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Masthead, 2021 University of California, Hastings College of the Law

Masthead

Hastings Journal of Crime and Punishment

No abstract provided.


Editor’S Forward, Ava Agree 2021 University of California, Hastings College of the Law

Editor’S Forward, Ava Agree

Hastings Journal of Crime and Punishment

No abstract provided.


Bottleneck: The Place Of County Jails In California’S Covid-19 Correctional Crisis, Hadar Aviram 2021 University of California, Hastings College of the Law

Bottleneck: The Place Of County Jails In California’S Covid-19 Correctional Crisis, Hadar Aviram

Hastings Journal of Crime and Punishment

This Article examines a lesser-known site of the COVID-19 pandemic: county jails. Revisiting assumptions that preceded and followed criminal justice reform in California, particularly Brown v. Plata and the Realignment, the Article situates jails within two competing/complementary perspectives: a mechanistic, jurisdictional perspective, which focuses on county administration and budgeting, and a geographic perspective, which views jails in the context of their neighboring communities. The prevalence of the former perspective over the latter among both correctional administrators and criminal justice reformers has generated unique challenges in fighting the spread of COVID-19 in jails: paucity of, and reliability problems with, data ...


California’S Sb 1437 And Its Applicability To Attempted Murder Liability, Violeta Alvarez 2021 University of California, Hastings College of the Law

California’S Sb 1437 And Its Applicability To Attempted Murder Liability, Violeta Alvarez

Hastings Journal of Crime and Punishment

No abstract provided.


Unjust Isolation: The Diminishing Returns Of Solitary Confinement Of Pregnant Women And California’S Need To Regulate It., Richard Lee 2021 University of California, Hastings College of the Law

Unjust Isolation: The Diminishing Returns Of Solitary Confinement Of Pregnant Women And California’S Need To Regulate It., Richard Lee

Hastings Journal of Crime and Punishment

California’s state prison system lacks sufficient regulations to restrict the use of solitary confinement for pregnant women. Under the current system, the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitations (CDCR) possesses broad discretion regarding the use of solitary confinement, administrative segregated housing, or other forms of isolated placement. According to the CDCR manual, prison officers may place a pregnant woman in solitary confinement as long as her medical condition does not “preclude” that placement. This standard, which vests an inappropriate amount of discretion in prison officers, is deeply insufficient to prevent the negative consequences of subjecting pregnant women to solitary ...


An Absolute Deprivation Of Liberty: Why Indigents’ Wealth-Based Discrimination Claims Brought Under The Equal Protection Clause Should Be Subject To Intermediate Scrutiny, Athena Hernandez 2021 Golden Gate University School of Law

An Absolute Deprivation Of Liberty: Why Indigents’ Wealth-Based Discrimination Claims Brought Under The Equal Protection Clause Should Be Subject To Intermediate Scrutiny, Athena Hernandez

Golden Gate University Law Review

This Comment argues that wealth-based discrimination claims concerning pretrial detention of indigents should be analyzed under an Equal Protection framework and subjected to intermediate scrutiny. In order to provide an overview of the Supreme Court precedent established for these types of claims, Part I of this Comment will discuss the relevant and historic Supreme Court cases which have analyzed wealth-based incarceration claims in the United States. To further establish how Federal Courts have treated wealth-based incarceration Equal Protection claims, Part II will discuss the Fifth Circuit’s relevant opinions. Part III outlines the court’s decision in Walker, discussing how ...


Petitions From The Grave: Why Federal Executions Are A Violation Of The Suspension Clause, Taran Wessells 2021 William & Mary Law School

Petitions From The Grave: Why Federal Executions Are A Violation Of The Suspension Clause, Taran Wessells

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

This Note will address the intersection of wrongful convictions, the federal death penalty, and habeas corpus to conclude that the federal death penalty is an unconstitutional violation of the Suspension Clause of the United States Constitution. Part I of this Note will establish that Congress may not suspend the writ of habeas corpus outside of wartime. Then, Part II will show that wrongfully convicted prisoners therefore have a constitutional right to a habeas petition if they discover new, exonerating evidence. Part III will argue that because executed prisoners cannot file a habeas petition for release, executing wrongfully convicted prisoners is ...


Frankly, It's A Mess: Requiring Courts To Transparently "Redline" Affidavits In The Face Of Franks Challenges, Diana Bibb 2021 William & Mary Law School

Frankly, It's A Mess: Requiring Courts To Transparently "Redline" Affidavits In The Face Of Franks Challenges, Diana Bibb

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

Part I provides a brief overview of the Fourth Amendment, probable cause, and the exclusionary rule. Part II discusses Franks v. Delaware, the development of the challenge’s framework, and subsequent expansions to the doctrine made by the lower courts. Next, Part III argues that, despite the aforementioned expansions, courts have consistently weakened Franks. Notably, the Supreme Court refuses to consider Franks issues, including the multitude of splits over which standard of review is applicable. Moreover, some circuits have developed their own minute rules that have chiseled away at the effectiveness of a Franks challenge. Part IV proposes that the ...


