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The Future Of The International Financial System: The Emerging Cbdc Network And Its Impact On Regulation, Heng WANG, Simin GAO 2024 Singapore Management University

The Future Of The International Financial System: The Emerging Cbdc Network And Its Impact On Regulation, Heng Wang, Simin Gao

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

Central bank digital currency (CBDC) is a digital form of fiat currency. CBDC has the potential to be a game challenger in the international financial system, bringing increased complexities arising from technology and regulatory considerations, as well as generating greater currency competition. As more states begin exploring CBDC, the interactions between actors may lead to the emergence of a new CBDC network. What shape would the emerging CBDC network take? What would its network effects be? What would be the impact of the CBDC network on the international financial system, or the global financial network? This article explores these questions …


Drawing The Line Of Scrimmage: Global Perspective Of Daily Fantasy Sports In The Advertising Space, Michael Sekich 2024 Penn State Law

Drawing The Line Of Scrimmage: Global Perspective Of Daily Fantasy Sports In The Advertising Space, Michael Sekich

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

No abstract provided.


Budding Solutions: Weeding Out Obstacles To Bankruptcy Protections For Marijuana Ventures, Jessica Lowen 2024 Penn State Law

Budding Solutions: Weeding Out Obstacles To Bankruptcy Protections For Marijuana Ventures, Jessica Lowen

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

No abstract provided.


Environmental, Social, And Governance (Esg) Reporting: Attempting To Bridge The Gap On Reporting Standards And The Need For Uniform Standards, Emilee Kula 2024 Penn State Law

Environmental, Social, And Governance (Esg) Reporting: Attempting To Bridge The Gap On Reporting Standards And The Need For Uniform Standards, Emilee Kula

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

No abstract provided.


Data Privacy And China's “Super App” Wechat, Wan Li 2024 Penn State Law

Data Privacy And China's “Super App” Wechat, Wan Li

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

No abstract provided.


The Trips Trap Revisited, Roya Ghafele, Adam Chaddock 2024 Penn State Law

The Trips Trap Revisited, Roya Ghafele, Adam Chaddock

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

No abstract provided.


Sovereignty As Responsibility With References To The Framework Of R2p, Tor Dahl-Eriksen 2024 Penn State Law

Sovereignty As Responsibility With References To The Framework Of R2p, Tor Dahl-Eriksen

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

No abstract provided.


Foreword, 2024 Penn State Law

Foreword

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

No abstract provided.


Table Of Contents, 2024 Penn State Law

Table Of Contents

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

No abstract provided.


Dedication, 2024 Penn State Law

Dedication

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

No abstract provided.


The United States Must Reform Its Laws To Eradicate Female Genital Mutilation, Kelly Schweikert 2024 University of Cincinnati College of Law

The United States Must Reform Its Laws To Eradicate Female Genital Mutilation, Kelly Schweikert

Immigration and Human Rights Law Review

No abstract provided.


Data Sovereignty And Trade Agreements: Three Digital Kingdoms, Henry S. GAO 2024 Singapore Management University

Data Sovereignty And Trade Agreements: Three Digital Kingdoms, Henry S. Gao

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

For centuries, international lawyers have wrestled with the relationship between national sovereignty and international law. This is also the case of international trade law, where the tension between trade liberalization and national sovereignty culminated in the famous “Great 1994 Sovereignty Debate” between the late Prof. John Jackson and other leading scholars when the WTO came into being. As we enter the digital age, the issue of sovereignty resurfaced once again in the form of data sovereignty. In this paper, I will examine provisions in trade agreements which deal with data sovereignty issues, such as restrictions on data flow such as …


The Right To Research As Guarantor For Sustainability, Innovation And Justice In Eu Copyright Law, Christophe Geiger, Bernd Justin Jütte 2024 American University Washington College of Law

The Right To Research As Guarantor For Sustainability, Innovation And Justice In Eu Copyright Law, Christophe Geiger, Bernd Justin Jütte

Joint PIJIP/TLS Research Paper Series

Research is essential for scientific, cultural, and social advancement and will be crucial for the economic and societal recovery in a post-pandemic world. Restrictions to access and use of information contained in copyright-protected expression however can constitute significant hindrances to conducting research efficiently, especially since modern research methods rely on accessing, storing and processing large amounts of digitized data. Over the last decade, copyright in the European Union (EU) has undergone a process of constitutionalization, which saw a growing importance of fundamental rights arguments in policy- and law-making, as well as in the jurisprudence of the Court of Justice of …


Copyright And Covid, Sean Flynn 2024 American University Washington College of Law

