Medical Care In Urban Conflict, 2019 U.S. Naval War College
Medical Care In Urban Conflict, Kenneth Watkin
International Law Studies
The potential for urban violence is increasing as the world population continues to migrate towards cities. Recent examples of urban warfare with insurgent groups has occurred in Damascus, Mosul, Raqqa, Marawi, Ramadi, and Fallujah, although non-State actor conflict covers a wide range of violence from ordinary crime, to terrorism and transnational crime, to near conventional conflict. Further, transnational terrorist groups have sought to extend the conflict into countries seen as the “far enemy.” A key issue is determining if an armed conflict is in existence so that the protective focus of international humanitarian law regarding the provision of medical care ...
Human Rights Violations Consequent To Transshipment Practices In Fisheries, 2019 University of Maine School of Law
Human Rights Violations Consequent To Transshipment Practices In Fisheries, Chelsey F. Marto
Ocean and Coastal Law Journal
Transshipment, the process of transferring catch from a small fishing vessel onto a larger fishing vessel far off shore, has been used to commit a variety of human rights abuses on the sea. Companies can get away with this because there is little to no oversight over the activities. Yet, there has been little to no incentive to change these practices, because companies are generally not penalized for these actions. The author proposes a variety of tactics be implemented in addressing these concerns. These include imposition of sanctions upon countries who allow for nefarious activities, increased video surveillance on board ...
Humanitarian Logic And The Law Of Siege: A Study Of The Oxford Guidance On Relief Actions, 2019 Creighton University School of Law
Humanitarian Logic And The Law Of Siege: A Study Of The Oxford Guidance On Relief Actions, Sean Watts
International Law Studies
In terms of human suffering, few military operations have rivaled sieges and comparably harsh legal regimes have governed them. At a time when legal vindication of humanitarian interests in armed conflict is ascendant, conventional accounts of the law of war governing humanitarian relief may seem out of step, plagued with glaring gaps in humanitarian logic. In 2016, Oxford University professors published a United Nations-commissioned legal study—the Oxford Guidance on the Law Relating to Humanitarian Relief Operations in Situations of Armed Conflict. The Guidance contends that during armed conflict international law prohibits belligerents from arbitrarily denying offers of humanitarian relief ...
Striking A Grotian Moment: How The Syria Airstrikes Changed International Law Relating To Humanitarian Interventions, 2019 Case Western Reserve University - School of Law
Striking A Grotian Moment: How The Syria Airstrikes Changed International Law Relating To Humanitarian Interventions, Michael P. Scharf
In the years since the 1999 NATO airstrikes on Serbia to prevent ethnic cleansing of the Kosovar Albanians, international law has been moving in fits and starts toward recognition of a limited right of humanitarian intervention in the absence of Security Council approval. But all the ingredients necessary for the crystallization of customary international law were not present until the April 14, 2018 U.S./French/U.K. airstrikes on Syrian chemical weapons facilities. This article examines the unique features of the April 2018 airstrikes – the context of a crisis of historic proportions, the focus on preventing the use of ...
New Documents Shed Light: Why Did Peacekeepers Withdraw During Rwanda’S 1994 Genocide?, 2018 University of Washington
New Documents Shed Light: Why Did Peacekeepers Withdraw During Rwanda’S 1994 Genocide?, Emily A. Willard
Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal
Why did the international community decide to withdraw United Nations peacekeeping troops from Rwanda during the 1994 genocide? Analysis of newly released documents and results from an international conference with former U.N. and government officials sheds further light on our understanding of what took place leading up to and during the Rwandan genocide. This article focuses on two key moments: 1) the United States’ reluctance to support the peacekeeping mission from before its mandate began and prior to the killing of U.S. troops in Somalia in autumn 1993; and the United States’ central role pushing the United Nations ...
Ebola And War In The Democratic Republic Of Congo: Avoiding Failure And Thinking Ahead, 2018 Georgetown University Law Center
Ebola And War In The Democratic Republic Of Congo: Avoiding Failure And Thinking Ahead, Lawrence O. Gostin, Matthew M. Kavanagh, Elizabeth Cameron
Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works
The Ebola epidemic in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is exceptionally dangerous, occurring within active armed conflict and geopolitical volatility, including a million displaced persons. With 421 cases, 240 deaths, and the numbers increasing, this Ebola outbreak is the second deadliest in history. Recent spread to Butembo, home to 1.2 million people, raised concerns. The DRC, World Health Organization (WHO), and partners are leading a vigorous international response, yet despite deploying an experimental vaccine, cases doubled in October 2018 and many cases had unknown origin.