Border Searches For Investigatory Purposes: Implementing A Border Nexus Standard, Brenna Ferris 2021 University of Michigan Law School

Border Searches For Investigatory Purposes: Implementing A Border Nexus Standard, Brenna Ferris

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform Caveat

Border searches are a commonly used exception to the Fourth Amendment’s probable cause and warrant requirements. Using a border search, the government can conduct searches of individuals without any kind of individualized suspicion. Border searches pose a concerning risk to privacy when they are used as a tool for criminal investigations. The Supreme Court has never ruled on searches used in this way, but lower courts are addressing the technique and reaching conflicting decisions. Courts need to take an approach that will protect the privacy interests of individuals while allowing the government to advance its interests in protecting its ...


Talking Back In Court, M. Eve Hanan 2021 University of Washington School of Law

Talking Back In Court, M. Eve Hanan

Washington Law Review

People charged with crimes often speak directly to the judge presiding over their case. Yet, what can be seen in courtrooms across the U.S. is that defendants rarely “talk back” in court, meaning that they rarely challenge authority’s view of the law, the crime, the defendant, the court’s procedure, or the fairness of the proposed sentence.

With few exceptions, legal scholars have treated the occasions when defendants speak directly to the court as a problem to be solved by appointing more lawyers and better lawyers. While effective representation is crucial, this Article starts from the premise that ...


Belevolent Exclusion, Anna Offit 2021 University of Washington School of Law

Belevolent Exclusion, Anna Offit

Washington Law Review

The American jury system holds the promise of bringing commonsense ideas about justice to the enforcement of the law. But its democratizing effect cannot be realized if a segment of the population faces systematic exclusion based on income or wealth. The problem of unequal access to jury service based on socio-economic disparities is a longstanding yet under-studied problem—and one which the uneven fallout of the COVID-19 pandemic only exacerbated. Like race- and sex-based jury discrimination during the peremptory challenge phase of jury selection, the routine dismissal of citizens who face economic hardship excludes not only people but also the ...


Transparency's Ai Problem, Hannah Bloch-Wehba 2021 Texas A&M University School of Law

Transparency's Ai Problem, Hannah Bloch-Wehba

Faculty Scholarship

A consensus seems to be emerging that algorithmic governance is too opaque and ought to be made more accountable and transparent. But algorithmic governance underscores the limited capacity of transparency law—the Freedom of Information Act and its state equivalents—to promote accountability. Drawing on the critical literature on “open government,” this Essay shows that algorithmic governance reflects and amplifies systemic weaknesses in the transparency regime, including privatization, secrecy, private sector cooptation, and reactive disclosure. These deficiencies highlight the urgent need to reorient transparency and accountability law toward meaningful public engagement in ongoing oversight. This shift requires rethinking FOIA’s ...


Heads I Win, Tails You Lose: The Taxing Risk When Invoking The Fifth Amendment On A Tax Return, Jacob Hoback 2021 University of Cincinnati College of Law

Heads I Win, Tails You Lose: The Taxing Risk When Invoking The Fifth Amendment On A Tax Return, Jacob Hoback

University of Cincinnati Law Review

No abstract provided.


Doe V. Nestle, S.A.: Chocolate And The Prohibition On Child Slavery, Megan M. Coppa 2021 Elisabeth Haub School of Law, Pace University

Doe V. Nestle, S.A.: Chocolate And The Prohibition On Child Slavery, Megan M. Coppa

Pace International Law Review

West Africa is presently home to approximately 1.5 million acres of cocoa farmland, which subsequently produces 70% of the world’s current chocolate supply. Côte d’Ivoire, also known as the Ivory Coast, is one of the largest cocoa producing countries within West Africa.

The increase of farmland and the need to control the deteriorating conditions have always created a demand for farm workers. Regrettably, more than 1.5 million cocoa farm workers in West Africa are currently children. These child workers are exposed to hazardous dust, flames, smoke, and chemicals, are required to utilize dangerous tools that they ...


