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The Expansive Scope Of The Ministerial Exception After Our Lady Of Guadalupe School V. Morrissey-Berru, Allison R. Ferraris 2021 Boston College Law School

The Expansive Scope Of The Ministerial Exception After Our Lady Of Guadalupe School V. Morrissey-Berru, Allison R. Ferraris

Boston College Law Review

On July 8th, 2020, the United States Supreme Court held in Our Lady of Guadalupe School v. Morrissey-Berru that two parochial school teachers, Kristen Biel and Agnes-Morrissey-Berru, were ministers for purposes of the First Amendment’s ministerial exception. This meant that the First Amendment barred their respective employment discrimination actions notwithstanding the merit of their claims. When the Court first recognized the ministerial exception in 2012, in Hosanna-Tabor Evangelical Lutheran Church & School v. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, it determined that an employee qualified as a minister through a multi-factor, totality of the circumstances analysis. Yet, in reaching its conclusion in ...


An Unique Context Of Separation Of Religion And State In Japan, Thomas Makoto Naruse 2021 Department of Law, Kokushikan University

An Unique Context Of Separation Of Religion And State In Japan, Thomas Makoto Naruse

Japanese Society and Culture

Article 20 of the Constitution of Japan stipulates the separation of religion and state. As in many countries, the primary purpose of the separation of religion and state is to guarantee religious freedom. However, in Japan, the separation of religion and state has the aim of preventing the revival of State Shinto or militarism. From this point of view, Article 20 of the Constitution of Japan can be understood as a kind of “pacifist clause.” This article points out the “pacifist” aspect of the separation of religion and state in Japan, based mainly on the drafting process of the current ...


Let Them Eat Cake Or Let Him Not Bake? Summary And Analysis Of Masterpiece Cakeshop V. Colorado Civil Rights Commission, Michael Beato 2021 University of Florida Levin College of Law

Let Them Eat Cake Or Let Him Not Bake? Summary And Analysis Of Masterpiece Cakeshop V. Colorado Civil Rights Commission, Michael Beato

Florida Law Review

Unlike most cases brought before the United States Supreme Court, Masterpiece Cakeshop v. Colorado Civil Rights Commission captured the nation’s attention. In this case, free speech rights were pitted against an anti-discrimination law, and religious rights were pitted against the dignity of same-sex marriage. While these constitutional doctrines might seem nuanced and obscure to most, the central issue of the case is easy to grasp: Can a baker, on free speech and free exercise grounds, refuse to bake a wedding cake for a same-sex couple? The Court, in a 7–2 decision, ruled solely on the free exercise claim ...


George R. R. Martin's Faith Militant In Modern America: The Establishment Clause And A State's Ability To Delegate Policing Powers To Private Police Forces Operated By Religious Institutions, Andrew Gardner 2021 William & Mary Law School

George R. R. Martin's Faith Militant In Modern America: The Establishment Clause And A State's Ability To Delegate Policing Powers To Private Police Forces Operated By Religious Institutions, Andrew Gardner

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

Since the very founding of the United States, the complex relationship between government and religion has troubled and concerned lawmakers. The Establishment Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution was one of the first attempts to help define and restrain the government's role in that nexus. Thomas Jefferson, in a letter praising the Establishment Clause, famously wrote that the clause "buil[t] a wall of separation between Church [and] State." However, the extent of the protections that the Establishment Clause was intended to provide is unclear, and judges as well as legal scholars have struggled with ...


The Establishment Clause: Its Original Public Meaning And What We Can Learn From The Plain Text, Carl H. Esbeck 2021 University of Missouri School of Law

The Establishment Clause: Its Original Public Meaning And What We Can Learn From The Plain Text, Carl H. Esbeck

Faculty Publications

Modern times in church-state relations began in 1947 with the Supreme Court’s decision in Everson v. Board of Education. The justices in both the majority and dissent said they were interpreting the Establishment Clause based on the intent of the founding generation. However, rather than looking to Congress’s lawmaking in the summer of 1789 that led to the First Amendment, the justices relied on the Virginia disestablishment from four years prior, as well as the efforts of just two statesmen, James Madison and Thomas Jefferson.

For the next half century, the High Court’s search was for events ...


The Legal Framework Of Apostasy In Egypt: A Manifestation Of Secular Reconstruction Of Sharia By A Modern State, Ahmed Sedky Mohammed 2021 American University in Cairo

The Legal Framework Of Apostasy In Egypt: A Manifestation Of Secular Reconstruction Of Sharia By A Modern State, Ahmed Sedky Mohammed

Theses and Dissertations

The legal consequences of renouncing Islam or apostasy, which include depriving the apostate from some civil rights, and the non-recognition of the act itself by law in Egypt have been usually criticized as a blatant violation of the right to religious freedom. Such criticisms are based on the right’s definition according to international human rights law precisely the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. The dominant reasoning for this violation according to the majority of the related literature is the conservative interpretation of Sharia, the principal source of law, that has been adopted by Egyptian judiciary for more ...


When Shari'a Becomes A Science Of Law, Heba Sewilam 2021 American University in Cairo

When Shari'a Becomes A Science Of Law, Heba Sewilam

Theses and Dissertations

The Sharīʿa codification, privatization and reconciliation present three reform movements to scientize Sharīʿa in the manner of liberal positivism. The scientism of Sharīʿa makes Islamic law predictable, rational and objective. Its final goal is to protect Sharīʿa from the political encroachments of the ruling elites and facilitate Sharīʿa implementation in a post-colonial era. The three reform movements are, however, incapable of harmonizing Sharīʿa with the liberal norms of a scientized law. Sharīʿa codification makes the law predictable but neglects Sharīʿa’s undemocratic methods of decision-making. Sharīʿa-compliant legislation is still the monopoly of the Muslim jurists and the ruling caliph. Sharīʿa ...


Psychological Killing Through Social Media: A Comparative Jurisprudence Study, Dr. Hamza Abdelkarim Hammad 2021 United Arab Emirates University

Psychological Killing Through Social Media: A Comparative Jurisprudence Study, Dr. Hamza Abdelkarim Hammad

Journal Sharia and Law

The purpose of this study is to explain the jurisprudential and legal position on the issue of the fact that the cause of death arose from informing the other - through the Social media- by the death of a relative falsely, whether that news was a joke or for the purposes of antagonism and aggression. The study followed the comparative analytical method, the result of this study is: That the sudden bad news for the heart patients is a lethal means, in addition to the agreement jurisprudence and legal position that the act is a murder deliberately and positive punishment if ...


Sex Offenders And The Free Exercise Of Religion, Christopher C. Lund 2021 Professor of Law, Wayne State University Law School

Sex Offenders And The Free Exercise Of Religion, Christopher C. Lund

Notre Dame Law Review

In a variety of ways, sex offenders in the United States find themselves in a difficult position. One of the lesser-known ways relates to the free exercise of religion. Sometimes by categorical statute, and sometimes by individualized parole, probation, or supervised-release condition, sex offenders can find themselves legally barred from places where children are present (or likely to be present). Because children are usually present at religious services, sex offenders can find themselves unable to attend them altogether. And this hardship has a bit of irony in it too. Back in prison, sex offenders could worship freely with others; now ...


Owls In Islam And Pakistan: Loopholes And Suggestions For Conservation And Management Of This Highly Ecologically Important Niche, Mubasher Hussain, Jamil Akhtar 2021 Islamic Research Institute, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan

Owls In Islam And Pakistan: Loopholes And Suggestions For Conservation And Management Of This Highly Ecologically Important Niche, Mubasher Hussain, Jamil Akhtar

Journal of Bioresource Management

Due to their vital ecological significance, owls drew the attention of several groups working on wildlife protection and conservation management across the globe. Hence, certain legal provisions have been articulated in the wildlife protection acts of the advanced countries to ensure full legal protection of wildlife including owls. Although there are certain laws concerning the protection of wild life in Pakistan, the specific and consistent legal provisions are still required for owl’s full protection. This article highlights a dire need of the articulation of such provisions respecting the prohibition of owl hunting on several religious, legal and ecological grounds.


Lgbt Discrimination As Religious Discrimination: Ruse Or Resolution?, Craig Westergard 2021 Barry University School of Law

Lgbt Discrimination As Religious Discrimination: Ruse Or Resolution?, Craig Westergard

Barry Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Virginia Company To Chick-Fil-A: Christian Business In America, 1600–2000, Joseph P. Slaughter 2021 Seattle University School of Law

The Virginia Company To Chick-Fil-A: Christian Business In America, 1600–2000, Joseph P. Slaughter

Seattle University Law Review

The Supreme Court’s 2014 decision in Burwell v. Hobby Lobby Stores, Inc. is one of its most controversial in recent history. Burwell’s narrow 5–4 ruling states that the Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993 applies to closely held, for-profit corporations seeking religious exemptions to the Affordable Care Act. As a result, the Burwell decision thrust Hobby Lobby, the national craft chain established by the conservative evangelical Green family of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, onto the national stage. Firms like Hobby Lobby and Chick-fil-A, however, reject the conventional wisdom Justice Ginsburg explained in Burwell and instead embrace an approach ...


