Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Criminal Law Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

24,810 Full-Text Articles 14,899 Authors 22,592,744 Downloads 264 Institutions

All Articles in Criminal Law

Faceted Search

24,810 full-text articles. Page 1 of 463.

White Supremacy, Police Brutality, And Family Separation: Preventing Crimes Against Humanity Within The United States, Elena Baylis 2022 University of Pittsburgh School of Law

White Supremacy, Police Brutality, And Family Separation: Preventing Crimes Against Humanity Within The United States, Elena Baylis

Articles

Although the United States tends to treat crimes against humanity as a danger that exists only in authoritarian or war-torn states, in fact, there is a real risk of crimes against humanity occurring within the United States, as illustrated by events such as systemic police brutality against Black Americans, the federal government’s family separation policy that took thousands of immigrant children from their parents at the southern border, and the dramatic escalation of White supremacist and extremist violence culminating in the January 6, 2021 attack on the U.S. Capitol. In spite of this risk, the United States does ...


Masthead, 2021 University of California, Hastings College of the Law

Masthead

Hastings Journal of Crime and Punishment

No abstract provided.


Editor’S Forward, Ava Agree 2021 University of California, Hastings College of the Law

Editor’S Forward, Ava Agree

Hastings Journal of Crime and Punishment

No abstract provided.


Bottleneck: The Place Of County Jails In California’S Covid-19 Correctional Crisis, Hadar Aviram 2021 University of California, Hastings College of the Law

Bottleneck: The Place Of County Jails In California’S Covid-19 Correctional Crisis, Hadar Aviram

Hastings Journal of Crime and Punishment

This Article examines a lesser-known site of the COVID-19 pandemic: county jails. Revisiting assumptions that preceded and followed criminal justice reform in California, particularly Brown v. Plata and the Realignment, the Article situates jails within two competing/complementary perspectives: a mechanistic, jurisdictional perspective, which focuses on county administration and budgeting, and a geographic perspective, which views jails in the context of their neighboring communities. The prevalence of the former perspective over the latter among both correctional administrators and criminal justice reformers has generated unique challenges in fighting the spread of COVID-19 in jails: paucity of, and reliability problems with, data ...


California’S Sb 1437 And Its Applicability To Attempted Murder Liability, Violeta Alvarez 2021 University of California, Hastings College of the Law

California’S Sb 1437 And Its Applicability To Attempted Murder Liability, Violeta Alvarez

Hastings Journal of Crime and Punishment

No abstract provided.


Unjust Isolation: The Diminishing Returns Of Solitary Confinement Of Pregnant Women And California’S Need To Regulate It., Richard Lee 2021 University of California, Hastings College of the Law

Unjust Isolation: The Diminishing Returns Of Solitary Confinement Of Pregnant Women And California’S Need To Regulate It., Richard Lee

Hastings Journal of Crime and Punishment

California’s state prison system lacks sufficient regulations to restrict the use of solitary confinement for pregnant women. Under the current system, the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitations (CDCR) possesses broad discretion regarding the use of solitary confinement, administrative segregated housing, or other forms of isolated placement. According to the CDCR manual, prison officers may place a pregnant woman in solitary confinement as long as her medical condition does not “preclude” that placement. This standard, which vests an inappropriate amount of discretion in prison officers, is deeply insufficient to prevent the negative consequences of subjecting pregnant women to solitary ...


The Role Of Atrocity Actors In Transitional Justice Processes In Sierra Leone, Nicoleta Mirza 2021 University of North Georgia

The Role Of Atrocity Actors In Transitional Justice Processes In Sierra Leone, Nicoleta Mirza

International Journal of Security Studies

The article observes the role of atrocity actors and mainly the victim, perpetrator, and bystander in the transitional Justice Processes in the country of Sierra Leone. The article examines such mechanisms as truth commissions, trials, and cultural practice. It seeks to identify if and how did the transitional justice mechanisms help the atrocity actors in the case of Sierra Leone. Nonetheless, before approaching the transitional justice processes in the presented case study, the research shortly defines the atrocity actors: victim, perpetrator, bystander. Moreover, the paper goes beyond simply observing the transitional Justice Processes in the chosen case studies. Therefore, in ...


Higher Education For All Law Enforcement Officers, Johana A. Constantino Madrigal 2021 Portland State University

Higher Education For All Law Enforcement Officers, Johana A. Constantino Madrigal

University Honors Theses

In this brief prospectus, the focus is on the many arguments for why it should be a requirement for all law enforcement officers to have a higher education background. Given light to recent events, the importance for more highly trained and educated officers has become more dire as people call for justice in an attempt to right the wrongs that have been done. The articles found all address the manner in which higher education can help with better judgement calls, analyze and respond to situations better, and the overall perception officers have, who have a form of higher education, on ...


