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What The Trust? Overcoming Barriers To Renewable Energy Development In Indian Country, Malcolm M. Gilbert, Aspen B. Ward 2024 University of Montana

What The Trust? Overcoming Barriers To Renewable Energy Development In Indian Country, Malcolm M. Gilbert, Aspen B. Ward

Public Land & Resources Law Review

No abstract provided.


Avoiding The Pitfalls In Administrative Record Review Cases, Kim Wilson, Brian Brammer 2024 University of Montana

Avoiding The Pitfalls In Administrative Record Review Cases, Kim Wilson, Brian Brammer

Public Land & Resources Law Review

No abstract provided.


Corner Crossing: Unlocking Public Lands Or Invading The Airspace Of Landowners?, Kevin Frazier 2024 University of Montana

Corner Crossing: Unlocking Public Lands Or Invading The Airspace Of Landowners?, Kevin Frazier

Public Land & Resources Law Review

No abstract provided.


States Of Mind Or State Of Crime: Exploring The Prosecution Of Environmental Crimes In The Western United States, Joshua Ozymy, Melissa Ozymy 2024 University of Montana

States Of Mind Or State Of Crime: Exploring The Prosecution Of Environmental Crimes In The Western United States, Joshua Ozymy, Melissa Ozymy

Public Land & Resources Law Review

No abstract provided.


Cutting The Mussel's Threads: A Legal Perspective On Invasive Species, Hallee C. Frandsen 2024 University of Montana

Cutting The Mussel's Threads: A Legal Perspective On Invasive Species, Hallee C. Frandsen

Public Land & Resources Law Review

No abstract provided.


Editors And Staff Members, 2024 University of Montana

Editors And Staff Members

Public Land & Resources Law Review

No abstract provided.


If We Could Talk To The Animals, How Should We Discuss Their Legal Rights?, Andrew W. Torrance, Bill Tomlinson 2024 University of Kansas

If We Could Talk To The Animals, How Should We Discuss Their Legal Rights?, Andrew W. Torrance, Bill Tomlinson

Fordham Law Review

The intricate tapestry of animal communication has long fascinated humanity, with the sophisticated linguistics of cetaceans holding a special place of intrigue due to the cetaceans’ significant brain size and apparent intelligence. This Essay explores the legal implications of the recent advancements in artificial intelligence (AI), specifically machine learning and neural networks, that have made significant strides in deciphering sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) communication. We view the ability of a being to communicate as one—but not the only—potential pathway to qualify for legal rights. As such, we investigate the possibility that the ability to communicate should trigger legal …


Protecting Our Pups At All Costs: Why Dogfighting Cases Require A Mandatory Restitution Assessment, Ayah Ighneim 2024 Cleveland State University College of Law

Protecting Our Pups At All Costs: Why Dogfighting Cases Require A Mandatory Restitution Assessment, Ayah Ighneim

Cleveland State Law Review

This Note recommends that Congress acknowledge the dangers behind dogfighting by updating the federal mandatory restitution statute to include “animals” within the definition of a “victim” eligible to receive restitution and by updating federal animal-cruelty laws. This recommendation stems from the popularization of dogfighting in the twenty-first century. Specifically, this Note articulates the link between the prevalence of dogfighting in America and the lack of deterrence targeted toward dogfighting in America. This Note then argues that this lack of deterrence is a result of the lack of Congressional guidance within both the federal restitution statute and within federal animal-cruelty laws. …


Issues In Animal Law, Student Animal Legal Defense Fund (SALDF) 2024 Yeshiva University, Cardozo School of Law

Issues In Animal Law, Student Animal Legal Defense Fund (Saldf)

Flyers 2023-2024

No abstract provided.


Who’S Going To Sue? A Look At Environmental Citizen Suits, Virginia C. Thomas 2024 Wayne State University

Who’S Going To Sue? A Look At Environmental Citizen Suits, Virginia C. Thomas

Library Scholarly Publications

The author reviews the history of citizen-plaintiff suit provisions embedded in federal and state environmental legislation.


Animal Liberation Front: Threat To Kentucky, Zoe E. Hunt 2024 Eastern Kentucky University

Animal Liberation Front: Threat To Kentucky, Zoe E. Hunt

Posters-at-the-Capitol

The Animal Liberation Front (ALF) is a global terrorist organization that was founded in 1976. Since the creation of ALF, the group has spread rapidly as well as turned into a domestic terrorist organization in the United States. With this project, the group's potential threat to Kentucky was evaluated. ALF was evaluated using four structured analytic techniques and an intelligence collection plan. A better understanding of what ALF is was formed by the discussion of the group’s origins, ideology, and organization. In addition, the group's goals, objectives, and capabilities were discussed. Using the information gathered during the threat profile, the …


Chewing The Welfare Cud: A Digested Analysis Of A Consumer Versus Producer-Defined Standard Of Welfare Practices In Animals Raised For Human Consumption, Caitlin C. Robb 2024 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Chewing The Welfare Cud: A Digested Analysis Of A Consumer Versus Producer-Defined Standard Of Welfare Practices In Animals Raised For Human Consumption, Caitlin C. Robb

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Since the eighteenth century, animal well-being remains a concern for American citizens. Yet, underlying this concern is the thought that while humans should not be cruel to animals, animals are still private property subject to human ownership. Therefore, multi-faceted questions of what constitutes “animal welfare” find a place in modern American debate. One such question becomes: should the producer or the consumer define welfare practice standards of animals raised for human consumption?7 This note provides an answer to this question by first analyzing the robust history of animal welfare in the United States, along with the domestic and international impact …