Copyright And Covid, Sean Flynn

Joint PIJIP/TLS Research Paper Series

During the COVID-19 pandemic it became widely recognized that speedier access to patent rights should be enabled to speed global scale-up of vaccine production. This understanding was expressed in a proposal by India and South Africa that the World Trade Organization suspend multilateral intellectual property rules on COVID vaccines, treatment and containment. The original waiver proposal proposed a suspension of WTO rules on all forms of intellectual property needed for a broad range of COVID-19 response measures, including “vaccination,” “treatment,” and “containment.” The final “TRIPS Waiver,” however, was ultimately limited to a minor provision of TRIPS permitting greater use of …


Corporations As International Economic Law Actors, Barnali Choudhury 2024 Osgoode Hall Law School of York University

Corporations As International Economic Law Actors, Barnali Choudhury

All Papers

Actors in international law are presumed to be states. Yet in the international economic law arena, the corporation is one of the most prominent non-state actors. Indeed, in some instances, the corporation may even be more influential than the state in some arenas of international economic law. This short piece examines three instances of this influence. First, it looks at the role of corporations in law-making; second, it examines corporations’ role in monitoring and compliance; and, third, it explores corporations’ legal personality in international economic law. Finding corporations’ immense influence on law-making and monitoring and compliance, combined with a robust …


Enforcing International Human Rights Law Against Corporations, Barnali Choudhury 2024 Osgoode Hall Law School of York University

Enforcing International Human Rights Law Against Corporations, Barnali Choudhury

All Papers

International human rights law is generally thought to apply directly to states, not to corporations since the latter is not a subject of international law. Some domestic courts are, however, enforcing these norms against corporations in domestic settings. Canadian courts have, for instance, recognized that corporations can be liable for breach of customary international law norms while UK courts have enforced international human rights norms indirectly against corporations relying on a combination of domestic corporate and tort law.

At the same time, some states are choosing to enforce international human rights norms against corporations using regulatory initiatives. These initiatives, known …


Shareholder Primacy Versus Shareholder Accountability, William W. Bratton 2024 Seattle University School of Law

Shareholder Primacy Versus Shareholder Accountability, William W. Bratton

Seattle University Law Review

When corporations inflict injuries in the course of business, shareholders wielding environmental, social, and governance (“ESG”) principles can, and now sometimes do, intervene to correct the matter. In the emerging fact pattern, corporate social accountability expands out of its historic collectivized frame to become an internal subject matter—a corporate governance topic. As a result, shareholder accountability surfaces as a policy question for the first time. The Big Three index fund managers, BlackRock, Vanguard, and State Street, responded to the accountability question with ESG activism. In so doing, they defected against corporate legal theory’s central tenet, shareholder primacy. Shareholder primacy builds …


Public Primacy In Corporate Law, Dorothy S. Lund 2024 Seattle University School of Law

Public Primacy In Corporate Law, Dorothy S. Lund

Seattle University Law Review

This Article explores the malleability of agency theory by showing that it could be used to justify a “public primacy” standard for corporate law that would direct fiduciaries to promote the value of the corporation for the benefit of the public. Employing agency theory to describe the relationship between corporate management and the broader public sheds light on aspects of firm behavior, as well as the nature of state contracting with corporations. It also provides a lodestar for a possible future evolution of corporate law and governance: minimize the agency costs created by the divergence of interests between management and …


Corporate Law In The Global South: Heterodox Stakeholderism, Mariana Pargendler 2024 Seattle University School of Law

Corporate Law In The Global South: Heterodox Stakeholderism, Mariana Pargendler

Seattle University Law Review

How do the corporate laws of Global South jurisdictions differ from their Global North counterparts? Prevailing stereotypes depict the corporate laws of developing countries as either antiquated or plagued by problems of enforcement and misfit despite formal convergence. This Article offers a different view by showing how Global South jurisdictions have pioneered heterodox stakeholder approaches in corporate law, such as the erosion of limited liability for purposes of stakeholder protection in Brazil and India, the adoption of mandatory corporate social responsibility in Indonesia and India, and the large-scale program of Black corporate ownership and empowerment in South Africa, among many …


Robo-Voting: Does Delegated Proxy Voting Pose A Challenge For Shareholder Democracy?, John Matsusaka, Chong Shu 2024 Seattle University School of Law

Robo-Voting: Does Delegated Proxy Voting Pose A Challenge For Shareholder Democracy?, John Matsusaka, Chong Shu

Seattle University Law Review

Robo-voting is the practice by an investment fund of mechanically voting in corporate elections according to the advice of its proxy advisor— in effect fully delegating its voting decision to its advisor. We examined over 65 million votes cast during the period 2008–2021 by 14,582 mutual funds to describe and quantify the prevalence of robo-voting. Overall, 33% of mutual funds robo-voted in 2021: 22% with ISS, 4% with Glass Lewis, and six percent with the recommendations of the issuer’s management. The fraction of funds that robo-voted increased until around 2013 and then stabilized at the current level. Despite the sizable …


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