An Absolute Deprivation Of Liberty: Why Indigents’ Wealth-Based Discrimination Claims Brought Under The Equal Protection Clause Should Be Subject To Intermediate Scrutiny, Athena Hernandez 2021 Golden Gate University School of Law

An Absolute Deprivation Of Liberty: Why Indigents’ Wealth-Based Discrimination Claims Brought Under The Equal Protection Clause Should Be Subject To Intermediate Scrutiny, Athena Hernandez

Golden Gate University Law Review

This Comment argues that wealth-based discrimination claims concerning pretrial detention of indigents should be analyzed under an Equal Protection framework and subjected to intermediate scrutiny. In order to provide an overview of the Supreme Court precedent established for these types of claims, Part I of this Comment will discuss the relevant and historic Supreme Court cases which have analyzed wealth-based incarceration claims in the United States. To further establish how Federal Courts have treated wealth-based incarceration Equal Protection claims, Part II will discuss the Fifth Circuit’s relevant opinions. Part III outlines the court’s decision in Walker, discussing how ...


Penal Order: A Comparative Study, Dr. Ameen Dahmash 2021 College of Law - University of Science and Technology in Fujairah- UAE

Penal Order: A Comparative Study, Dr. Ameen Dahmash

Journal Sharia and Law

Criminal courts suffer from the problem of accumulating cases and slow litigation procedures, and among the most important factors leading to this is the large number of people committing minor crimes that fall within the scope of misdemeanors and offenses. Alternatives penal order. Most of the legislations make the issuance of a criminal order in the hands of the summary judge at the request of the public prosecution. However, other legislations make issuing a criminal order the responsibility of the public prosecution instead of the judge, and this represents an addition to alternatives to a criminal case, and an improvement ...


Contracting For Academic Fraud The Concept And The Imperatives For Criminalization, Prof. Safaa otani, Prof. Wael Mualla 2021 Professor of Criminal Law, Damascus University, Syria

Contracting For Academic Fraud The Concept And The Imperatives For Criminalization, Prof. Safaa Otani, Prof. Wael Mualla

Journal Sharia and Law

The increasing demand for higher education was a double-edged weapon. Although it resulted in undeniable positive outcome such as universities' pursuit to develop their performance as well as their academic quality standards, there were, also, undeniable abuses among students. The expansion of the Essay mills has contributed to the transformation of cheating into an industry. Many students were tempted to contract others to write and submit their university essays as their own work, resulting in the emergence of the phenomenon of "Contract cheating", which poses a serious threat to the quality and standards of higher education throughout the world.

The ...


The Unintentional Cost Of A Free Public Sex Offender Registry, Rebekah E. Leavitt 2021 Brigham Young University

The Unintentional Cost Of A Free Public Sex Offender Registry, Rebekah E. Leavitt

Intuition: The BYU Undergraduate Journal of Psychology

This literature review analyzes the efficacy of modern legislation guiding public access to sex offender registries and draws on research utilizing surveys, interviews, and statistical observations of convicted sex offenders to determine sources of ineffective practices at the legislative level. By utilizing Braithwaite’s reintegrative shaming theory (1989), in which stigmatizing shame is significantly less efficient in criminal contexts, current legislation and its impact on common issues experienced by sex offenders (including sexually addictive behaviors and childhood sexual abuse) are examined. The discerned prevalence of stigmatizing shame in modern legislation, which focuses on the individual rather than the undesirable behavior ...


Transfer Of Child Offenders To Adult Criminal Courts In The Usa: An Unnecessary Exercise, Unconstitutional Practice, International Law Violation, Or All Of The Above?, Roger-Claude Liwanga, Patrick Ibe 2021 Harvard University FXB Center for Health and Human Rights

Transfer Of Child Offenders To Adult Criminal Courts In The Usa: An Unnecessary Exercise, Unconstitutional Practice, International Law Violation, Or All Of The Above?, Roger-Claude Liwanga, Patrick Ibe

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

There is an ongoing debate over the legality and effectiveness of the use of judicial waiver as a tool to fight violent crimes, including those committed by children in the United States. Judicial waiver or transfer of juveniles is a process by which child offenders are transferred from the juvenile court to adult criminal courts to be tried and sentenced as adult offenders. Despite the implicit recognition of the constitutionality of this practice by the United States Supreme Court, this paper contends that the transfer of child offenders to adult criminal courts violates key provisions of the Convention on the ...


