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France's Organisme De Défense Et De Gestion: A Model For Farmer Collective Action Through Standard Development And Brand Management, Christopher J. Bardenhagen, Philip H. Howard, Marie-Odile Noziéres-Petit 2022 Michican State University

France's Organisme De Défense Et De Gestion: A Model For Farmer Collective Action Through Standard Development And Brand Management, Christopher J. Bardenhagen, Philip H. Howard, Marie-Odile Noziéres-Petit

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Quality-based food production, often with a regional dimension, can provide farmers with new, value added markets. It can also provide consumers with access to place based high-quality products, and may benefit local economies through increased commerce. French Organismes de Défense et de Gestion (ODGs) illustrate a mode of quality-based agri-food business organization. ODGs focus on the development of production standards, as well as management of the intellectual property related to those standards. This mode, which is commonly used in Europe, has not often been used in the United States, despite its potential for regional food system development. The ODG mode ...


The Legal And Social Challenges Involved In The Expansion Of Multinational Operations: A Case Study Of Exxonmobil Indonesia, Shashaank Rajaraman 2022 University of South Carolina

The Legal And Social Challenges Involved In The Expansion Of Multinational Operations: A Case Study Of Exxonmobil Indonesia, Shashaank Rajaraman

Senior Theses

Within this paper, I will analyze the legal and social relations between multinational corporations and their host countries. This analysis will be conducted through viewing the circumstances surrounding Doe v. ExxonMobil within the District of Columbia Circuit Court, in which ExxonMobil has engaged in litigation regarding their human rights record within the country of Indonesia. Through secondary research conducted both within business and legal journals, information about the practices of ExxonMobil can be examined and utilized to make general conclusions upon the corporate diplomacy practiced by multinational corporations.


Substituted Service And The Hague Service Convention, William S. Dodge 2022 William & Mary Law School

Substituted Service And The Hague Service Convention, William S. Dodge

William & Mary Law Review

State law plays a surprisingly large role in transnational litigation, and how it defines the applicability of the Hague Service Convention is an important example. In Volkswagenwerk Aktiengesellschaft v. Schlunk, the U.S. Supreme Court held that the Convention does not apply when, under state law, service of process is made within the United States. In Schlunk, Illinois law permitted substituted service on the U.S. subsidiary of a foreign parent company, so the Convention did not apply. This Article looks at substituted service under state law today and when it permits avoidance of the Hague Convention. The Article focuses ...


Enforcing Interstate Compacts In Federal Systems, Michael Osborn 2022 Indiana University Maurer School of Law

Enforcing Interstate Compacts In Federal Systems, Michael Osborn

Indiana Journal of Constitutional Design

The central goal of a federal system is for local government units to retain degrees of independence, specifically over matters of importance to that local unit. A logical corollary to that independence is the ability for local units to negotiate and contract with other local units on matters of importance. Therefore, it is not surprising that almost every federal system allows, either implicitly or explicitly, member states to form binding compacts with other states, the union government, or municipalities.1 Some federal democracies even allow member states to compact with foreign governments. Furthermore, almost every federal constitution includes a provision ...


Tijuana River Valley Pollution: How The Environmental Protection Agency Expects To End A Ninety-Year Environmental And Public Health Crisis, Andrew Simmons 2022 Villanova University Charles Widger School of Law

Tijuana River Valley Pollution: How The Environmental Protection Agency Expects To End A Ninety-Year Environmental And Public Health Crisis, Andrew Simmons

Villanova Environmental Law Journal

No abstract provided.


The Global Practice Of Systematic Enforced Disappearances Of Children In International Law: Strategies For Preventing Future Occurrences And Solving Past Cases, Jeremy J. Sarkin, Elisenda Calvet Martinez 2022 Harvard HLS Affiliates Account

The Global Practice Of Systematic Enforced Disappearances Of Children In International Law: Strategies For Preventing Future Occurrences And Solving Past Cases, Jeremy J. Sarkin, Elisenda Calvet Martinez

Catholic University Law Review

The aim of this article is to first investigate and understand the widespread and systematic practice of enforced disappearances against children around the world, with a key purpose being to show that it is a regular occurrence. The article reviews the systematic disappearances of children in their historical context, beginning from the Second World War. A variety of country examples –some historical and some contemporary –are discussed to indicate the widespread nature of the practice. The variety of cases is used to understand why states participate in such practices and why children specifically are targeted as victims of enforced disappearances ...


Access, Authentication And Preservation: Three Keys To Boosting The Integrity And Inclusivity Of Public Information, Leslie A. Street, Anne E. Burnett 2022 William & Mary Law School

Access, Authentication And Preservation: Three Keys To Boosting The Integrity And Inclusivity Of Public Information, Leslie A. Street, Anne E. Burnett

Library Staff Publications

No abstract provided.


Choice-Of-Law Agreements In International Contracts, Gary Born, Cem Kalelioglu 2022 Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP

Choice-Of-Law Agreements In International Contracts, Gary Born, Cem Kalelioglu

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


L’Utilité Du Droit Comparé (The Utility Of Comparative Law), Vivian Grosswald Curran 2022 University of Pittsburgh School of Law

L’Utilité Du Droit Comparé (The Utility Of Comparative Law), Vivian Grosswald Curran

Book Chapters

French Abstract: Cette contribution était le discours d’ouverture à la Conférence des 100 ans de l’Institut Édouard Lambert à l’Université de Lyon. Elle discute de l’utilité du droit comparé dans le monde actuel d’une perspective technique dans le cadre d’une situation aux États-Unis et d’une perspective plus politique dans le cadre d’un arrêt de la CJUE.

English Abstract: This essay was delivered as a keynote address to the conference to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the Institut Édouard Lambert at the University of Lyon. It argues for the usefulness of comparative law ...


Undersea Cables: The Ultimate Geopolitical Chokepoint, Bert Chapman 2021 Purdue University

Undersea Cables: The Ultimate Geopolitical Chokepoint, Bert Chapman

FORCES Initiative: Strategy, Security, and Social Systems

This work provides historical and contemporary overviews of this critical geopolitical problem, describes the policy actors addressing this in the U.S. and selected other countries, and provides maps and information on many undersea cable work routes. These cables are chokepoints with one dictionary defining chokepoints as “a strategic narrow route providing passage through or to another region."


Gulf Of Guinea And Maritime (In)Security: Musings On Some Implications Of Applicable Legal Instruments, Edwin E. Egede 2021 Brooklyn Law School

Gulf Of Guinea And Maritime (In)Security: Musings On Some Implications Of Applicable Legal Instruments, Edwin E. Egede

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

The Gulf of Guinea (GoG) is an enormous and diverse region consisting of approximately 6,000 km of coastline extending from Senegal to Angola. It is a maritime area of strategic importance because it is resource-rich with hydrocarbons, fish and other resources. Also, it is important as a vital maritime transit hub. Unlike certain other shipping lanes that have been identified as chokepoints, the GoG, because of its width, is not susceptible to blockades and major shipping accidents. Previously the maritime (in)security in the GoG had not received the same high-profile attention from the international community as the situation ...


Autonomous Weapons Systems And The Procedural Accounta- Bility Gap, Afonso Seixas-Nunes 2021 Brooklyn Law School

Autonomous Weapons Systems And The Procedural Accounta- Bility Gap, Afonso Seixas-Nunes

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

The development and well-established principles of Internationla Humanitarian Law have been progressively establishing limits to the means and methods of warfare. Those principles and rules are necessarily applicable to future autonomous weapon systems (AWS), but questions regarding liability for violations of IHL caused by AWS have been looming the international debate. This article has two parts. The first part aims to identify a technical dimension of AWS that has been neglected by international lawyers: States responsibility for IHL violations caused by errors in AWS’ software. This article argues that “errors” can neither be identified with “malfunctions” nor attributed to human ...


High Time For A Change: How The Relationship Between Signatory Countries And The United Nations Conventions Governing Narcotic Drugs Must Adapt To Foster A Global Shift In Cannabis Law, Alexander Clementi 2021 Brooklyn Law School

High Time For A Change: How The Relationship Between Signatory Countries And The United Nations Conventions Governing Narcotic Drugs Must Adapt To Foster A Global Shift In Cannabis Law, Alexander Clementi

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

Since the early 1970’s, the inclusion of cannabis and its byproducts in the United Nations Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs has mandated a strict prohibition on cultivation and use of the substance, which has led to a largely global practice of criminalization and imprisonment of anyone found to be in its possession. Yet recently, mostly in response to growing public health concerns, countries like Uruguay, Portugal, The Netherlands, Canada, and the United States have enacted laws which seek to decriminalize or even legalize cannabis use and possession. Yet, cannabis remains classified as a Schedule IV narcotic under the Single ...


Level-Up: Towards A More Competitive & Labor-Friendly E-Sports Industry, Andrew Ramstad 2021 Brooklyn Law School

Level-Up: Towards A More Competitive & Labor-Friendly E-Sports Industry, Andrew Ramstad

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

Despite humble beginnings, the advent of the modern internet has seen the explosion of e-sports into an industry commanding hundreds of millions of annual viewers and nearly a billion dollars in annual advertising revenue. Facilitating this expansion has been a shift from independently run competitive e-sports leagues to leagues created and operated by the developers of the league’s underlying game. This vertical integration by developers increases e-sports accessibility to viewers, but at the cost of decreased player bargaining power and professional flexibility. The integration further incentivizes ever-increasing working hours and self-destructive or rule-breaking behavior by players to stay competitive ...


