Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

International Trade Law Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

5,364 Full-Text Articles 4,068 Authors 2,392,005 Downloads 150 Institutions

All Articles in International Trade Law

Faceted Search

5,364 full-text articles. Page 1 of 141.

The Determination Of Applicable Law In International Commercial Arbitration, Dr. Obaid Saqer Busit 2021 Assistant Professor of Civil Procedure Law - College of Law - United Arab Emirates University

The Determination Of Applicable Law In International Commercial Arbitration, Dr. Obaid Saqer Busit

Journal Sharia and Law

Arbitration as means of settling commercial disputes between parties of different nationalities has been a popular and successful alternative to national court proceedings. Moreover, arbitration allows the parties to choose the applicable law governing their agreement. International arbitral rules generally allow the parties to an arbitration agreement to choose the substantive law that will govern the dispute. 1 However, this right of choice of applicable law involves various elements, one of the most troublesome of which is the choice of substantive law to be applied in a given dispute. An arbitrator is bound to reach a decision in accordance with ...


The U.S. Dairy Industry In The 20th And 21st Century, George B. Frisvold 2021 University of Arizona, Tucson

The U.S. Dairy Industry In The 20th And 21st Century, George B. Frisvold

Journal of Food Law & Policy

At the beginning of the 20th Century, the U.S. dairy industry was comprised of millions of small-scale operations producing for their own or for very local consumption. By the end of the 20th Century, the industry was dominated by large-scale producers marketing products via large cooperatives. Improvements in transportation, advances in animal breeding and feeding technologies, and scale economies have allowed the industry to be more competitive on global markets, where there is now active international trade in dairy products. Major government programs to support dairy farm income date back to Depression-era problems facing the industry. Federal programs to ...


Covid-19 Impacts: How A Global Pandemic Amid The Sunsets Of The Ptc And Itc Made The U.S. Wind And Solar Industries More Resilient, Kimberly E. Diamond 2021 Fordham Law School

Covid-19 Impacts: How A Global Pandemic Amid The Sunsets Of The Ptc And Itc Made The U.S. Wind And Solar Industries More Resilient, Kimberly E. Diamond

Fordham Environmental Law Review

A cataclysmic event is sometimes the necessary catalyst for companies within certain industries to re- examine, radically shift, and replace their standard practices with technologically-advanced alternatives. In the United States, the occurrence of the Coronavirus pandemic (“COVID-19”) during the sunsets of the Production Tax Credit (“PTC”) and the Investment Tax Credit (“ITC”) created a unique confluence of factors that produced a perfect storm tantamount to such a cataclysmic event for companies in the wind and solar industries, particularly developers. Over the years, the domestic utility-scale wind industry has come to rely heavily upon the PTC, while the domestic utility- scale ...


Illegal Discharge: Exploring The History Of The Criminal Enforcement Of The U.S. Clean Water Act, Dr. Joshua Ozymy, Dr. Melisssa L. Jarrell 2021 Fordham Law School

Illegal Discharge: Exploring The History Of The Criminal Enforcement Of The U.S. Clean Water Act, Dr. Joshua Ozymy, Dr. Melisssa L. Jarrell

Fordham Environmental Law Review

The criminal prosecution of defendants that violate federal clean water laws has been ongoing for roughly four decades. Yet, we continue to have a poor understanding of how federal prosecutors use the U.S. Clean Water Act (“CWA”) to charge and prosecute criminals and the outcomes of those prosecutions. We use content analysis to analyze 2,588 federal criminal prosecution case summaries, 1983-2019, to gain a better historical understanding of how the CWA has been used as a prosecutorial tool, to bring out the major themes in the prosecutions, and quantify sentencing outcomes. Findings from the 828 CWA prosecutions undertaken ...


Red Tide: A Blooming Concern For Florida Manatees, Shannon Price Esq. 2021 Fordham Law School

Red Tide: A Blooming Concern For Florida Manatees, Shannon Price Esq.

Fordham Environmental Law Review

Although red tides are a common and natural occurrence around the coast of Florida, within the last few decades they have intensified and become much more deadly. Several identifiable human-caused factors exacerbate the size, concentration, and duration of the harmful algae bloom and disturb the environment’s natural balance. The Florida Gulf Coast provides all the algae’s necessary requirements for survival, the perfect storm to create a resilient super bloom that annihilates its host ecosystem.

This article explains the plight of Florida manatees who, like other marine animals and plants, are being injured or killed by this algae crisis ...


"Eco" Your Own Way: An Argument For State-Specific Climate Change Legislation, Amanda Voeller 2021 Fordham Law School

"Eco" Your Own Way: An Argument For State-Specific Climate Change Legislation, Amanda Voeller

Fordham Environmental Law Review

The consequences of climate change seriously and immediately threaten the American way of life, but proposed federal legislation like the Green New Deal is overly broad, unrealistic, and inefficient. The most effective way for the United States to combat climate change is not with a one-size-fits-all plan like the Green New Deal, but with federal legislation that incentivizes states and cities to enact and enforce individualized, local climate legislation. Different states and cities have different climates, available energy sources, and transportation needs, so the federal government should use financial incentives to encourage states and cities to pass tailor-made bills and ...