Asymmetrical Governance: Auditing Algorithms To Preserve Due Process Rights, Paul J. Baillargeon 2021 University of Windsor

Asymmetrical Governance: Auditing Algorithms To Preserve Due Process Rights, Paul J. Baillargeon

Major Papers

We are now living in age where algorithms, and the data that feed them, govern a wide variety of decisions in our lives: not just search engines and personalized Netflix suggestions, but educational evaluations, stock market trades and political campaigns, the urban planning, and even how social services like welfare and public safety are managed. Heterogeneous lists like this have become the norm in any critical examination of algorithms, giving the impression of a ubiquitous relevance of algorithms. But algorithms can make mistakes that directly affect individuals and often contain both implicit and explicit biases. The technical complexity of algorithms ...


Medicate And Segregate: How Due Process Fails To Protect Mentally Ill Inmates From Medically Inappropriate Confinement And Restraint, Peter J. Teravskis 2021 University of Minnesota Law School

Medicate And Segregate: How Due Process Fails To Protect Mentally Ill Inmates From Medically Inappropriate Confinement And Restraint, Peter J. Teravskis

Minnesota Journal of Law, Science & Technology

No abstract provided.


#Blacklivesmatter—Getting From Contemporary Social Movements To Structural Change, Jamillah Bowman Williams, Naomi Mezey, Lisa O. Singh 2021 Georgetown University Law Center

#Blacklivesmatter—Getting From Contemporary Social Movements To Structural Change, Jamillah Bowman Williams, Naomi Mezey, Lisa O. Singh

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

From the haters and hackers to propaganda and privacy concerns, social media often deserves its bad reputation. But the sustained activism that followed George Floyd’s death and the ongoing movement for racial justice also demonstrated how social media can be a crucial mechanism of social change. We saw how online and on-the-ground activism can fuel each other and build momentum in ways neither can achieve in isolation. We have seen in the Black Lives Matter (BLM) movement, and more specifically the hashtag #BlackLivesMatter, a new and powerful approach to using social media that goes beyond symbolic “slacktivism” and performative ...


Talking Back In Court, M. Eve Hanan 2021 University of Washington School of Law

Talking Back In Court, M. Eve Hanan

Washington Law Review

People charged with crimes often speak directly to the judge presiding over their case. Yet, what can be seen in courtrooms across the U.S. is that defendants rarely “talk back” in court, meaning that they rarely challenge authority’s view of the law, the crime, the defendant, the court’s procedure, or the fairness of the proposed sentence.

With few exceptions, legal scholars have treated the occasions when defendants speak directly to the court as a problem to be solved by appointing more lawyers and better lawyers. While effective representation is crucial, this Article starts from the premise that ...


Inheritance Crimes, David Horton, Reid Kress Weisbord 2021 University of Washington School of Law

Inheritance Crimes, David Horton, Reid Kress Weisbord

Washington Law Review

The civil justice system has long struggled to resolve disputes over end-of-life transfers. The two most common grounds for challenging the validity of a gift, will, or trust— mental incapacity and undue influence—are vague, hinge on the state of mind of a dead person, and allow factfinders to substitute their own norms and preferences for the donor’s intent. In addition, the slayer doctrine—which prohibits killers from inheriting from their victims—has generated decades of constitutional challenges.

But recently, these controversial rules have migrated into an area where the stakes are significantly higher: the criminal justice system. For ...


Belevolent Exclusion, Anna Offit 2021 University of Washington School of Law

Belevolent Exclusion, Anna Offit

Washington Law Review

The American jury system holds the promise of bringing commonsense ideas about justice to the enforcement of the law. But its democratizing effect cannot be realized if a segment of the population faces systematic exclusion based on income or wealth. The problem of unequal access to jury service based on socio-economic disparities is a longstanding yet under-studied problem—and one which the uneven fallout of the COVID-19 pandemic only exacerbated. Like race- and sex-based jury discrimination during the peremptory challenge phase of jury selection, the routine dismissal of citizens who face economic hardship excludes not only people but also the ...


Transparency's Ai Problem, Hannah Bloch-Wehba 2021 Texas A&M University School of Law

Transparency's Ai Problem, Hannah Bloch-Wehba

Faculty Scholarship

A consensus seems to be emerging that algorithmic governance is too opaque and ought to be made more accountable and transparent. But algorithmic governance underscores the limited capacity of transparency law—the Freedom of Information Act and its state equivalents—to promote accountability. Drawing on the critical literature on “open government,” this Essay shows that algorithmic governance reflects and amplifies systemic weaknesses in the transparency regime, including privatization, secrecy, private sector cooptation, and reactive disclosure. These deficiencies highlight the urgent need to reorient transparency and accountability law toward meaningful public engagement in ongoing oversight. This shift requires rethinking FOIA’s ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress