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The Rescue Of Fannie Mae And Freddie Mac – Module A: The Conservatorships, Daniel Thompson, Rosalind Z. Wiggins 2021 Yale University

The Rescue Of Fannie Mae And Freddie Mac – Module A: The Conservatorships, Daniel Thompson, Rosalind Z. Wiggins

Journal of Financial Crises

Two government-sponsored enterprises (GSEs), the Federal National Mortgage Association (Fannie Mae) and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (Freddie Mac), dominated the secondary mortgage market during the US housing crisis, collectively holding or guaranteeing $5.3 trillion in mortgage assets by late 2007. As the crisis escalated, the two GSEs began to report substantial losses and their survival became uncertain. On September 6, 2008, the GSEs’ new regulator, the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA), placed the firms into indefinite conservatorships, one step of a four-part government intervention to stabilize the enterprises. This case study evaluates the purpose and efficacy of ...


A Tale Of Two Regulators: Antitrust Implications Of Progressive Decentralization In Blockchain Platforms, Evan Miller 2021 Vinson & Elkins LLP

A Tale Of Two Regulators: Antitrust Implications Of Progressive Decentralization In Blockchain Platforms, Evan Miller

Washington and Lee Law Review Online

Competition regulators have identified the potential for blockchain technology to disrupt traditional sponsor-led platforms, like app stores, that have received increased antitrust scrutiny. Enforcement actions by securities regulators, however, have forced blockchain-based platforms to adopt a strategy of progressive decentralization, delaying decentralization objectives in favor of the centralized model that competition regulators hope they will disrupt. This regulatory tension, and the implications for blockchain’s procompetitive potential, have yet to be explored. This Article first identifies the origin of this tension and its consequences through a competition law lens, and then recommends that competition regulators account for this tension in ...


Corporate And Securities Law Impact On Social Responsibility And Corporate Purpose, Thomas Lee Hazen 2021 University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Corporate And Securities Law Impact On Social Responsibility And Corporate Purpose, Thomas Lee Hazen

Boston College Law Review

The role of social responsibility in corporate governance has been the subject of debate for nearly ninety years. That debate has been reframed over the decades. Several recent events have resulted in increased focus on corporate social responsibility, especially with respect to publicly held corporations. This Article explores the law’s two different paths for impacting social responsibility. The current iteration of the corporate responsibility movement has implications for both state law chartering of corporations and federal securities regulation. This Article analyzes the ways in which stated purpose clauses in a corporation’s articles of incorporation may be useful in ...


A Lesson From Startups: Contracting Out Of Shareholder Appraisal, Jill E. Fisch 2021 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School

A Lesson From Startups: Contracting Out Of Shareholder Appraisal, Jill E. Fisch

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Appraisal is a controversial topic. Policymakers have debated the goals served by the appraisal remedy, and legislatures have repeatedly revised appraisal statutes in an effort to meet those goals while minimizing the cost and potential abuse associated with appraisal litigation. Courts have struggled to determine the most appropriate valuation methodology and the extent to which that methodology should depend on case-specific factors. These difficulties are exacerbated by variation in the procedures by which mergers are negotiated and the potential for conflict-of-interest transactions.

Private ordering offers a market-based alternative to continued legislative or judicial efforts to refine the appraisal remedy. Through ...


Comments To The Draft Working Group Iii Workplan, Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment, International Institute for Environment and Development, International Institute for Sustainable Development 2021 Columbia Law School

Comments To The Draft Working Group Iii Workplan, Columbia Center On Sustainable Investment, International Institute For Environment And Development, International Institute For Sustainable Development

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment Staff Publications

The United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) is currently working on how to reform international investment treaties, focusing in particular on those treaties’ provisions enabling investors to sue governments in international arbitration. As an observer organization in this process, CCSI has emphasized that in the context of investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) reform, it is important to first consider what it is that investment treaties aim to achieve, and only then to consider what form(s) of dispute settlement will best advance those objectives. This means not only looking at reform of the existing ISDS mechanism, but also alternatives ...


Transparency For Whom? Grounding Land Investment Transparency In The Needs Of Local Actors, Sam Szoke-Burke 2021 Columbia Law School, Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment

Transparency For Whom? Grounding Land Investment Transparency In The Needs Of Local Actors, Sam Szoke-Burke

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment Staff Publications

Transparency is often seen as a means of improving governance and accountability of investment, but its potential to do so is hindered by vague definitions and failures to focus on the needs of key local actors.

In this new report focusing on agribusiness, forestry, and renewable energy projects (“land investments”), CCSI grounds transparency in the needs of project-affected communities and other local actors. Transparency efforts that seek to inform and empower communities can also help governments, companies, and other actors to more effectively manage operational risk linked to social conflict.

Troublingly, the report finds that:

  • Disclosures around land investments continue ...