Spirit Of The Corporation, Russell Powell 2021 Seattle University School of Law

Spirit Of The Corporation, Russell Powell

Seattle University Law Review

Christian theologians have analyzed the productive and destructive qualities of institutions, sometimes attributing to them human virtues and vices. In City of God, Saint Augustine describes a utopian vision of human community within a Christian context as an alternative to the flawed “City of Man.” Contemporary theologians and sociologists have described collective structures of human behavior in institutions as having a kind of “spirit” analogous to the individual human “spirit.” Institutions are then assumed to take on an existence separate from the individuals within them, and in fact, the “spirit” of an institution influences the behavior of individuals. In The ...


Religious Roots Of Corporate Organization, Amanda Porterfield 2021 Seattle University School of Law

Religious Roots Of Corporate Organization, Amanda Porterfield

Seattle University Law Review

Religion and corporate organization have developed side-by-side in Western culture, from antiquity to the present day. This Essay begins with the realignment of religion and secularity in seventeenth-century America, then looks to the religious antecedents of corporate organization in ancient Rome and medieval Europe, and then looks forward to the modern history of corporate organization. This Essay describes the long history behind the entanglement of business and religion in the United States today. It also shows how an understanding of both religion and business can be expanded by looking at the economic aspects of religion and the religious aspects of ...


Professor Fish—Why Are You Still Picking On Liberalism?, Micah Schwartzman 2021 University of Virginia School of Law

Professor Fish—Why Are You Still Picking On Liberalism?, Micah Schwartzman

FIU Law Review

No abstract provided.


Table Of Contents, Seattle University Law Review 2021 Seattle University School of Law

Table Of Contents, Seattle University Law Review

Seattle University Law Review

Table of Contents


Rethinking Protections For Indigenous Sacred Sites, Stephanie H. Barclay, Michalyn Steele 2021 Notre Dame Law School

Rethinking Protections For Indigenous Sacred Sites, Stephanie H. Barclay, Michalyn Steele

Journal Articles

Meaningful access to sacred sites is among the most important principles to the religious exercise of Indigenous peoples, yet tribes have been repeatedly thwarted by the federal government in their efforts to vindicate this practice of their religion. The colonial, state, and federal governments of this Nation have been desecrating and destroying Native American sacred sites since before the Republic was formed. Unfortunately, the callous destruction of Indigenous sacred sites is not just a troubling relic of the past. Rather, the threat to sacred sites and cultural resources continues today in the form of spoliation from development, as well as ...


Forgotten Federal-Missionary Partnerships: New Light On The Establishment Clause, Nathan S. Chapman 2020 Pope F. Brock Associate Professor of Professional Responsibility, University of Georgia School of Law, and McDonald Distinguished Fellow at the Center for the Study of Law and Religion, Emory University

Forgotten Federal-Missionary Partnerships: New Light On The Establishment Clause, Nathan S. Chapman

Notre Dame Law Review

Americans have long debated whether the Establishment Clause permits the government to support education that includes religious instruction. Current doctrine permits states to do so by providing vouchers for private schools on a religiously neutral basis. Unlike most Establishment Clause doctrines, however, the Supreme Court did not build this one on a historical foundation. Rather, in cases from Everson v. Board of Education (1947) to Espinoza v. Montana Department of Revenue (2020), opponents of religious-school funding have claimed American history supports a strict rule of no-aid.

Yet the Court and scholars have largely ignored a practice that casts light on ...


The Religious Freedom Restoration Act, Trinity Lutheran, And Trumpism: Codifying Fiction With Administrative Gaslighting, Robin S. Maril 2020 Human RIghts Campaign

The Religious Freedom Restoration Act, Trinity Lutheran, And Trumpism: Codifying Fiction With Administrative Gaslighting, Robin S. Maril

Northwestern Journal of Law & Social Policy

This article addresses the Trump administration’s consistent misinterpretation and misapplication of legal precedent to support unnecessary religious exemptions that exceed Constitutional mandates and impair the rights of third parties to access federal services and programs. Proponents of this routinized repeal of civil rights protections argue that the Trump administration is merely restoring the correct balance of religious liberties in the federal government. However, the regulations and policies included in this campaign unconstitutionally broaden the already robust religious protections provided by statutes and court decisions and have the effect of dismantling the civil rights infrastructure of the past 50 years ...


The Historical Origins Of Judicial Religious Exemptions, Stephanie H. Barclay 2020 Associate Professor of Law and Religious Liberty Initiative Scholar at Notre Dame Law School

The Historical Origins Of Judicial Religious Exemptions, Stephanie H. Barclay

Notre Dame Law Review

The Supreme Court has recently expressed a renewed interest in the question of when the Free Exercise Clause requires exemptions from generally applicable laws. While scholars have vigorously debated what the historical evidence has to say about this question, the conventional wisdom holds that judicially created exemptions would have been a new or extraordinary means of protecting religious exercise—a sea change in the American approach to judicial review when compared to the English common law.

This Article, however, questions that assumption and looks at this question from a broader perspective. When one views judicial decisions through the lens of ...


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