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Accelerating The Gains Of The Free Maternity Care In Kenya's Urban Informal Settlements, Juliet K. Nyamao 2021 William & Mary Law School

Accelerating The Gains Of The Free Maternity Care In Kenya's Urban Informal Settlements, Juliet K. Nyamao

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

The 2010 Constitution of Kenya recognizes the special group of women living in urban informal settlements, and provides for their access to the highest attainable standards of health care, including reproductive health care. The Health Act, which was enacted in 2017, recognizes the significant challenges of accessing maternal health services among the poorest populations. Pursuant to the resolutions of the African Union, the Health Act abolished user fees for pregnant women. The Health Act instructs the county and national governments to expand free maternity care and childhood immunizations through funding. Despite Kenya’s commitment to increase the national budget for ...


The Jurisprudence Of The First Woman Judge, Florence Allen: Challenging The Myth Of Women Judging Differently, Tracy A. Thomas 2021 William & Mary Law School

The Jurisprudence Of The First Woman Judge, Florence Allen: Challenging The Myth Of Women Judging Differently, Tracy A. Thomas

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

This Article delves into the life and work of Judge [Florence] Allen to provide insight to the contributions and jurisprudence of the first woman judge. For history questions what difference putting a woman on the bench might have made. Part I explores Allen’s early influences on her intellectual development grounded in her progressive and politically active family, and her close network of female professional friends. Part II discusses her pivotal work with the women’s suffrage movement, working with the national organizations in New York and leading the legal and political efforts in Ohio. This proactive commitment to gender ...


Not That Bad: Lessons Women Learn In A Rape Culture, Sydney J. Selman 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Not That Bad: Lessons Women Learn In A Rape Culture, Sydney J. Selman

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

In 2018, Roxane Gay assembled an anthology that addresses the severity of rape culture, rejecting the common belief that some sexually violent acts, compared to others, are not that bad. This collection, titled Not That Bad: Dispatches from Rape Culture, compiles pieces from thirty different authors and sheds light on how the notion of not that bad contributes to a broader structural social problem involving sexual violence. This social problem, known as rape culture, is commonly defined as a culture that normalizes sexual violence and blames victims of sexual assault (“What is Rape Culture?”). In other words, rape culture trivializes ...


Handle With Care: Domestic Violence Safety Planning In The Age Of Data Privacy Laws, Jenny Wu 2021 Seattle University School of Law

Handle With Care: Domestic Violence Safety Planning In The Age Of Data Privacy Laws, Jenny Wu

Seattle Journal of Technology, Environmental & Innovation Law

The United States has been patiently waiting for a comprehensive federal data privacy law to protect consumers. However, strong data privacy laws can also protect a less thought-about group: survivors of domestic violence and intimate partner violence. As new technology proliferates into our daily lives, technology-based abuse is quickly becoming a common form of intimate partner abuse. Domestic violence survivors and advocates have to stay extra vigilant about who has access to their internet data. Needing to understand technology-specific safety measures and learn technology-literacy skills adds more work to already overwhelmed domestic violence advocates and survivors. Could the law serve ...


Sexual Orientation And Gender Identity, Mark E. Wojcik 2021 Southern Methodist University

Sexual Orientation And Gender Identity, Mark E. Wojcik

The Year in Review

No abstract provided.


Women's Interest Network, Rong Kohtz, Jami Mills Vibbert, Sharon M. James 2021 Southern Methodist University

Women's Interest Network, Rong Kohtz, Jami Mills Vibbert, Sharon M. James

The Year in Review

No abstract provided.


Profiling Beyond Race: Characteristics Associated With Traffic Stop Outcomes, Megan Anderson 2021 East Tennessee State University

Profiling Beyond Race: Characteristics Associated With Traffic Stop Outcomes, Megan Anderson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Research related to profiling and the outcome of traffic stops has generally focused on the race of the individuals involved. Little research has examined other characteristics, such as age and socioeconomic status, that may also play a role in traffic stop outcomes. The current study sought to address this limitation in two ways: (1) determine whether the characteristics of age, sex, race, social class, and demeanor are profiled during traffic stops and (2) whether these characteristics influenced the outcome of the traffic stops with regard to tickets and vehicle searches. Secondary data were utilized from the 2015 Police-Public Contact Survey ...


