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Total Return Meltdown: The Case For Treating Total Return Swaps As Disguised Secured Transactions, Colin P. Marks 2023 Pepperdine University

Total Return Meltdown: The Case For Treating Total Return Swaps As Disguised Secured Transactions, Colin P. Marks

Pepperdine Law Review

Archegos Capital Management, at its height, had $35 billion in assets. But in the spring of 2021, in part through its use of total return swaps, Archegos sparked a $30 billion dollar sell-off that left many of the world’s largest banks footing the bill. Mitsubishi UFJ Group estimated a loss of $300 million; UBS, Switzerland’s biggest bank, lost $861 million; Morgan Stanley lost $911 million; Japan’s Nomura lost $2.85 billion; but the biggest hit came to Credit Suisse Group AG which lost $5.5 billion. Archegos, itself lost $20 billion over two days. The unique characteristics of total return swaps and …


Special Purpose Acquisition Companies: Wall Street’S Latest Shell Game, Daniel J. Morrissey 2023 Gonzaga University School of Law

Special Purpose Acquisition Companies: Wall Street’S Latest Shell Game, Daniel J. Morrissey

Arkansas Law Review

Special Purpose Acquisition Companies (“SPACs”) have been called “Wall Street’s biggest gold rush of recent years.” In reality, they are just another version of an old strategy to exploit a loophole in the federal securities laws that issuers of stock have used to avoid full registration with the SEC, the federal agency set up to administer and enforce the securities laws. The SPAC process circumvents that important protection for investors by taking private firms public through the back door—merging them into shell corporations. Those are companies whose shares are widely held but have no operations or assets.


Stakeholderism Silo Busting, Aneil Kovvali 2023 Indiana University Maurer School of Law

Stakeholderism Silo Busting, Aneil Kovvali

Articles by Maurer Faculty

The fields of antitrust, bankruptcy, corporate, and securities law are undergoing tumultuous debates. On one side in each field is the dominant view that each field should focus exclusively on a specific constituency—antitrust on consumers, bankruptcy on creditors, corporate law on shareholders, and securities regulation on financial investors. On the other side is a growing insurgency that seeks to broaden the focus to a larger set of stakeholders, including workers, the environment, and political communities. But these conversations have largely proceeded in parallel, with each debate unfolding within the framework and literature of a single field. Studying these debates together …


Giving Shareholders The Right To Say No, Albert H. Choi, Adam C. Pritchard 2023 University of Michigan Law School

Giving Shareholders The Right To Say No, Albert H. Choi, Adam C. Pritchard

Articles

When a public company releases misleading information that distorts the market for the company’s stock, investors who purchase at the inflated price lose money when (and if) the misleading information is later corrected. Under Rule 10b‑5 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, investors can seek compensation from corporations and their officers who make materially misleading statements that the investors relied on when buying or selling a security. Compensation is the obvious goal, but the threat of lawsuits can also benefit investors by deterring managers from committing fraud.


Foreign Judgments And Foreign Arbitral Awards Enforceability As A Factor And A Guarantee For Foreign Investments: The Case Of Saudi Arabia, Mohammed Rashed Mohammed Arhama Alshamsi 2022 Maurer School of Law - Indiana University

Foreign Judgments And Foreign Arbitral Awards Enforceability As A Factor And A Guarantee For Foreign Investments: The Case Of Saudi Arabia, Mohammed Rashed Mohammed Arhama Alshamsi

Maurer Theses and Dissertations

Foreign investments are considered an efficient and effective instrument to diversify and strengthen the economy; foreign investors generally need guarantees before entering a new market. One of these guarantees is a stable, transparent, predictable legal and judicial system. Such a system must be open to foreign laws and judgments as well as foreign arbitral awards, and it must also be flexible to increase foreign investments. Saudi Arabia has tried since the 50s’ to be more attractive to foreign investors and investments by enacting legislation and creating a modern court system to diversify their economy. However, the discretion of Saudi judges …


A Tokenized Future: Regulatory Lessons From Crowdfunding And Standard Form Contracts, Darian M. Ibrahim 2022 William & Mary Law School

A Tokenized Future: Regulatory Lessons From Crowdfunding And Standard Form Contracts, Darian M. Ibrahim

Faculty Publications

This Article examines the world of risk investing in the cryptoeconomy. The broader crypto market is booming despite the latest downturn. People and institutions are buying in. The question is now how to regulate it.