The Use Of Regular Militaries For Natural Disasters After A Major Event Where The Military Was Seen As A Failure - The Somalia Effect In The Age Of Black Lives Matters And Covid-19, Donald D.A. Schaefer 2021 Fordham Law School

The Use Of Regular Militaries For Natural Disasters After A Major Event Where The Military Was Seen As A Failure - The Somalia Effect In The Age Of Black Lives Matters And Covid-19, Donald D.A. Schaefer

Fordham Environmental Law Review

This is written as a continuation of Dr. Schaefer’s recent article entitled, “The Use of the Regular Militaries for Natural Disaster Assistance: Climate Change and the Increasing Need for Changes to the Laws in the United States, China, Japan, the Philippines, and Other Countries.” 2 Perhaps few other areas have affected so many people than the Covid-19 pandemic. Coupled with this has been the struggle over the use of force by the military and police in the age of “black lives matters” and the movements that have been transpired as a result. With the increased global warming likely to ...


European Union Food Law Update, Nicole Coutrelis 2021 Coutrelis & Associates, Brussels

European Union Food Law Update, Nicole Coutrelis

Journal of Food Law & Policy

On March 31, 2006, the European Commission published Council Regulation (EC) No. 510/2006 On the Protection of Geographical Indications and Designations of Origin for Agricultural Products and Foodstuffs. This new regulation repealed Council Regulation (EEC) No. 2081/92 On the Protection of Geographical Indications and Designations of Origin for Agricultural Products and Foodstuffs mainly to bring Community law into conformity with the World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements and the findings of a recent WTO panel. Under the new Regulation, persons in third countries (non-European Union members) are entitled to address applications for the protection of geographic names and statements ...


 The Effects Of Fraud By The Beneficiary Of The Letter Of Guaranty On The Obligation Of The Bank According To Unicitral 1995; A Comparative Study, 2021 United Arab Emirates University

 The Effects Of Fraud By The Beneficiary Of The Letter Of Guaranty On The Obligation Of The Bank According To Unicitral 1995; A Comparative Study

Journal Sharia and Law

The research focuses on the effect of fraud of the beneficiary of the international letters of guarantee on the international commitment of the bank through UNICITRAL rules for 1995. Article 19 of UNCITRAL illustrates the cases where the guarantor is able to waive the payment to the beneficiary. UNICITRAL rules grant the bank the power to refuse payment when the claim of the client is supported by fake documents and so it keeps the balance between the different interests. UNICITRAL rules grant the bank the discretionary authority of the payment. The bank's role to maintain the confidence in the ...


The System Of Compensation In World Commerce Organization: Is It Particular To The Commerce Law Or To The Commerce Power?, salaheddine boudjellal 2021 university of setif 2- algeria

The System Of Compensation In World Commerce Organization: Is It Particular To The Commerce Law Or To The Commerce Power?, Salaheddine Boudjellal

Journal Sharia and Law

Compensation is one of the key features of the general rules of international responsibility as a means of reparation. But in the WTO law, this is characterized by specificity to make it much different from the traditional concept. This study is trying to uncover the concept of compensation in WTO law within the framework of the so-called complaints of the violation, as well as complaints of non-violation, as has been included in the Dispute Settlement Understanding under WTO law, revealing the specificity of this system against the general rules of international responsibility in accordance with the provisions of public international ...


The Legal Regulation Of Humanitarian Relief Actions In Armed Conflicts, Amin Dawwas 2021 Arab American University

The Legal Regulation Of Humanitarian Relief Actions In Armed Conflicts, Amin Dawwas

Journal Sharia and Law

This research deals with non-conformity of goods under the 1980 United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) in terms of concept, criteria and timing. It also addresses the duties of the buyer upon taking over the goods, whether examination of the goods or giving notice to the seller of the non- conformity. Besides this research deals with all legal effects of non-conformity, whether the remedies the buyer has in such situations or the right of the seller to cure the non-conformity. It also covers all legal effects of the buyer’s failure to respect his ...


Comments To The Draft Working Group Iii Workplan, Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment, International Institute for Environment and Development, International Institute for Sustainable Development 2021 Columbia Law School

Comments To The Draft Working Group Iii Workplan, Columbia Center On Sustainable Investment, International Institute For Environment And Development, International Institute For Sustainable Development

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment Staff Publications

The United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) is currently working on how to reform international investment treaties, focusing in particular on those treaties’ provisions enabling investors to sue governments in international arbitration. As an observer organization in this process, CCSI has emphasized that in the context of investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) reform, it is important to first consider what it is that investment treaties aim to achieve, and only then to consider what form(s) of dispute settlement will best advance those objectives. This means not only looking at reform of the existing ISDS mechanism, but also alternatives ...


