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From The Editor-In-Chief, Liliana A. León Rivera 2021 University of California, Hastings College of the Law

From The Editor-In-Chief, Liliana A. León Rivera

Hastings International and Comparative Law Review

No abstract provided.


Masthead, 2021 University of California, Hastings College of the Law

Masthead

Hastings International and Comparative Law Review

No abstract provided.


A Relational Governance Perspective On The Politics Of China’S Social Credit System For Corporations, Alice de Jonge 2021 University of California, Hastings College of the Law

A Relational Governance Perspective On The Politics Of China’S Social Credit System For Corporations, Alice De Jonge

Hastings International and Comparative Law Review

This paper uses a comparative method to analyze China’s evolving Social Credit System (SCS) for corporations, and the political discourse used to portray SCS as a governance tool facilitating Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) with Chinese characteristics. A modified relational governance framework is used. The importance of relationships (guanxi) in the Chinese business context is that it makes a modified form of the relational governance perspective uniquely appropriate. This study also draws upon evolving literature examining the role of artificial intelligence (AI) in international business contexts.

China’s corporate SCS is explicitly designed to evaluate corporate behavior through a “scoring ...


Buyer Beware: An Exploratory Assessment Of The Static And Dynamic Effects Of The New Chilean Food Labeling Model, Omar Vasquez Duque 2021 University of California, Hastings College of the Law

Buyer Beware: An Exploratory Assessment Of The Static And Dynamic Effects Of The New Chilean Food Labeling Model, Omar Vasquez Duque

Hastings International and Comparative Law Review

Chile recently introduced an innovative food warning label system that intends to reduce current overweight and obesity levels among the Chilean population. This initiative has been generally commended worldwide. Chile’s new food labeling system mandates food producers to include a warning label that resembles a stop sign when the product exceeds a certain level of calories, fat, sodium, and sugar per 100 mg. The idea behind this regulation is that by making health risks more salient to eaters with simplified disclosures, people will change their eating behavior.

As a consequence of this new law, many product markets show a ...


Unilateral Economic Sanctions And Protecting U.S. National Security, Fatemeh Bagherzadeh 2021 University of California, Hastings College of the Law

Unilateral Economic Sanctions And Protecting U.S. National Security, Fatemeh Bagherzadeh

Hastings International and Comparative Law Review

Terrorism remains the most important national security concern. Multi-national economic organizations around the world have increasingly established counter-terrorism commissions to assess the magnitude of the threat posed by terrorism. Economic sanctions have been a counter-terrorism measure for many decades and remain an essential tool of U.S. foreign policy and a mechanism to protect the U.S. national security interests. In recent years, the internationalization of terrorism and emergence of non-state terrorist actors has led the U.S. to use smart targeted sanctions to dismantle financial support of terrorism. Yet, conventional country-specific nation-wide sanctions that penalize a single target nation ...


The Faux Pas Of Automatic Stay Under The Indian Arbitration Act, 1996 - The Hcc Dictum, Two-Cherry Doctrine, And Beyond, Sai Ramani Garimella 2021 Gautam

The Faux Pas Of Automatic Stay Under The Indian Arbitration Act, 1996 - The Hcc Dictum, Two-Cherry Doctrine, And Beyond, Sai Ramani Garimella

Pepperdine Dispute Resolution Law Journal

In the matter of Hindustan Construction. Co. v. Union of India, the Honorable Supreme Court of India (“SCI”) was presented with an opportunity to adjudicate upon a petition challenging the constitutional validity of Section 87 of the Arbitration and Conciliation Act of 1996 (“1996 Act”) as inserted by Section 13 of the Arbitration and Conciliation (Amendment) Act of 2019 (“2019 Act"). The legislative insertion stated that amendments made to the 1996 Act by the Arbitration and Conciliation Act of 2015 (“2015 Act”) would not apply to court proceedings arising out of, or in relation to, arbitral proceedings initiated before the ...


England's Contaminated Land Act Of 1995: Perspectives On America's Approach To Hazardous Substance Cleanups And Evolving Principles Of International Law, Michael P. Healy 2021 University of Kentucky

England's Contaminated Land Act Of 1995: Perspectives On America's Approach To Hazardous Substance Cleanups And Evolving Principles Of International Law, Michael P. Healy

Journal of Natural Resources & Environmental Law

No abstract provided.


The Islamic Origins Of The Private International Law, 2021 United Arab Emirates University

The Islamic Origins Of The Private International Law

Journal Sharia and Law

The Muslim writers divided the world into three areas: Dar AL-Islam, Dar AL-Harb, and Dar Al-Ahd; and they also divided the people into three categories: Muslims, Dhummis, and Mustamins (foreigners). It is necessary to mention that the political submission relation between the individual and the Islamic state (Dar Al Islam) has been founded, in principle, on religious basis (Jus religions), but this religious difference didn't prevent to extend the protection of Islamic state at Dhummis, they became as the subject of the state. As a matter of fact, if the nationality wasn't known by term, it would has ...