Transparency Of Land-Based Investments: Cameroon Country Snapshot, Sam Szoke-Burke, Samuel Nguiffo, Stella Tchoukep 2021 Columbia Law School, Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment

Transparency Of Land-Based Investments: Cameroon Country Snapshot, Sam Szoke-Burke, Samuel Nguiffo, Stella Tchoukep

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment Staff Publications

Despite a recent transparency law and participation in transparency initiatives, Cameroon’s investment environment remains plagued by poor transparency.

In a new report focusing on agribusiness projects in Cameroon, CCSI and the Centre pour l’Environnement et le Développement (CED) find that:

  • Communities continue to be excluded from decision-making around investments.
  • The government pursues a top-down approach to concession allocation and remains reluctant to recognize all legitimate tenure rights.
  • The government faces threats to its legitimacy as the grievances of citizens and investors alike lead to the barring of roads by communities and investor withdrawals.

CCSI and CED therefore call ...


Information Bundling, Disclosure, And Judicial Deference To Market Valuations, Charles R. Korsmo 2021 Case Western Reserve University School of Law

Information Bundling, Disclosure, And Judicial Deference To Market Valuations, Charles R. Korsmo

Boston College Law Review

This Article examines strategic disclosure behavior in the context of merger announcements. Merger transactions are frequent targets of litigation, including both fiduciary duty class actions and statutory appraisal actions. In either type of litigation, the fair value of the target company as a going concern is at least a part of the measure of damages. In recent years, courts have increasingly looked to market evidence of valuation—including the trading price of the target company’s stock prior to the announcement of the merger. This gives managers an incentive to minimize this trading price by strategically timing disclosures such that ...


Regulating The Sale Of Stock Exchange Market Data To High-Frequency Traders, Jerry W. Markham 2021 University of Florida Levin College of Law

Regulating The Sale Of Stock Exchange Market Data To High-Frequency Traders, Jerry W. Markham

Florida Law Review

In 2014, author Michael Lewis published a bestselling book titled Flash Boys: A Wall Street Revolt, in which he argued that “high frequency traders” have been able to gain an unfair advantage in the stock market, in part because stock exchanges and “dark pools”—alternative venues for trading stocks—have enabled those traders to obtain and trade on market data faster than other investors. A litany of lawsuits followed in short succession, asserting various theories of liability.


Designing Dual-Class Sunsets: The Case For A Transfer-Centered Approach, Marc T. Moore 2021 William & Mary Law School

Designing Dual-Class Sunsets: The Case For A Transfer-Centered Approach, Marc T. Moore

William & Mary Business Law Review

Dual-class stock (DCS) structures, and their implications for managerial accountability and corporate governance more broadly, have become prevalent concerns for corporate lawyers and policymakers. Recent academic and practitioner debates on DCS have tended to focus less on the general merits and drawbacks of DCS versus one share/one vote structures, and more on the specific common-ground concern as to whether and how such structures are subjected to contingent reversal or “sunset”. This Article compares the relative advantages and disadvantages of time-, ownership- and transfer-centered models of DCS sunset provisions. It argues in favor of the transfer-centered model on the grounds ...


Cooperative Insurance In Light Of The Protection And Indemnity Clubs, Imad Al-Din Abdel-Hai 2021 Associate Professor in Commercial Law, University of Sharjah – College of Law

Cooperative Insurance In Light Of The Protection And Indemnity Clubs, Imad Al-Din Abdel-Hai

Journal Sharia and Law

Insurance draws attention as a sector that is understood much better in terms of its importance especially in recent years globally, the protection and compensation is considered one of the images of cooperative insurance, which provides service to members of the participating clubs or shareholders (the insured) in the club in a collaborative way. These clubs are not intended primarily to make a profit, and through the initiative of the participating members to make contributions as a form of donation to be cooperative insurance fund. These donations are used to compensate the members when a maritime hazard is insured against ...


Selling The Stock Market Short, Kevin Haeberle 2021 William & Mary Law School

Selling The Stock Market Short, Kevin Haeberle

Popular Media

No abstract provided.


Equity Market Structure Regulation: Time To Start Over, Paul G. Mahoney 2021 University of Virginia School of Law

Equity Market Structure Regulation: Time To Start Over, Paul G. Mahoney

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

Over the past half-century, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)’s regulations have become key determinants of the way in which stocks trade and the fees that exchanges charge for their services. The current equity market structure rules are contained primarily in the SEC’s Regulation NMS. The theory behind Regulation NMS is that a system of dispersed markets operating pursuant to SEC-mandated information and order routing links will provide the benefits of consolidation and competition simultaneously.

This article argues that Regulation NMS has failed in that quest. It has produced fragmented markets and created questionable incentives for ...