Platform Liability Under Article 17 Of The Copyright In The Digital Single Market Directive, Automated Filtering And Fundamental Rights: An Impossible Match, Christophe Geiger, Bernd Justin Jütte 2021 Centre for International Intellectual Property Studies (CEIPI), University of Strasbourg

Platform Liability Under Article 17 Of The Copyright In The Digital Single Market Directive, Automated Filtering And Fundamental Rights: An Impossible Match, Christophe Geiger, Bernd Justin Jütte

Joint PIJIP/TLS Research Paper Series

The Directive on Copyright in the Digital Single Market (CDSM Directive) introduced a change of paradigm with regard to the liability of some platforms in the European Union. Under the safe harbour rules of the Directive on electronic commerce (E-Commerce Directive), intermediaries in the EU were shielded from liability for acts of their users committed through their services, provided they had no knowledge of it. Although platform operators could be required to help enforce copyright infringements online by taking down infringing content, the E-commerce Directive also drew a very clear line that intermediaries could not be obliged to monitor all ...


The Environmental Impact Of Technological Innovation: How U.S. Legislation Fails To Handle Electronic Waste's Rapid Growth, Marisa D. Pescatore 2021 Villanova University Charles Widger School of Law

The Environmental Impact Of Technological Innovation: How U.S. Legislation Fails To Handle Electronic Waste's Rapid Growth, Marisa D. Pescatore

Villanova Environmental Law Journal

No abstract provided.


The Prohibition Of Restrictive Trade Agreements To Competition In Accordance With Article 101 Of The Eu Agreement : Analytical Study In Light Of The Decisions Of The European Court Of Justice And The Office Of Competition Affairs Of The European Union, Mahmoud Fayyad, Dr. Rasha Hattab 2021 Assistant Professor of Civil Law - University of Sharjah – College of Law

The Prohibition Of Restrictive Trade Agreements To Competition In Accordance With Article 101 Of The Eu Agreement : Analytical Study In Light Of The Decisions Of The European Court Of Justice And The Office Of Competition Affairs Of The European Union, Mahmoud Fayyad, Dr. Rasha Hattab

Journal Sharia and Law

The aim of this paper is to detect the general criteria and measures- adopted by the European court of justice and the European commission for competition- with regard to agreements between undertakings that may affect trade between Member States, in order to ensure internal market requirements and the protection of consumer legal interests when making market transactions. Article (101) of the European Union treaty prohibits all agreements between undertakings that may affect trade between Member States. In contrast, it does not determine how to apply and ensure this prohibition. All Arab legal systems did the same. This requires us to ...


Liberalization Of World Trade Agreements And Their Impact On The Legal System Of International Contracts, Bin Ahmed, Al-Haj 2021 Lecturer & Head of Law Division, Faculty of Law and Political Sciences, University of Saida Moulay Tahar, Algeria

Liberalization Of World Trade Agreements And Their Impact On The Legal System Of International Contracts, Bin Ahmed, Al-Haj

Journal Sharia and Law

In the contemporary period, international trade is based on two ideas: the first is that the market transcends country boundaries and thus can build a spontaneous law and supranational legal rules; the second concerns the State, which has no jurisdiction to impose its legal system on commercial relations.

So there is a phenomenon of legal pluralism, a state of legal order and as a spontaneous supranational legal order, which finds its source in commercial practices, arbitrations, and model contracts.

Globalization of trade has provided very important interests of economic operators, alos, it threatens the sovereignty of the State and its ...


The Global Trade Accountability Act And Its Effects On Congressional Power And International Trade, Dallas Kephart 2021 Penn State Law

The Global Trade Accountability Act And Its Effects On Congressional Power And International Trade, Dallas Kephart

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

No abstract provided.


Solving The Fentanyl Problem Beyond The Border: A Call For An International Solution, Agneta Hendershot 2021 Penn State Law

Solving The Fentanyl Problem Beyond The Border: A Call For An International Solution, Agneta Hendershot

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

No abstract provided.


The Genie Is Out Of The Bottle: What Do We Wish For The Future Of Ai?, Kelly Carman 2021 Penn State Law

The Genie Is Out Of The Bottle: What Do We Wish For The Future Of Ai?, Kelly Carman

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

No abstract provided.


The Globalization Of Hate: Are Domestic Terrorism Laws Sufficient To Quell New Threats From Alt-Right Lone-Wolf Extremists?, Jason J. Sullivan-Halpern 2021 Penn State Law

The Globalization Of Hate: Are Domestic Terrorism Laws Sufficient To Quell New Threats From Alt-Right Lone-Wolf Extremists?, Jason J. Sullivan-Halpern

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

No abstract provided.


Digital Commons powered by bepress