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What Is Insurance? An Analysis Of The Tax Deductibility Of Captive Insurance Premiums, John D. Patten 2022 Northern Illinois University

What Is Insurance? An Analysis Of The Tax Deductibility Of Captive Insurance Premiums, John D. Patten

Honors Capstones

What is insurance for the purposes of a tax deduction? The Internal Revenue Code does not define insurance. Without this definition, taxpayers using alternative insurance products to manage their risks must look to case law to determine whether their arrangements count as tax deductible insurance or non-deductible self-insurance. This paper dives into the four prongs of insurance: insurance risk, risk shifting, risk distributing, and commonly accepted notions of insurance. This paper looks to cases that have dealt with the deduction of captive insurance premiums to provide better insight into the practical application of this test. After discussing the evolution of ...


Technologically Improving Textualism, Jeffrey W. Stempel, Erik S. Knutsen 2022 University of Nevada, Las Vegas -- William S. Boyd School of Law

Technologically Improving Textualism, Jeffrey W. Stempel, Erik S. Knutsen

Nevada Law Journal Forum

The textualist approach to construing statutes, regulations, contracts, and other documents remains dominant but has drawbacks, most significantly its tendency to disregard probative evidence of textual meaning in favor of isolated judicial impressions and dictionary definitions. Although a broader, contextual, “integrative” approach to interpretation is preferable, the hegemony of textualism, even extreme textualism, is unlikely to recede soon. Textualism can be substantially improved, however, through effective use of a form of big data—the corpus linguistics approach to discerning word meaning. By enlarging the universe of sources about how words are actually used, corpus linguistics represents a significant improvement over ...


Insuring Contraceptive Equity, Jennifer Hickey 2022 Northwestern Pritzker School of Law

Insuring Contraceptive Equity, Jennifer Hickey

Northwestern Journal of Law & Social Policy

The United States is in the midst of a family planning crisis. Approximately half of all pregnancies nationwide are unintended. In recognition of the social importance of family planning, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) includes a “contraceptive mandate” that requires insurers to cover contraception at no cost. Yet, a decade after its enactment, the ACA’s promise of universal contraceptive access for insured women remains unfulfilled, with as many as one-third of U.S. women unable to access their preferred contraceptive without cost.

While much attention has been focused on religious exemptions granted to employers, the primary barrier to no-cost ...


Medical Necessity Of Residential Treatment For Anorexia: Can Parity Be Achieved?, Abbey Derechin 2022 Northwestern Pritzker School of Law

Medical Necessity Of Residential Treatment For Anorexia: Can Parity Be Achieved?, Abbey Derechin

Northwestern Journal of Law & Social Policy

This Note examines the statutory landscape of mental health parity in the United States. The lens of this Note is through the mental illness of anorexia. Parity laws mandate analogous limitations between mental and physical illness. Therefore, because anorexia has many physical manifestations, it serves as a nice juxtaposition to physical illnesses. This Note will argue for broad interpretation of the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act (MHPAEA) through comparative analysis of counterpart statute, the California Mental Health Parity Act (CMHPA). It will explore how courts have interpreted the CMHPA broadly to suggest that the MHPAEA should be interpreted ...


Patient Decision Aids Improve Patient Safety And Reduce Medical Liability Risk, Thaddeus Mason Pope 2022 University of Maine School of Law

Patient Decision Aids Improve Patient Safety And Reduce Medical Liability Risk, Thaddeus Mason Pope

Maine Law Review

Tort-based doctrines of informed consent have utterly failed to assure that patients understand the risks, benefits, and alternatives to the healthcare they receive. Fifty years of experience with the doctrine of informed consent have shown it to be an abject catastrophe. Most patients lack an even minimal understanding of their treatment options. But there is hope. Substantial evidence shows that patient decision aids (PDAs) and shared decision making can bridge the gap between the theory and practice of informed consent. These evidence-based educational tools empower patients to make decisions with significantly more knowledge and less decisional conflict than clinician-patient discussions ...


States And Systemic Risk: An Analysis Of The Dodd-Frank Act's (Un)Cooperative Federalism, Daniel A. Lyons 2022 Boston College Law School

States And Systemic Risk: An Analysis Of The Dodd-Frank Act's (Un)Cooperative Federalism, Daniel A. Lyons

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

The Financial Stability Oversight Council represented an innovative approach to the problem of systemic risk in the American economy. It also represented an innovative form of cooperative federalism. By grafting state regulators onto the Council as nonvoting members, Congress hoped this new federal super-regulator would draw upon a reservoir of state expertise and local knowledge so that the Council’s final decisions reflected a collaborative effort between the nation’s top experts at the federal and state level.

But looking back over the first decade of the Council’s operations, it is clear that this experiment failed to work as ...


Tackling Structural Discrimination In Healthcare Policy Is Necessary To Achieve Parity For People With Substance Use Disorders And Mental Health Conditions, Emily Piper 2022 University of St. Thomas, Minnesota

Tackling Structural Discrimination In Healthcare Policy Is Necessary To Achieve Parity For People With Substance Use Disorders And Mental Health Conditions, Emily Piper

University of St. Thomas Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Nonparty Interests In Contract Law, Omri Ben-Shahar, David A. Hoffman, Cathy Hwang 2022 University of Chicago

Nonparty Interests In Contract Law, Omri Ben-Shahar, David A. Hoffman, Cathy Hwang

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Contract law has one overarching goal: to advance the legitimate interests of the contracting parties. For the most part, scholars, judges, and parties embrace this party primacy norm, recognizing only a few exceptions, such as mandatory rules that bar enforcement of agreements that harm others. This Article describes a distinct species of previously unnoticed contract law rules that advance nonparty interests, which it calls “nonparty defaults."

In doing so, this Article makes three contributions to the contract law literature. First, it identifies nonparty defaults as a judicial technique. It shows how courts deviate from the party primary norm with surprising ...


It’S About Lyme: Why Congress Must Enact Medical Insurance Coverage Laws For Lyme Disease Patients Now, Jennifer Barrett 2022 Seattle University School of Law

It’S About Lyme: Why Congress Must Enact Medical Insurance Coverage Laws For Lyme Disease Patients Now, Jennifer Barrett

Seattle University Law Review SUpra

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates approximately 476,000 people are diagnosed with Lyme disease in the United States each year. While many will recover with a short course of antibiotics, up to 35% will suffer from persistent symptoms after initial treatment. Despite scientific evidence showing the infection can persist long after initial treatment, most insurance companies restrict access to treatment beyond twenty-eight days, leaving patients to bear much of the financial burden. To limit crippling out-of-pocket expenses, Congress must enact legislation mandating coverage for the treatment of clinically diagnosed Lyme disease and co-infections based on the ...


Racial Discrimination In Life Insurance, William G. Gale, Kyle D. Logue, Nora Cahill, Rachel Gu, Swati Joshi 2022 Brookings Institution

Racial Discrimination In Life Insurance, William G. Gale, Kyle D. Logue, Nora Cahill, Rachel Gu, Swati Joshi

Law & Economics Working Papers

We examine the historical and statistical relationship between race and life insurance. Life insurance can play a central role in households’ financial security. Race has played an important and changing role in the provision of life insurance in the U.S. from slave insurance before the Civil War, to “Scientific Racism” continuing into the 20th century, to policies that do not explicitly mention race in recent decades. In empirical work using new data, we confirm earlier work showing that Black individuals have higher life insurance coverage rates than white individuals, controlling for observable characteristics. We find no difference in the ...


A Deeper Dive Into Nautilus: Differentiating Insurer Efforts To Recover Defense Costs And Assessing Recoupment In The Wake Of The Ali Restatement, Jeffrey W. Stempel 2022 University of Nevada, Las Vegas -- William S. Boyd School of Law

A Deeper Dive Into Nautilus: Differentiating Insurer Efforts To Recover Defense Costs And Assessing Recoupment In The Wake Of The Ali Restatement, Jeffrey W. Stempel

Scholarly Works

Insurers and Policyholder have for decades contested whether the typical general liability policy requires policyholders to reimburse insurers for defense costs where a claim is ultimately held not to be one for which a defense is required. Although a slight majority of decisions favors insurers, the recent trend has favored policyholders, as reflected in §21 of the American Law Institute Restatement of the Law, Liability Insurance (“RLLI”), one of several contested portions of the RLLI. In Nautilus Insurance v. Access Medical, the Nevada Supreme Court provided the most extensive post-RLLI analysis of the dispute, ruling in favor of the insurer ...


The Litigation Landscape Of Fraternity And Sorority Hazing: Defenses, Evidence, And Damages, Gregory S. Parks, Elizabeth Grindell 2022 Wake Forest University School of Law

The Litigation Landscape Of Fraternity And Sorority Hazing: Defenses, Evidence, And Damages, Gregory S. Parks, Elizabeth Grindell

Washington and Lee Law Review

In recent years, increasing public and media attention has focused on hazing, especially in collegiate fraternities and sororities. Whether it is because of the deaths, major injuries, or litigation, both criminal and civil, collegiate fraternities and sororities have received increased scrutiny. In this Article, we explore a range of tactical considerations that lawyers must consider—from defenses to evidentiary concerns. We also explore how damages are contemplated in the context of hazing litigation.


The Enforceability Of Step-Down Provisions In Automobile Insurance Policies, Constance A. Anastopoulo, Thomas P. Gressette Jr. 2022 Mitchell Hamline School of Law

The Enforceability Of Step-Down Provisions In Automobile Insurance Policies, Constance A. Anastopoulo, Thomas P. Gressette Jr.

Mitchell Hamline Law Review

No abstract provided.