The U.S. Dairy Industry In The 20th And 21st Century, George B. Frisvold 2021 University of Arizona, Tucson

The U.S. Dairy Industry In The 20th And 21st Century, George B. Frisvold

Journal of Food Law & Policy

At the beginning of the 20th Century, the U.S. dairy industry was comprised of millions of small-scale operations producing for their own or for very local consumption. By the end of the 20th Century, the industry was dominated by large-scale producers marketing products via large cooperatives. Improvements in transportation, advances in animal breeding and feeding technologies, and scale economies have allowed the industry to be more competitive on global markets, where there is now active international trade in dairy products. Major government programs to support dairy farm income date back to Depression-era problems facing the industry. Federal programs to ...


Secured Transactions Law Reform In Japan: Japan Business Credit Project Assessment Of Interviews And Tentative Policy Proposals, Megumi Hara, Kumiko Koens, Charles W. Mooney Jr. 2021 Gakushuin University

Secured Transactions Law Reform In Japan: Japan Business Credit Project Assessment Of Interviews And Tentative Policy Proposals, Megumi Hara, Kumiko Koens, Charles W. Mooney Jr.

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This article summarizes key findings from the Japan Business Credit Project (JBCP), which involved more than 30 semi-structured interviews conducted in Japan from 2016 through 2018. It was inspired by important and previously unexplored questions concerning secured financing of movables (business equipment and inventory) and claims (receivables)—“asset-based lending” or “ABL.” Why is the use of ABL in Japan so limited? What are the principal obstacles and disincentives to the use of ABL in Japan? The interviews were primarily with staff of banks, but also included those of government officials and regulators, academics, and law practitioners. The article proposes reforms ...


The New Managerialism: Courts, Positive Duties, And Economic And Social Rights, Katharine G. Young 2021 Boston College Law School

The New Managerialism: Courts, Positive Duties, And Economic And Social Rights, Katharine G. Young

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

An inseparable component of liberal constitutionalism is the respect accorded to so-called negative rights, which rest on duties of government restraint. But just as governments must have their hands tied, in this model, they must also work to secure rights, by actively and effectively planning, regulating, budgeting, and monitoring. These positive duties are particularly pronounced for so-called positive rights, which guarantee access to goods, services and opportunities such as social security, education, health care, land, food, water, sanitation, or to a clean environment. Of course, it is clear that so-called negative rights require both duties of commission and restraint; just ...


The Canons Of Social And Economic Rights, Katharine G. Young 2021 Boston College Law School

The Canons Of Social And Economic Rights, Katharine G. Young

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

Social and economic rights occupy an unsettled place in any global canon of constitutional democracy and human rights. This Article, appearing in a collection of Global Canons in an Age of Uncertainty (S. Choudhry, M. Hailbronner & M. Kumm, eds., OUP) recommends a contender for canonical status, at the same time as it problematizes the search. Insofar as the search for a canon reveals the boundaries of what may be considered exemplary claims of constitutional and democratic practice, the 2000 South African case of Republic of South Africa v. Grootboom is canonical for its treatment of social and economic rights. This ...


Covid-19 Impacts: How A Global Pandemic Amid The Sunsets Of The Ptc And Itc Made The U.S. Wind And Solar Industries More Resilient, Kimberly E. Diamond 2021 Fordham Law School

Covid-19 Impacts: How A Global Pandemic Amid The Sunsets Of The Ptc And Itc Made The U.S. Wind And Solar Industries More Resilient, Kimberly E. Diamond

Fordham Environmental Law Review

A cataclysmic event is sometimes the necessary catalyst for companies within certain industries to re- examine, radically shift, and replace their standard practices with technologically-advanced alternatives. In the United States, the occurrence of the Coronavirus pandemic (“COVID-19”) during the sunsets of the Production Tax Credit (“PTC”) and the Investment Tax Credit (“ITC”) created a unique confluence of factors that produced a perfect storm tantamount to such a cataclysmic event for companies in the wind and solar industries, particularly developers. Over the years, the domestic utility-scale wind industry has come to rely heavily upon the PTC, while the domestic utility- scale ...


Illegal Discharge: Exploring The History Of The Criminal Enforcement Of The U.S. Clean Water Act, Dr. Joshua Ozymy, Dr. Melisssa L. Jarrell 2021 Fordham Law School

Illegal Discharge: Exploring The History Of The Criminal Enforcement Of The U.S. Clean Water Act, Dr. Joshua Ozymy, Dr. Melisssa L. Jarrell

Fordham Environmental Law Review

The criminal prosecution of defendants that violate federal clean water laws has been ongoing for roughly four decades. Yet, we continue to have a poor understanding of how federal prosecutors use the U.S. Clean Water Act (“CWA”) to charge and prosecute criminals and the outcomes of those prosecutions. We use content analysis to analyze 2,588 federal criminal prosecution case summaries, 1983-2019, to gain a better historical understanding of how the CWA has been used as a prosecutorial tool, to bring out the major themes in the prosecutions, and quantify sentencing outcomes. Findings from the 828 CWA prosecutions undertaken ...