Uncontrolled Ebola outbreaks can expand quickly, as occurred in West Africa in 2014 ...
North Korea’S Nuclear Program And Negotiation: How Nuclear Negotiation During The Clinton Years Produced Lessons For Current International Relations, Brian Hilliker
Senior Honors Theses
North Korea’s road of survival began in the aftermath of World War II, when the United States and the Soviet Union sparred over rival ideologies. Ultimately, Korea split into a free south and an authoritarian north. Over seventy years later, North Korea remains a bastion of communism. Nuclear weaponry is a factor behind North Korea’s survival, and the history of their program can offer insight for American policy makers today. This paper offers a history of North Korea’s nuclear weapons program during the Clinton presidency, along with recommendations for present day policy makers. Without an understanding of ...
International Humanitarian Law And The Targeting Of Data, 2018 University of Tasmania
International Humanitarian Law And The Targeting Of Data, Tim Mccormack
International Law Studies
The 2013 publication of the Tallinn Manual on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare confirmed the view of the majority of the international group of experts that data was not an object and therefore not subject to the rules of targeting during an armed conflict. Intuitively, a number of scholars reacted negatively to this view, and instead were drawn to the Tallinn Manual minority position that data did constitute an object. The significance of data, particularly personal data, is only increasing, and the purpose of the law of armed conflict is to reduce the deleterious impact of armed conflict ...
Freedom Of Research And The Right To Science: From Theory To Advocacy, 2018 Bryant University
Freedom Of Research And The Right To Science: From Theory To Advocacy, Andrea Boggio, Romano P.R. Cesare
History and Social Sciences Faculty Journal Articles
While international law recognizes a human right to science, the binding normative content of this right needs to be better clarified and specified. To advance our understanding of this understudied right, this chapter offers a theoretical analysis of ways in which the right to science can be realized. The chapter is divided in three sections: the first section discusses the recognition of the right to science under international and regional legal instruments; the second presents a literature review; and the third discusses how judicial and political mobilisation as paths to contribute to our understating of this right and defining its ...
We Are All Farkhunda: An Examination Of The Treatment Of Women Within Afghanistan's Formal Legal System, 2018 Indiana University Maurer School of Law
We Are All Farkhunda: An Examination Of The Treatment Of Women Within Afghanistan's Formal Legal System, Ashley Lenderman
Indiana Journal of Constitutional Design
In this paper, I will examine three cases of violence against women that went through the Afghan formal legal system: the case of Farkhunda, the Paghman district gang rape case, and the case of Sahar Gul. In the first Part, I will discuss the formal legal system framework on which the cases are based. In the second Part, I will discuss the cases in detail. In the third Part, I will describe neo-liberal, reformist, and neo-fundamentalist approaches to interpretation of Islamic law, and I will then draw out pieces of the decisions from the three cases that closely match these ...
Much Ado About Nothing?: Local Resistance And The Significance Of Sanctuary Laws, 2018 Seattle University School of Law
Much Ado About Nothing?: Local Resistance And The Significance Of Sanctuary Laws, Alyssa Garcia
Seattle University Law Review
This Comment explores the current constitutional discourse of sanctuary laws and compares their various components. Part I provides background on the basic policy components of sanctuary laws and modern policies. Part II explores and compares the substantive legal and political value of sanctuary laws. This section will first assess the impact of sanctuary policies on existing immigration and constitutional law. In doing so, specific sanctuary jurisdictions involved in litigation, Seattle, San Francisco, and Chicago, and their likelihood of withstanding preemption under existing doctrine will be compared. The impact sanctuary laws may have on the Tenth Amendment will next be discussed ...
A Life Absolutely Bare? A Reflection On Resistance By Irregular Refugees Against Fingerprinting As State Biopolitical Control In The European Union, 2018 University of California, Berkeley
A Life Absolutely Bare? A Reflection On Resistance By Irregular Refugees Against Fingerprinting As State Biopolitical Control In The European Union, Ziang Zhou
Claremont-UC Undergraduate Research Conference on the European Union
In a legally transitory category, irregular refugees- experience a double precariousness. They risk their lives to travel across treacherous seas to Europe for a better life. However, upon the long-awaited embarkation on the European land, they are exposed once again to the precariousness of the asylum application. They are “powerless”, “with no rights” and “to be sacrificed” as Giorgio Agamben and Hannah Arendt suggested in their respective understanding of a “bare life”, la nuda vita. In light of the administrative difficulties in managing asylum application, the European Union introduced the “Dublin Agreement”, which stipulates mandatory biometric data collection for irregular ...
