing American coercion and set conditions for advantage upon the return ...


Character Traits Strategic Leaders Need, Tami Davis Biddle 2022 US Army War College

Character Traits Strategic Leaders Need, Tami Davis Biddle

The US Army War College Quarterly: Parameters

Strategic leaders must possess a range of skills to work successfully in complex environments. To use those skills to best effect, they rely on character traits that enhance the likelihood of their effectiveness as leaders and maximize their success when working in teams. Certain elements of character facilitate work in demanding settings that rely heavily on communication, integration, and cooperation. Programs designed to educate senior leaders must help future national security professionals identify these traits and then practice and hone them. Highlighting individuals with challenging roles in World War II, this essay analyzes the qualities of character that enabled them ...


On “The Grand Strategic Thought Of Colin S. Gray” And Author's Response, Phillip Dolitsky, Lukas Milevski 2022 US Army War College

On “The Grand Strategic Thought Of Colin S. Gray” And Author's Response, Phillip Dolitsky, Lukas Milevski

The US Army War College Quarterly: Parameters

This commentary responds to Lukas Milevski’s article, “The Grand Strategic Thought of Colin S. Gray,” published in the Winter 2021–22 issue of Parameters (vol. 51, no. 4).


Defining And Deterring Faits Accomplis, Brandon Colas 2022 US Army War College

Defining And Deterring Faits Accomplis, Brandon Colas

The US Army War College Quarterly: Parameters

This article describes faits accomplis—how states attempt to seize disputed territory using military force, hoping to avoid war in the process—and offers suggestions for how to deter them. Since 1945, faits accomplis have become the most common means by which states attempt to take over territory, even though they frequently result in armed conflict. US deterrent efforts, however, often focus on stopping invasions, not limited land grabs. This study combines the traditional literature on deterrence with Dan Altman’s recent research on faits accomplis to suggest Department of Defense leaders should frame territorial disputes as a real estate ...


Contributor's Guidelines, USAWC Press 2022 US Army War College

Contributor's Guidelines, Usawc Press

The US Army War College Quarterly: Parameters

No abstract provided.


Dysfunctional Warfare: The Russian Invasion Of Ukraine, Rob Johnson 2022 US Army War College

Dysfunctional Warfare: The Russian Invasion Of Ukraine, Rob Johnson

The US Army War College Quarterly: Parameters

Russia’s invasion of Ukraine was based on false premises, faulty assumptions, and a weak strategy. As the conflict has unfolded, heavy losses have imposed a strain on available Russian manpower. The Russian army reached a culminating point outside Kyiv and has exhibited little sign of operational learning. By contrast, Ukrainians have fought an existential war, making good use of dispersed light infantry tactics with high motivation levels. Western support has allowed them to compensate for their deficiencies in armaments and munitions. This commentary also shows military and policy leaders how the political context continues to impose limitations on the ...


From The Editor In Chief, Antulio J. Echevarria II 2022 US Army War College

From The Editor In Chief, Antulio J. Echevarria Ii

The US Army War College Quarterly: Parameters

No abstract provided.


Putin’S Invasion Of Ukraine In 2022: Implications For Strategic Studies, Antulio J. Echevarria II 2022 US Army War College

Putin’S Invasion Of Ukraine In 2022: Implications For Strategic Studies, Antulio J. Echevarria Ii

The US Army War College Quarterly: Parameters

This special commentary examines critical issues for the field of strategic studies raised by Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, including the waning of major war, strategic coercion, and “War Amongst the People.” Drawing on previous scholarship and current events, this commentary considers the questions raised by the first major war of the twenty-first century. It provides recommendations for scholars and senior leaders on how to work together to address the questions of strategy and policy that have and continue to arise as the war progresses.


Strengthen Arctic Governance To Stop Russian And Chinese Overreach, Mark T. Vicik 2022 US Army War College

Strengthen Arctic Governance To Stop Russian And Chinese Overreach, Mark T. Vicik

The US Army War College Quarterly: Parameters

This article argues shortfalls in the international institutions governing the Arctic have allowed Russia and China to expand control over the region. It provides an overview of regional governance and power dynamics, outlines a three-part approach to correcting deficiencies, highlights attempts by Russia and China to circumvent international governance, examines how the Arctic’s governing institutions address Russian and Chinese growth in the region, and focuses on the institutional failures that have allowed Russia and China to expand—failures academic scholarship and US policy have not adequately addressed. Practitioners will find specific steps for rectifying issues with Arctic institutions to ...