A Historical Analysis Of The Investment Company Act Of 1940, Michael B. Weiner 2021 University of Michigan Law School

A Historical Analysis Of The Investment Company Act Of 1940, Michael B. Weiner

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

More than 100 million Americans invest $25 trillion in mutual funds and exchange-traded funds (collectively, “funds”) regulated by the Investment Company Act of 1940 (the “Act”), making funds the predominant investment vehicle in the United States. Everyday investors rely on funds to save for retirement, pay for college, and seek financial security. In this way, funds demonstrate how “Wall Street” can connect with “Main Street” to improve people’s lives.

By way of background, funds are created by investment advisers (“advisers”) that provide investment advisory (e.g., stock selection) and other services to their funds in exchange for a fee ...


Should The European Union Fix, Leave Or Kill The Energy Charter Treaty?, Martin Dietrich Brauch 2021 Columbia Law School, Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment

Should The European Union Fix, Leave Or Kill The Energy Charter Treaty?, Martin Dietrich Brauch

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment Staff Publications

In the early 1990s, the European Economic Community – the predecessor of the European Union (EU) – spearheaded an initiative to promote international cooperation in the energy sector, particularly with post-Soviet States in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Out of this process the Energy Charter Treaty (ECT) was born in 1994. Going much beyond international cooperation, the treaty allows foreign investors in the energy sector to sue their host States in international arbitral tribunals and claim monetary compensation when policy measures and other State action affect their interests.

Fast-forward to 2021. With 135 known cases initiated to date, the ECT’s is ...


A Conceptual Framework For Digital-Asset Securities: Tokens And Coins As Debt And Equity, Yuliya Guseva 2021 University of Maryland Francis King Carey School of Law

A Conceptual Framework For Digital-Asset Securities: Tokens And Coins As Debt And Equity, Yuliya Guseva

Maryland Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Cyan Decision And Its Impact On State-Level Securities Class Actions, B. John Torabi 2021 Fordham University School of Law

The Cyan Decision And Its Impact On State-Level Securities Class Actions, B. John Torabi

Fordham Journal of Corporate & Financial Law

The Supreme Court’s decision in Cyan, Inc. v. Beaver County Employees Retirement Fund preserved the Securities Act of 1933’s bar on removing securities class actions brought in state court to federal court. The unanimous ruling cut against a nearly quarter-century long trend of pushing securities class action litigation to the federal courts. Cyan was resolved purely through statutory interpretation, leaving many of the underlying policy questions to be resolved by state courts and in future rulings.

This Note examines the intention of the drafters of the Securities Act of 1933 in designing a disclosure-focused regulatory scheme with a ...


Reversing The Fortunes Of Active Funds, Adi Libson, Gideon Parchomovsky 2021 Bar-Ilan University - Faculty of Law

Reversing The Fortunes Of Active Funds, Adi Libson, Gideon Parchomovsky

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In 2019, for the first time in the history of U.S. capital markets, passive funds surpassed active funds in terms of total assets under management. The continuous growth of passive funds at the expense of active funds is a genuine cause for concern. Active funds monitor the management and partake of decision-making in their portfolio companies. Furthermore, they improve price efficiency and managerial performance by engaging in informed trading. The buy/sell decisions of active funds provide other market participants reliable information about the quality of firms. The cost of active investing is significant and it is exclusively borne ...


The Insider Trading Prohibition Act: A Small Step Towards A Codified Insider Trading Law, Kayla Quigley 2021 Fordham University School of Law

The Insider Trading Prohibition Act: A Small Step Towards A Codified Insider Trading Law, Kayla Quigley

Fordham Journal of Corporate & Financial Law

Many have called for reform to insider trading law, as the current judge-made doctrine is ambiguous, complicated, and ultimately permissive of many instances of trading on nonpublic information. Indeed, Congress has attempted several times to pass a uniform insider trading statute. Most recently, in December 2019, the House of Representatives passed the Insider Trading Prohibition Act (“ITPA”). The legislation codifies many current principles of insider trading jurisprudence while also expanding potential insider trading liability. Moreover, it attempts to fix gaps in the law that various cases, such as United States v. Newman, have declined to address.

Among other flaws, by ...


Move Over Ipos: Unicorn Direct Listings May Be The New Mythical Beasts In Town, Tatum Sornborger 2021 Fordham University School of Law

Move Over Ipos: Unicorn Direct Listings May Be The New Mythical Beasts In Town, Tatum Sornborger

Fordham Journal of Corporate & Financial Law

Most people think of “going public” as an Initial Public Offering (IPO), but as IPOs have boomed and busted over the past decade, the direct listing has emerged as an unconventional but viable way to raise capital. The direct listing approach was uncovered by one rebellious “unicorn,” a term used to describe privately held companies with valuations exceeding one billion dollars. By circumventing the traditional IPO process, Spotify prompted both the SEC and major stock exchanges to examine direct listings and promulgate rules for future offerings. Though these rules are still developing, companies now have a clear path to follow ...


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