Book Review: Prosecuting Corporations For Genocide, 2018 University of Baltimore
Book Review: Prosecuting Corporations For Genocide, Sarah Federman
Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal
No abstract provided.
Moral Disarmament: Reviving A Legacy Of The Great War, 2018 University of Hong Kong Faculty of Law
Moral Disarmament: Reviving A Legacy Of The Great War, James D. Fry, Saroj Nair
Michigan Journal of International Law
In short, this Article examines the concept of moral disarmament using a broad-spectrum definition of humanity rather than the traditional IHL perspective. Rather than referring to human rights that are impacted by armaments, this Article looks at methods through which human initiative can create a society that truly hungers for disarmament. In other words, this Article points out that the extent of change that society can bring about through education, intellectual cooperation, peace initiatives, international affairs awareness, and intercultural communication can be reflected in the economic growth, social growth, and development of states. The aim is to help the reader ...
Weapons Review Obligation Under Customary International Law, 2018 University of New South Wales, Australian Defence Force Academy
Weapons Review Obligation Under Customary International Law, Natalia Jevglevskaja
International Law Studies
Under Article 36 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions, States are required to review new weapons for their compliance with international law. While recent discussions on the regulation of lethal autonomous weapons systems under the auspices of the UN Certain Conventional Weapons Convention increasingly emphasize the importance of national weapons review mechanisms, Article 36 is known to be implemented only by a handful of States. Some legal scholars have nonetheless argued that the Article 36 obligation has attained customary international law status. Remarkably, substantive analysis of State practice and opinio juris required to evidence that certain ...
Policing Against The State: United Nations Policing As Violative Of Sovereignty, 2018 University of San Diego
Policing Against The State: United Nations Policing As Violative Of Sovereignty, Alexandra R. Harrington
San Diego International Law Journal
It is the author's contention that both parties to the policing arrangement-be they individuals, states, or organizations-give up portions of their sovereignty in the creation and maintenance of the police and policed relationship where the police are not serving the state which theoretically guards the policed. Part II of this Article provides a discussion of legal concepts of state sovereignty in international law. Part III examines the role of police in U.N. peacekeeping missions from the first peacekeeping mission entailing policing operations in the 1960s through present day operations. This examination reveals a pattern in the growth and ...
Alien Tort Cases Will Survive Supreme Court Trim, Write Commentators, 2018 University of Georgia Law School
Alien Tort Cases Will Survive Supreme Court Trim, Write Commentators, Peter B. Rutledge, Michael Baker
For over four decades, the Alien Tort Statute has served as a central battleground in some of the country’s (and world’s) most significant international human rights litigation. Following a trend in its ATS jurisprudence that started with its opinion in Sosa v. Alvarez-Machain, the Supreme Court recently trimmed the statute’s scope yet further. In Jesner v. Arab Bank PLC, the Court held that suits arising under the ATS did not extend to claims against corporations (at least some of them, a nuance explained below). Once again, postdecisional commentary decried the demise of ATS suits and a blow ...
Revisiting Belligerent Reprisals In The Age Of Cyber?, 2018 Marquette University Law School
Revisiting Belligerent Reprisals In The Age Of Cyber?
Marquette Law Review
Decriminalization Of Prostitution Policy: Amnesty International Punishes A Dissenting Member, 2018 University of Rhode Island
Decriminalization Of Prostitution Policy: Amnesty International Punishes A Dissenting Member, Marcia R. Lieberman
Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence
In 2016, Marcia Lieberman, a local group coordinator for Amnesty International, USA, was expelled by the board of directors for speaking out publicly against the new Policy on the Decriminalization of Sex Work. Amnesty used a little-known rule that prohibits a member from publicly opposing a position that Amnesty has taken. Lieberman writes about her experience and her view that Amnesty violated its fundamental principle of protecting free speech to silence her dissent.
Are Enhanced Warfighters Weapons, Means, Or Methods Of Warfare?, 2018 TC Beirne School of Law, University of Queensland
Are Enhanced Warfighters Weapons, Means, Or Methods Of Warfare?, Rain Liivoja, Luke Chircop
International Law Studies
Advances in science and technology have made it possible to improve the physical and cognitive capabilities of warfighters by biomedical interventions, such as the administration of drugs, the implantation of devices, and the magnetic stimulation of the brain. These advances raise the question as to whether enhanced warfighters ought to be considered weapons, means of warfare, or methods of warfare, for the purposes of the law of armed conflict. An affirmative answer to this question would make human enhancement subject to various restrictions arising from the law of armed conflict as well as arms control law. This article disagrees with ...