What History Can Tell Us About The Future Of Insurance And Litigation After Covid-19, Kenneth S. Abraham, Tom Baker 2021 University of Virginia

What History Can Tell Us About The Future Of Insurance And Litigation After Covid-19, Kenneth S. Abraham, Tom Baker

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This Article, written for the annual Clifford Symposium on Tort Law and Social Policy, chronicles a series of developments in American history that profoundly influenced the course of insurance and insurance law, in order to predict the post-COVID-19 future of these fields. In each instance, there was a direct and decided cause-and-effect relationship between these developments and subsequent change in the world of insurance and insurance law. As important as the influence of COVID-19 is at present and probably will be in the future, in our view the COVID-19 pandemic will not be as significant an influence on insurance and ...


Rejecting Word Worship: An Integrative Approach To Judicial Construction Of Insurance Policies, Jeffrey W. Stempel, Erik S. Knutsen 2021 University of Cincinnati College of Law

Rejecting Word Worship: An Integrative Approach To Judicial Construction Of Insurance Policies, Jeffrey W. Stempel, Erik S. Knutsen

University of Cincinnati Law Review

Insurance coverage litigation is a quest for discerning meaning: Does the insurance policy cover the loss at issue? Construing the insurance policy, courts attempt to give legal effect to what the document purports to command. But what were the intentions and expectations of insurer and insured? Do those intentions even matter? Or is only the written text of the policy relevant to the coverage result? Courts addressing these questions typically frame the interpretative choice as one of strict textualism versus contextual functionalism.

In many, perhaps even most situations, text and context align to create an “easy” case. If a factory ...


The Patient Assistance Problem, Daniel O’Brien Lichtenauer 2021 Brooklyn Law School

The Patient Assistance Problem, Daniel O’Brien Lichtenauer

Journal of Law and Policy

Implemented in January 2006 as a voluntary enrollment supplement to standard Medicare plans, Medicare Part D coverage subsidizes the cost of prescription drugs for participants. However, significant gaps in coverage exist for those suffering from rare diseases that require costly drugs. Pharmaceutical companies seek to remove the powerful market force of patient price sensitivity by directly sponsoring or substantially funding “patient assistance programs” that help cover out-of-pocket costs. While pharmaceutical donors insist that their goal is strictly altruistic, the reality is that many of these programs offer a financial windfall for drug makers because they help funnel patients towards new ...


Development Of A Topics Course For Construction Law, Julia C. Hoever 2021 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Development Of A Topics Course For Construction Law, Julia C. Hoever

Construction Management

The Cal Poly Construction Management program is designed to prepare students heading into the construction industry for daily management tasks. With construction comes many legal aspects integrated into a project’s operations. Though the curriculum includes a contract law course, a gap exists with a minimal number of classes that address the array of legal matters the construction industry must be versed in. Working with faculty member, Thomas Kommer, J.D., there is a need for a course that expands on these varying legal topics. In order to determine the specific topics that would impactfully benefit and educate Cal Poly ...


Insurance, Thomas D. Martin, Bradley S. Wolff, Maren R. Cave 2021 Mercer University School of Law

Insurance, Thomas D. Martin, Bradley S. Wolff, Maren R. Cave

Mercer Law Review

During this Survey period, the courts in Georgia remained active despite the pandemic. In the property arena, the Survey disclosed only a few decisions from the Georgia Court of Appeals but several from the district courts in Georgia as parties grappled with coverage disputes relating to policy time limits, bad faith, and the effects of COVID-19 on business losses. In the automobile arena, the Georgia Court of Appeals addressed sovereign immunity, and the Georgia Supreme Court refined the “cause test” for evaluating a series of collisions. In the uninsured motorist (UM) arena, the court of appeals weighed in on various ...


Health Insurance And Bankruptcy Risk: Examining The Impact Of The Affordable Care Act, Philip M. Pendergast, Michael D. Sousa, Tim Wadsworth 2021 Brooklyn Law School

Health Insurance And Bankruptcy Risk: Examining The Impact Of The Affordable Care Act, Philip M. Pendergast, Michael D. Sousa, Tim Wadsworth

Brooklyn Law Review

The passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (“ACA”) in 2010 represented a watershed moment for healthcare in the United States. As is well-noted, the federal courts are still wrangling over the constitutionality of the law, and there is significant uncertainty regarding the extent to which the ACA will survive these legal battles. Unquestionably, the ACA has expanded access to health insurance for many millions of Americans. Prior to the advent of the ACA, Medicaid income eligibility for adults without dependents was approximately 61 percent of the Federal Poverty Line. Empirical studies since the advent of the ACA ...


Third Party Moral Hazard And The Problem Of Insurance Externalities, Gideon Parchomovsky, Peter Siegelman 2021 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School

Third Party Moral Hazard And The Problem Of Insurance Externalities, Gideon Parchomovsky, Peter Siegelman

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Insurance can lead to loss or claim-creation not just by insureds themselves, but also by uninsured third parties. These externalities—which we term “third party moral hazard”—arise because insurance creates opportunities both to extract rents and to recover for otherwise unrecoverable losses. Using examples from health, automobile, kidnap, and liability insurance, we demonstrate that the phenomenon is widespread and important, and that the downsides of insurance are greater than previously believed. We explain the economic, social and psychological reasons for this phenomenon, and propose policy responses. Contract-based methods that are traditionally used to control first-party moral hazard can be ...


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