The Need For Corporate Guardrails In U.S. Industrial Policy, Lenore Palladino 2024 Seattle University School of Law

The Need For Corporate Guardrails In U.S. Industrial Policy, Lenore Palladino

Seattle University Law Review

U.S. politicians are actively “marketcrafting”: the passage of the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law, the CHIPS and Science Act, and the Inflation Reduction Act collectively mark a new moment of robust industrial policy. However, these policies are necessarily layered on top of decades of shareholder primacy in corporate governance, in which corporate and financial leaders have prioritized using corporate profits to increase the wealth of shareholders. The Administration and Congress have an opportunity to use industrial policy to encourage a broader reorientation of U.S. businesses away from extractive shareholder primacy and toward innovation and productivity. This Article examines discrete opportunities within the …


Table Of Contents, Seattle University Law Review 2024 Seattle University School of Law

Table Of Contents, Seattle University Law Review

Seattle University Law Review

Table of Contents


Public Primacy In Corporate Law, Dorothy S. Lund 2024 Seattle University School of Law

Public Primacy In Corporate Law, Dorothy S. Lund

Seattle University Law Review

This Article explores the malleability of agency theory by showing that it could be used to justify a “public primacy” standard for corporate law that would direct fiduciaries to promote the value of the corporation for the benefit of the public. Employing agency theory to describe the relationship between corporate management and the broader public sheds light on aspects of firm behavior, as well as the nature of state contracting with corporations. It also provides a lodestar for a possible future evolution of corporate law and governance: minimize the agency costs created by the divergence of interests between management and …


Shareholder Primacy Versus Shareholder Accountability, William W. Bratton 2024 Seattle University School of Law

Shareholder Primacy Versus Shareholder Accountability, William W. Bratton

Seattle University Law Review

When corporations inflict injuries in the course of business, shareholders wielding environmental, social, and governance (“ESG”) principles can, and now sometimes do, intervene to correct the matter. In the emerging fact pattern, corporate social accountability expands out of its historic collectivized frame to become an internal subject matter—a corporate governance topic. As a result, shareholder accountability surfaces as a policy question for the first time. The Big Three index fund managers, BlackRock, Vanguard, and State Street, responded to the accountability question with ESG activism. In so doing, they defected against corporate legal theory’s central tenet, shareholder primacy. Shareholder primacy builds …


Stakeholder Governance As Governance By Stakeholders, Brett McDonnell 2024 Seattle University School of Law

Stakeholder Governance As Governance By Stakeholders, Brett Mcdonnell

Seattle University Law Review

Much debate within corporate governance today centers on the proper role of corporate stakeholders, such as employees, customers, creditors, suppliers, and local communities. Scholars and reformers advocate for greater attention to stakeholder interests under a variety of banners, including ESG, sustainability, corporate social responsibility, and stakeholder governance. So far, that advocacy focuses almost entirely on arguing for an expanded understanding of corporate purpose. It argues that corporate governance should be for various stakeholders, not shareholders alone.

This Article examines and approves of that broadened understanding of corporate purpose. However, it argues that we should understand stakeholder governance as extending well …


Corporate Law In The Global South: Heterodox Stakeholderism, Mariana Pargendler 2024 Seattle University School of Law

Corporate Law In The Global South: Heterodox Stakeholderism, Mariana Pargendler

Seattle University Law Review

How do the corporate laws of Global South jurisdictions differ from their Global North counterparts? Prevailing stereotypes depict the corporate laws of developing countries as either antiquated or plagued by problems of enforcement and misfit despite formal convergence. This Article offers a different view by showing how Global South jurisdictions have pioneered heterodox stakeholder approaches in corporate law, such as the erosion of limited liability for purposes of stakeholder protection in Brazil and India, the adoption of mandatory corporate social responsibility in Indonesia and India, and the large-scale program of Black corporate ownership and empowerment in South Africa, among many …


A Different Approach To Agency Theory And Implications For Esg, Jonathan Bonham, Amoray Riggs-Cragun 2024 Seattle University School of Law

A Different Approach To Agency Theory And Implications For Esg, Jonathan Bonham, Amoray Riggs-Cragun

Seattle University Law Review

In conventional agency theory, the agent is modeled as exerting unobservable “effort” that influences the distribution over outcomes the principal cares about. Recent papers instead allow the agent to choose the entire distribution, an assumption that better describes the extensive and flexible control that CEOs have over firm outcomes. Under this assumption, the optimal contract rewards the agent directly for outcomes the principal cares about, rather than for what those outcomes reveal about the agent’s effort. This article briefly summarizes this new agency model and discusses its implications for contracting on ESG activities.


The Limits Of Corporate Governance, Cathy Hwang, Emily Winston 2024 Seattle University School of Law

The Limits Of Corporate Governance, Cathy Hwang, Emily Winston

Seattle University Law Review

What is the purpose of the corporation? For decades, the answer was clear: to put shareholders’ interests first. In many cases, this theory of shareholder primacy also became synonymous with the imperative to maximize shareholder wealth. In the world where shareholder primacy was a north star, courts, scholars, and policymakers had relatively little to fight about: most debates were minor skirmishes about exactly how to maximize shareholder wealth.

Part I of this Essay discusses the shortcomings of shareholder primacy and stakeholder governance, arguing that neither of these modes of governance provides an adequate framework for incentivizing corporations to do good. …


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