How The Level Of Job Complexity Impacts The Gender Wage Gap Across Occupations, Zytlaly Magaña Corona 2021 California State University – San Bernardino

How The Level Of Job Complexity Impacts The Gender Wage Gap Across Occupations, Zytlaly Magaña Corona

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The present study focused on unpacking the social and structural aspects of job complexity to better understand its effects on the gender wage gap. Previous research on the job complexity-compensation dynamic has primarily focused on cognitive complexity. Job complexity across occupations were examined using work activity data from O*NET and merging it with the Current Population Survey data sponsored by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (N=67,003). Results revealed that higher complexity jobs in this study yielded greater wage disparities across different occupations as predicted. Furthermore, physical activities and gaining knowledge from the Generalized Work Activities ...


Intersectionality And Accessibility To Social Services, Nora Khuder 2021 University of Southern Maine

Intersectionality And Accessibility To Social Services, Nora Khuder

Thinking Matters Symposium

In times of a crisis the intersectionality of sex, class, and ability creates a vulnerable population. Many available “resources'' are exhausted, due to high demand. Intersectionality signifies the impact of multiple intersecting identities in society as a direct correlation to the specific and unique barriers of marginalized groups. Resources are currently limited due to the lack of representative data. Although many studies have been conducted, many researchers have failed to capture the need of social services in rural areas.


Increasing Investment In Stem Education For Females: Policy Considerations, Becky Harris, Andrea Dassopoulos, Daniel Sahl, Anna Starostina 2021 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Increasing Investment In Stem Education For Females: Policy Considerations, Becky Harris, Andrea Dassopoulos, Daniel Sahl, Anna Starostina

UNLV Gaming Research & Review Journal

During this difficult economic time, as policy makers decide how to use their limited resources to help prepare the rising generation for the demands of an ever-changing workforce, aligning K-12 educational priorities with higher education and economic development can help maximize public dollar investments in STEM education, particularly when females are given access to STEM and STEM-related education and programs. Smart public policy initiatives can help increase the representation of women in the technology, research and development, and innovation departments.

The purpose of this article is to provide policy recommendations that could help increase gender diversity and participation in STEM ...


Unduly Burdening Abortion Jurisprudence, Mark Strasser 2021 William & Mary Law School

Unduly Burdening Abortion Jurisprudence, Mark Strasser

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

The undue burden standard is the current test to determine whether abortion regulations pass constitutional muster. But the function, meaning, and application of that test have varied over time, which undercuts the test’s usefulness and the ability of legislatures to know which regulations pass constitutional muster. Even more confusing, the Court has refused to apply the test in light of its express terms, which cannot fail to yield surprising conclusions and undercut confidence in the Court. The Court must not only clarify what the test means and how it is to be used, but must also formulate that test ...


Let’S Go To The Beach: Gender Segregation As A Tool To Accommodate Religious Minorities, Sarah Gibbons 2021 Chicago-Kent College of Law

Let’S Go To The Beach: Gender Segregation As A Tool To Accommodate Religious Minorities, Sarah Gibbons

Chicago-Kent Law Review

No abstract provided.


Time Is Money, Ladies: The Ninth Circuit Prohibited Prior Pay As A Factor Other Than Sex In Rizo V. Yovino, Caroline M. Gelinne 2021 Boston College Law School

Time Is Money, Ladies: The Ninth Circuit Prohibited Prior Pay As A Factor Other Than Sex In Rizo V. Yovino, Caroline M. Gelinne

Boston College Law Review

On February 27, 2020, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit in Rizo v. Yovino held that prior salary is not a valid defense against an employee’s claim under the Equal Pay Act (EPA). In so doing, the Ninth Circuit ruled that prior pay is an inherently gendered factor and became the first federal circuit court to eliminate it as a valid factor other than sex under the EPA. This Comment argues that Rizo was correctly decided but that it could have gone even further to narrow the pay gap in the United States.


The Eighth For Edmo: Access To Gender-Affirming Care In Prisons, John Ferraro 2021 Boston College Law School

The Eighth For Edmo: Access To Gender-Affirming Care In Prisons, John Ferraro

Boston College Law Review

In 2019, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit in Edmo v. Corizon, Inc. held that a prison’s denial of gender confirmation surgery to a transgender prisoner constituted cruel and unusual punishment under the Eighth Amendment. In doing so, the Ninth Circuit contravened a U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit decision on similar facts. This Comment argues that the Ninth Circuit’s approach was correct, as that court properly applied Eighth Amendment precedent to assess the quality of care provided to address a prisoner’s serious medical need.