From The Golden Gate To London: Bridging The Gap Between Data Privacy And The Right Of Publicity, Kristin Kuraishi 2021 Brooklyn Law School

From The Golden Gate To London: Bridging The Gap Between Data Privacy And The Right Of Publicity, Kristin Kuraishi

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

Currently, there is no global standard or recognition for the right of publicity. Even within the United States, the recognition, scope, and protections vary by state. As the world becomes increasingly reliant on social media for news, information, communication, and recommendations, micro-influencers and non-celebrities require a way to control their developed and curated name, image, and likeness from unauthorized commercial uses by others. Advertising is occurring more frequently online, and brands recognize the power that micro-influencers have on commerce. Some countries, like the United Kingdom, do not recognize the right of publicity, potentially leaving many individuals without recourse for the ...


Protecting Internet Access: A Human Rights Treaty Approach, Harpreet Kaur 2021 Brooklyn Law School

Protecting Internet Access: A Human Rights Treaty Approach, Harpreet Kaur

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

With the evolution of the internet, the world has also seen a marked increase in government-ordered internet shutdowns and restrictions, sometimes with dubious justifications and sometimes with no justification at all. As people have become increasingly reliant on the internet for their day-to-day activities and to keep up with important news, internet restrictions often disrupt lives and violate people’s civil and human rights. While no international law directly protects internet access, it is implicitly advocated for under the freedom of opinion and expression. The upward trend of internet restrictions, however, suggests that an implied protection of access to a ...


Remedies For Government Breach: Lessons From The United States And A Zone Of Appealable Remedies For Southeast Asia, Benjamin D. Black 2021 Brooklyn Law School

Remedies For Government Breach: Lessons From The United States And A Zone Of Appealable Remedies For Southeast Asia, Benjamin D. Black

Brooklyn Law Review

Though international investment treaties may supplant domestic contract law in cross-border government contracts, their limited use in Southeast Asia informs the continued importance of clear remedies for a government breach of contract under domestic law. As investment from China’s Belt and Road Initiative continues to flow into the region, private parties require clear rules and remedies when a government breaches a contract. This note argues that the lack of clear and codified public contract law in Southeast Asia presents a substantial risk to private contractors and that the extreme variance in public contract law is detrimental to both parties ...


Transnational Legal Process: An Evolving Theory And Methodology, Regina Jefferies 2021 Brooklyn Law School

Transnational Legal Process: An Evolving Theory And Methodology, Regina Jefferies

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

Harold Koh introduced Transnational Legal Process in 1996 as a constructivist theory of international legal compliance which draws lessons from international legal theory and the discourse between international law and international relations scholarship. This article situates Transnational Legal Process (TLP) within the broader literature on international legal compliance and traces the theory’s evolution over the years, highlighting scholarship which addresses three critical theoretical limitations: (1) insufficient description of the actors and processes of norm internalization; (2) insufficient explanation of why States internalize certain norms; and (3) insufficient identification and description of norm-creation processes. This article uses the legal origins ...


Apocalypse Ahoy: How The Cruise Industry Boom Is Harming The World’S Oceans And Problems With Enforcing Environmental Regulations, Nicholas J. Sarnelli 2021 Brooklyn Law School

Apocalypse Ahoy: How The Cruise Industry Boom Is Harming The World’S Oceans And Problems With Enforcing Environmental Regulations, Nicholas J. Sarnelli

Brooklyn Law Review

The global cruise line industry enjoyed an incredible surge in popularity before the coronavirus pandemic. While the industry nearly sank in the wake of the pandemic, cruise lines are poised to continue to enjoy record-breaking profits while continuing to build larger and more opulent ships. This boom exacts a heavy toll on the environment, as cruise ships burn dirty fuel and dump dirty water into the world’s oceans. The current international legal framework for regulating the world’s shipping industry allows companies to effectively select which nation’s environmental laws to submit to, with ships flying under so-called “flags ...


U.S. Countervailing Duty Law Against Nonmarket Economies: Legal Analysis And Case Studies Of Vietnam, Thuy Quang Ngo 2021 Golden Gate University School of Law

U.S. Countervailing Duty Law Against Nonmarket Economies: Legal Analysis And Case Studies Of Vietnam, Thuy Quang Ngo

Theses and Dissertations

Since 2006, the United States has imposed countervailing duty, in addition to antidumping duty, on imports from Vietnam. This application of countervailing duty has been paradoxical: in order to apply the duty, the U.S. Department of Commerce must recognize that market forces exist in Vietnam, which are distorted by government intervention; at the same time, however, the Department of Commerce (“Commerce”) uses a “nonmarket economy” (“NME”) methodology to calculate the amount of countervailing duty.

This NME methodology looks to surrogate country prices to approximate the extent of government distortion of market forces, and thus the amount of countervailable subsidies ...


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