Justice Delayed, Justice Denied? The Search For Accountability For Alleged Wartime Atrocities Committed In Sri Lanka, Aloka Wanigasuriya 2021 University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Law

Justice Delayed, Justice Denied? The Search For Accountability For Alleged Wartime Atrocities Committed In Sri Lanka, Aloka Wanigasuriya

Pace International Law Review

During the final stages of its nearly three-decades-long civil war in 2009, Sri Lanka attracted considerable international attention due to the allegations of international crimes that were said to have been committed both by the Sri Lankan government Armed Forces, the Guerilla Force, and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE). According to United Nations (UN) experts, an estimated 40,000 civilians were killed during the final offensive, which lasted from January to May 2009. However, the Sri Lankan government has set this figure at 9,000 with no civilian casualties. Several UN bodies found credible allegations that international crimes ...


Revolving Doors Of Hospitalization And Incarceration: How Perceptions Of Procedural Justice Affect Treatment Outcomes, Maria Slater 2021 William & Mary Law School

Revolving Doors Of Hospitalization And Incarceration: How Perceptions Of Procedural Justice Affect Treatment Outcomes, Maria Slater

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

This Article compares the levels of procedural justice afforded to persons with severe mental illness in the civil and criminal systems, either via involuntary commitment in state psychiatric hospitals in the civil system or via mental health court as an alternative to incarceration in the criminal system. Using Virginia’s mental health courts and civil commitment systems as case studies, this Article compares the procedures by which a person can be involuntary committed in the civil system with those afforded to persons who are funneled into mental health treatment courts in the criminal system, analyzing how levels of procedural justice ...


Ruchi Soya: Insolvency And Bankruptcy Economic Reforms, A Brief Analysis, BINOY JOY KATTADIYIL Dr, Bakhtiyor Anvarovich Islamov Dr. DSc 2021 Westminster International University in Tashkent

Ruchi Soya: Insolvency And Bankruptcy Economic Reforms, A Brief Analysis, Binoy Joy Kattadiyil Dr, Bakhtiyor Anvarovich Islamov Dr. Dsc

ProAcademy

In the Indian Insolvency scenario the insolvency and bankruptcy is governed by a uniform law of Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016 (“Code”) which came into force in 2016. In the almost 4 years of its inception, the Code has seen a lot of important judgments and orders being given by the National Company Law Tribunal (“NCLT”) / National Company Law Appellate Tribunal (“NCLAT”) as well as the Apex Court of India. These orders have helped resolved the gaps in the codified law as well as issues left by the legislation to the facts and circumstances in the cases.

Since the coming ...


Three Observations About The Worst Of The Worst, Virginia-Style, Corinna Barrett Lain 2021 University of Richmond

Three Observations About The Worst Of The Worst, Virginia-Style, Corinna Barrett Lain

Washington and Lee Law Review Online

Much could be said about Virginia’s historic decision to repeal the death penalty, and Professor Klein’s essay provides a wonderful starting point for any number of important discussions. We could talk about how the decision came to be. Or why the move is so momentous. Or what considerations were particularly important in the decision‑making process. Or where we should go from here. But in this brief comment, I’ll be focusing not on the how, or the why, or the what, or the where, but rather on the who. Who are condemned inmates, both generally and Virginia ...


Out Of Sight, Out Of Mind: Analyzing Inhumane Practices In Mississippi’S Correctional Institutions Due To Overcrowding, Understaffing, And Diminished Funding, Ariel A. Williams 2021 University of Mississippi

Out Of Sight, Out Of Mind: Analyzing Inhumane Practices In Mississippi’S Correctional Institutions Due To Overcrowding, Understaffing, And Diminished Funding, Ariel A. Williams

Honors Theses

The purpose of this research is to examine the political, social, and economic factors which have led to inhumane conditions in Mississippi’s correctional facilities. Several methods were employed, including a comparison of the historical and current methods of funding, staffing, and rehabilitating prisoners based on literature reviews. State-sponsored reports from various departments and the legislature were analyzed to provide insight into budgetary restrictions and political will to allocate funds. Statistical surveys and data were reviewed to determine how overcrowding and understaffing negatively affect administrative capacity and prisoners’ mental and physical well-being. Ultimately, it may be concluded that Mississippi has ...


Othering Across Borders, Steven Arrigg Koh 2021 Boston College Law School

Othering Across Borders, Steven Arrigg Koh

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

Our contemporary moment of reckoning presents an opportunity to evaluate racial subordination and structural inequality throughout our three-tiered domestic, transnational, and international criminal law system. In particular, this Essay exposes a pernicious racial dynamic in contemporary U.S. global criminal justice policy, which I call othering across borders. First, this othering may occur when race emboldens political and prosecutorial actors to prosecute foreign defendants. Second, racial animus may undermine U.S. engagement with international criminal legal institutions, specifically the International Criminal Court. This Essay concludes with measures to mitigate such othering.


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