Infoswarms: Drone Swarms And Information Warfare, Zachary Kallenborn 2022 US Army War College

Infoswarms: Drone Swarms And Information Warfare, Zachary Kallenborn

The US Army War College Quarterly: Parameters

Drone swarms, which can be used at sea, on land, in the air, and even in space, are fundamentally information-dependent weapons. No study to date has examined drone swarms in the context of information warfare writ large. This article explores the dependence of these swarms on information and the resultant connections with areas of information warfare—electronic, cyber, space, and psychological—drawing on open-source research and qualitative reasoning. Overall, the article offers insights into how this important emerging technology fits into the broader defense ecosystem and outlines practical approaches to strengthening related information warfare capabilities.


Book Reviews, USAWC Press 2022 US Army War College

Book Reviews, Usawc Press

The US Army War College Quarterly: Parameters

No abstract provided.


Tomorrow’S Wars And The Media, Alexander G. Lovelace 2022 US Army War College

Tomorrow’S Wars And The Media, Alexander G. Lovelace

The US Army War College Quarterly: Parameters

Distilling lessons from the author’s book, The Media Offensive: How the Press and Public Opinion Shaped Allied Strategy during World War II, this article provides applicable suggestions for the US military today. As in World War II, the press is both a weapon and a possible vulnerability in modern warfare. Consequently, this article offers practical suggestions for how the press can be used by public affairs officers, commanders, and policymakers to achieve victory in coming conflicts.


Parameters Summer 2022, USAWC Press 2022 US Army War College

Parameters Summer 2022, Usawc Press

The US Army War College Quarterly: Parameters

No abstract provided.


America: The World’S Police—How The Defund The Police Movement Frames An Analysis For Defunding The Military, Anya Kreider 2022 American University Washington College of Law

America: The World’S Police—How The Defund The Police Movement Frames An Analysis For Defunding The Military, Anya Kreider

The Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Race and Social Justice

In this article, the author examines the tenets of the Defund the Police movement and applies them to the American military to make the argument that not only should the police be defunded, but so should the American military. The purpose of this piece is to push the conversation regarding policing beyond American borders to examine American influence internationally. The article incorporates various Critical Race Theories to explore the intersection of policing and the military. The Defund the Police Movement also provides a framework for critiquing the American military because the American police and military are inextricably connected. Part I ...


Offensive Cyber Operations And Future Littoral Operating Concepts, JD Work 2022 National Defense University

Offensive Cyber Operations And Future Littoral Operating Concepts, Jd Work

Military Cyber Affairs

Introduction of new ground-launch cruise missile options to hold adversary naval targets at risk in order to support conventional deterrence objectives through sea control and sea denial missions is the centerpiece of proposed reorganization of Marine Littoral forces, as part of new “Expeditionary Advanced Base Operations,” and “Littoral Operations in Contested Environments” concepts. Effective distributed sea control fires against pacing threat maritime formations requires defeat of integrated air defense systems. Offensive cyber operations capabilities may be considered as a means of altering the calculus of attrition in missile fires exchanges, but due to various sensitivities it has been difficult to ...


Blue Water Navy, Hannah Melinda Woods 2022 Eastern Kentucky University

Blue Water Navy, Hannah Melinda Woods

Veterans Studies Undergraduate Capstones

For years, Veterans who served on ships during the Vietnam war have been denied access to Agent Orange Veterans Affairs benefits. These group of veterans are called the Blue Water Navy. This paper explores the background of this issue, legislation coming about this issue, and the against sides of this issue.


Balancing Precautions In Attacks Versus Precautions Againstnthe Effects Of Attacks In Urban Armed Conflict, Andrew Navarro 2022 Brigham Young University Law School

Balancing Precautions In Attacks Versus Precautions Againstnthe Effects Of Attacks In Urban Armed Conflict, Andrew Navarro

BYU Law Review

No abstract provided.


Waging Peace: Female Legislators And A State’S Propensity For War, Caitlyn Shrewsbury 2022 Stephen F Austin State University

Waging Peace: Female Legislators And A State’S Propensity For War, Caitlyn Shrewsbury

Undergraduate Research Conference

Increasing conflict in the international system prompts policymakers and researchers alike to investigate unconventional methods of creating and maintaining peace. For decades, feminist theorists have argued that women exert a pacifying influence at all levels of society; by extension, their engagement in government would temper the aggressive tendencies of states. It stands to reason that the presence of female legislators in a state’s political system decreases its likelihood of conflict.


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