Employer Liability For Sex Harassment Through The Lens Of Restorative Justice, Emily Rees 2021 Cleveland-Marshall College of Law

Employer Liability For Sex Harassment Through The Lens Of Restorative Justice, Emily Rees

Cleveland State Law Review

Title VII cases alleging sex harassment have become almost completely deferential to employers who have anti-harassment policies. In this Note, I discuss legal and sociological influences on this development and propose using restorative justice focused mediation to avoid rendering Title VII entirely ineffective. Mediation should only be compelled as a remedy—after a court finds that harassment occurred, but that the plaintiff cannot prove her employer knew about the harassment. Instead of dismissing these cases—where judges have already found illegal discrimination—some corrective action should be imposed on the employer for its failure to maintain a harassment-free workplace. Focusing ...


Third-Party Standing And Abortion Providers: The Hidden Dangers Of June Medical Services, Elika Nassirinia 2021 Northwestern Pritzker School of Law

Third-Party Standing And Abortion Providers: The Hidden Dangers Of June Medical Services, Elika Nassirinia

Northwestern Journal of Law & Social Policy

Standing is a long held, judicially-created doctrine intended to establish the proper role of courts by identifying who may bring a case in federal court. While standing usually requires that a party asserts his or her own rights, the Supreme Court has created certain exceptions that allow litigants to bring suit on behalf of third parties when they suffer a concrete injury, they have a “close relation” to the third party, and there are obstacles to the third party's ability to protect his or her own interests. June Medical Services, heard by the Supreme Court on June 29, 2020 ...


Title Ix Administers A Booster Shot: The Effect Of Private Donations On Title Ix, Charlotte Franklin 2021 Northwestern Pritzker School of Law

Title Ix Administers A Booster Shot: The Effect Of Private Donations On Title Ix, Charlotte Franklin

Northwestern Journal of Law & Social Policy

Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 (Title IX) prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in federally funded education programs or activities. Since its enactment, Title IX has dramatically increased interscholastic and intercollegiate athletic opportunities for women and girls. Despite indisputable progress since Title IX’s enactment, particularly for female athletes, many high schools and universities still fail to offer equal athletic opportunities for members of both sexes. Inadequate educational resources for high school and university athletic department administrators leads to a misunderstanding of Title IX’s requirements. This misunderstanding results in institutional misconduct and non-compliance with Title ...


Mayor Pete, Obergefell Gays, And White Male Privilege, Russell K. Robinson 2021 University of California, Berkeley, School of Law

Mayor Pete, Obergefell Gays, And White Male Privilege, Russell K. Robinson

Buffalo Law Review

This Article argues that Mayor Pete Buttigieg seized the national imagination and a substantial number of Democratic delegates through the combination of his gay identity and his alignment with masculinity norms generally assigned to heterosexual men, and by taking aim at more senior and qualified women candidates, namely Senators Elizabeth Warren and Amy Klobuchar. Buttigieg’s unprecedented success suggests that some White gay men now enjoy a unique pathway to reclaiming their status as men and asserting White male privilege. In short, contrary to pervasive media claims, Buttigieg’s success should be read as a breakthrough for certain White gay ...


Demands For “Sisterly” Love: Exploring The Hyperpenalization Of Black Girls In The School District Of Philadelphia, Danielle Miles-Langaigne 2021 University of Pennsylvania

Demands For “Sisterly” Love: Exploring The Hyperpenalization Of Black Girls In The School District Of Philadelphia, Danielle Miles-Langaigne

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

An immense amount of research, memos, and scholarship has surfaced in the last decade considering the school-to-prison pipeline and Black boys’ involuntary participation in it. Various education scholars have presented data emphasizing how Black male students are disproportionately punished–notably in ways that negatively impact their prospects for educational attainment, social mobility, and long-term empowerment. Many, however, fail to consider their close counterparts: Black girls. This thesis expands upon the Crenshaw, Ocen, and Nanda (2015) report to see if Black girls are also disproportionately penalized in Philadelphia public schools within the School District of Philadelphia (SDP) at higher rates relative ...


Sexual Slavery As A War Crime: A Reform Proposal, Alessandro Storchi 2021 University of Michigan Law School

Sexual Slavery As A War Crime: A Reform Proposal, Alessandro Storchi

Michigan Journal of International Law

For the first time in the history of international criminal law, the ICC Elements of Crimes included a statutory definition of sexual slavery as a war crime and as a crime against humanity. Such definition is derived from, and in fact almost identical to, the definition of enslavement in the same text. In July 2019, that language for the first time was adopted and applied in the conviction of general Bosco Ntaganda, the first ever conviction for sexual slavery as a war crime and as a crime against humanity at the ICC, as part of the situation in the Democratic ...


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