This Article first tackles the question of whether coins, tokens, and other investable cryptoassets are securities. Second, for those cryptoassets that are not securities, this Article seeks to find a regulatory solution that balances promoting innovation with investor protection, just as the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) would do. To strike the right balance, this Article adopts a proposal by Ian Ayres and Alan Schwartz …


Corporate Response To The War In Ukraine: Stakeholder Governance Or Stakeholder Pressure?, Anete Pajuste, Anna Toniolo 2022 Stockholm School of Economics in Riga

Corporate Response To The War In Ukraine: Stakeholder Governance Or Stakeholder Pressure?, Anete Pajuste, Anna Toniolo

Emory Corporate Governance and Accountability Review

This Article empirically investigates the corporate response to the Russian invasion of Ukraine in the framework of the stakeholder capitalism debate. Some describe corporate leaders’ decision to withdraw from Russia as an example of stakeholder governance, maintaining that they placed social responsibility over profits. Others question the authenticity of corporate support for Ukraine and argue that companies left Russia mainly driven by operational and reputational concerns.

Against this backdrop, we conduct an empirical study of reactions to the outbreak of the war from companies in the S&P500 and STOXX600 indices. We explore whether managers effectively decided mostly on ethical and …


Ftx: How The Sec Should React, Darian M. Ibrahim 2022 William & Mary Law School

Ftx: How The Sec Should React, Darian M. Ibrahim

Popular Media

No abstract provided.


Law School News: Omshehe Wins Top National Prize With Securities Regulation Article 11-4-2022, Michael M. Bowden 2022 Roger Williams University School of Law

Law School News: Omshehe Wins Top National Prize With Securities Regulation Article 11-4-2022, Michael M. Bowden

Life of the Law School (1993- )

No abstract provided.


Private Inequity: Reform Rule 506 To Safely Accommodate Investment By Nonaccredited Investors, Allen C. Page 2022 William & Mary Law School

Private Inequity: Reform Rule 506 To Safely Accommodate Investment By Nonaccredited Investors, Allen C. Page

William & Mary Business Law Review

In 2012, Congress enacted Title III of the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act (the “JOBS Act”), which it named the Crowdfund Act, to create an exemption from registration under the Securities Act of 1933 that, in the words of President Barack Obama, would allow “ordinary Americans . . . to go online and invest in entrepreneurs that they believe in.” While perhaps well-intentioned in principle, Regulation Crowdfunding imposes material limitations and costs on the issuer, leading most issuers to conclude that the inclusion of unaccredited investors in a crowdfunding campaign is not worth the complexity and expense. Furthermore, the most …


Just Say No? Shareholder Voting On Securities Class Actions, Albert H. Choi, Stephen J. Choi, Adam C. Pritchard 2022 University of Michigan Law School

Just Say No? Shareholder Voting On Securities Class Actions, Albert H. Choi, Stephen J. Choi, Adam C. Pritchard

Articles

The U.S. securities laws allow security-holders to bring a class action suit against a public company and its officers who make materially misleading statements to the market. The class action mechanism allows individual claimants to aggregate their claims. This procedure mitigates the collective action problem among claimants, and also creates potential economies of scale. Despite these efficiencies, the class action mechanism has been criticized for being driven by attorneys and also encouraging nuisance suits. Although various statutory and doctrinal solutions have been proposed and implemented over the years, the concerns over the agency problem and nuisance suits persist. This paper …


Attack On The Spac: The Push To Regulate Special Purpose Acquisition Companies As Investment Companies Under The Investment Company Act, Sean Meyer 2022 University of Cincinnati College of Law

Attack On The Spac: The Push To Regulate Special Purpose Acquisition Companies As Investment Companies Under The Investment Company Act, Sean Meyer

University of Cincinnati Law Review

No abstract provided.


Gamestop And The Reemergence Of The Retail Investor, Jill E. Fisch 2022 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School

Gamestop And The Reemergence Of The Retail Investor, Jill E. Fisch

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law

The GameStop trading frenzy in January 2021 was perhaps the highest profile example of the reemergence of capital market participation by retail investors, a marked shift from the growing domination of those markets by large institutional investors. Some commentators have greeted retail investing, which has been fueled by app-based brokerage accounts and social media, with alarm and called for regulatory reform. The goals of such reforms are twofold. First, critics argue that retail investors need greater protection from the risks of investing in the stock market. Second, they argue that the stock market, in term, needs protection from retail investors. …


Making Whistleblowers Whole, Jennifer Pacella 2022 University of California, Irvine School of Law

Making Whistleblowers Whole, Jennifer Pacella

UC Irvine Law Review

If ever there was a time in history in which whistleblowers have taken center stage, it has been the past two years. From COVID-19 to Trump’s first impeachment trial, whistleblowers have played a vital role in bringing to light information otherwise impossible to obtain. While the value that whistleblowers bring to government, organizations, and society has always been immeasurable, it is still the case that whistleblowers ultimately suffer a disastrous fate. They have made the decision to speak out against wrongdoing, often risking their jobs, livelihoods, and ability to thrive in their respective industry due to harassment, demotion, exclusion, or …


Special Purpose Acquisition Companies (Spacs) And The Sec, Neal Newman, Lawrence J. Trautman 2022 Texas A&M University School of Law

Special Purpose Acquisition Companies (Spacs) And The Sec, Neal Newman, Lawrence J. Trautman

Faculty Scholarship

Special Purpose Acquisition Companies (SPACs) are simply enterprises that raise money from the public with the intention of purchasing an existing business and becoming publicly traded in the securities markets. If the SPAC is successful in raising money and the acquisition takes place, the target company takes the SPAC’s place on a stock exchange in a transaction that resembles a public offering. Also known as “blank-check” or “reverse merger” companies, this process avoids many of the pitfalls of a traditional initial public offering.

During late 2020 and 2021 an unprecedented surge in the popularity and issuance of Special Purpose Acquisition …


A Proposed Sec Cyber Data Disclosure Advisory Commission, Lawrence J. Trautman, Neal Newman 2022 Prairie View A&M University

A Proposed Sec Cyber Data Disclosure Advisory Commission, Lawrence J. Trautman, Neal Newman

Faculty Scholarship

Constant cyber threats result in: intellectual property loss; data disruption; ransomware attacks; theft of valuable company intellectual property and sensitive customer information. During March 2022, The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) issued a proposed rule addressing Cybersecurity Risk Management, Strategy, Governance, and Incident Disclosure, which requires: 1. Current reporting about material cybersecurity incidents; 2. Periodic disclosures about a registrant’s policies and procedures to identify and manage cybersecurity risks; 3. Management’s role in implementing cybersecurity policies and procedures; 4. Board of directors’ cybersecurity expertise, if any, and its oversight of cybersecurity risk; 5. Registrants to provide updates about previously reported cybersecurity …


Is Everything Securities Fraud?, Emily Strauss 2022 University of California, Irvine School of Law

Is Everything Securities Fraud?, Emily Strauss

UC Irvine Law Review

“An odd fact of the U.S. legal system for public companies is that every crime is also securities fraud: If a company does a bad thing, and regulators find out about it, then the bad-thing regulators can punish it for doing the bad thing, but the securities regulators can also punish it for not disclosing the bad thing to shareholders. . . . It is a strange combination: Generally speaking the companies do the bad things on behalf of shareholders—to make more money for them—but then the securities regulators come in and fine them for defrauding shareholders.”

-Matt Levine

Securities …


Taming Unicorns, Matthew Wansley 2022 Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law

Taming Unicorns, Matthew Wansley

Indiana Law Journal

Until recently, most startups that grew to become valuable businesses chose to become public companies. In the last decade, the number of unicorns—private, venture-backed startups valued over one billion dollars—has increased more than tenfold. Some of these unicorns committed misconduct that they successfully concealed for years. The difficulty of trading private company securities facilitates the concealment of misconduct. The opportunity to profit from trading a company’s securities gives short sellers, analysts, and financial journalists incentives to uncover and reveal information about misconduct the company commits. Securities regulation and standard contract provisions restrict the trading of private company securities, which undermines …


Federal Courts Take The Wheel: The Delaware Supreme Court Validates Federal Forum Provisions For '33 Act Litigation In Salzberg V. Sciabacucchi, Brittany Mann 2022 Villanova University Charles Widger School of Law

Federal Courts Take The Wheel: The Delaware Supreme Court Validates Federal Forum Provisions For '33 Act Litigation In Salzberg V. Sciabacucchi, Brittany Mann

Villanova Law Review

No abstract provided.


Purpose Proposals, Jill E. Fisch 2022 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School

Purpose Proposals, Jill E. Fisch

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law

Repurposing the corporation is the hot issue in corporate governance. Commentators, investors and increasingly issuers, maintain that corporations should shift their focus from maximizing profits for shareholders to generating value for a more expansive group of stakeholders. Corporations are also being called upon to address societal concerns – from climate change and voting rights to racial justice and wealth inequality.

The shareholder proposal rule, Rule 14a–8, offers one potential tool for repurposing the corporation. This Article describes the introduction of innovative proposals seeking to formalize corporate commitments to stakeholder governance. These “purpose proposals” reflect a new dynamic in the debate …


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