Red Tide: A Blooming Concern For Florida Manatees, Shannon Price Esq. 2021 Fordham Law School

Red Tide: A Blooming Concern For Florida Manatees, Shannon Price Esq.

Fordham Environmental Law Review

Although red tides are a common and natural occurrence around the coast of Florida, within the last few decades they have intensified and become much more deadly. Several identifiable human-caused factors exacerbate the size, concentration, and duration of the harmful algae bloom and disturb the environment’s natural balance. The Florida Gulf Coast provides all the algae’s necessary requirements for survival, the perfect storm to create a resilient super bloom that annihilates its host ecosystem.

This article explains the plight of Florida manatees who, like other marine animals and plants, are being injured or killed by this algae crisis ...


"Eco" Your Own Way: An Argument For State-Specific Climate Change Legislation, Amanda Voeller 2021 Fordham Law School

"Eco" Your Own Way: An Argument For State-Specific Climate Change Legislation, Amanda Voeller

Fordham Environmental Law Review

The consequences of climate change seriously and immediately threaten the American way of life, but proposed federal legislation like the Green New Deal is overly broad, unrealistic, and inefficient. The most effective way for the United States to combat climate change is not with a one-size-fits-all plan like the Green New Deal, but with federal legislation that incentivizes states and cities to enact and enforce individualized, local climate legislation. Different states and cities have different climates, available energy sources, and transportation needs, so the federal government should use financial incentives to encourage states and cities to pass tailor-made bills and ...


The Use Of Regular Militaries For Natural Disasters After A Major Event Where The Military Was Seen As A Failure - The Somalia Effect In The Age Of Black Lives Matters And Covid-19, Donald D.A. Schaefer 2021 Fordham Law School

The Use Of Regular Militaries For Natural Disasters After A Major Event Where The Military Was Seen As A Failure - The Somalia Effect In The Age Of Black Lives Matters And Covid-19, Donald D.A. Schaefer

Fordham Environmental Law Review

This is written as a continuation of Dr. Schaefer’s recent article entitled, “The Use of the Regular Militaries for Natural Disaster Assistance: Climate Change and the Increasing Need for Changes to the Laws in the United States, China, Japan, the Philippines, and Other Countries.” 2 Perhaps few other areas have affected so many people than the Covid-19 pandemic. Coupled with this has been the struggle over the use of force by the military and police in the age of “black lives matters” and the movements that have been transpired as a result. With the increased global warming likely to ...


International Contract Between Traditional And Modern View- العقد الدولي بين النظرة التقليدية والنظرة الحديثة, Mohammed Walied El-Masry 2021 Assistant Professor of International Law Special College of Law - University of Bahrain

International Contract Between Traditional And Modern View- العقد الدولي بين النظرة التقليدية والنظرة الحديثة, Mohammed Walied El-Masry

Journal Sharia and Law

This article was started by an introduction about the importance of international contract in International Relations, whether according to individuals or countries.

In chapter One, we discussed the concept of international contract, the difference between local and international contract. In section 1 of this chapter we discussed the definition of both: international and local contracts according to lawful and economic stands, where which we explain them according to law and jurisprudence. In sec. 2 we studied the juridical exertion of both: this application and lawful and economic applications in French judgment. In sec. 3 we discussed the juridical exertion where ...


No Amendment? No Problem: Judges, “Informal Amendment,” And The Evolution Of Constitutional Meaning In The Federal Democracies Of Australia, Canada, India, And The United States, John V. Orth, John Gava, Arvind P. Bhanu, Paul T. Babie 2021 Pepperdine University

No Amendment? No Problem: Judges, “Informal Amendment,” And The Evolution Of Constitutional Meaning In The Federal Democracies Of Australia, Canada, India, And The United States, John V. Orth, John Gava, Arvind P. Bhanu, Paul T. Babie

Pepperdine Law Review

This article considers the way in which judges play a significant role in developing the meaning of a constitution through the exercise of interpretive choices that have the effect of “informally amending” the text. We demonstrate this by examining four written federal democratic constitutions: those of the United States, the first written federal democratic constitution; India, the federal constitution of the largest democracy on earth; and the constitutions of Canada and Australia, both federal and democratic, but emerging from the English unwritten tradition. We divide our consideration of these constitutions into two ideal types, identified by Bruce Ackerman: the “revolutionary ...


Joint Operating Agreements: An International Comparison From Petroleum Law, Alexander J. Black, Hew R. Dundas 2021 University of Glasgow

Joint Operating Agreements: An International Comparison From Petroleum Law, Alexander J. Black, Hew R. Dundas

Journal of Natural Resources & Environmental Law

No abstract provided.


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