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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Scaffold Design Considerations For Soft Tissue Regeneration, Madeleine M. Di Gregorio Aug 2019

Scaffold Design Considerations For Soft Tissue Regeneration, Madeleine M. Di Gregorio

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Tissue engineering has emerged as a promising strategy for the replacement of degenerating or damaged tissues in vivo. Also known as regenerative medicine, integral to this therapeutic strategy is biomimetic scaffolds and the biomaterial structural components used to form them. In this study, three different biomaterial scaffolds for tissue engineering applications were fabricated: three-dimensional reverse embedded collagen scaffolds, polymer fusion printed polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds, and electrospun gelatin scaffolds. Three-dimensional collagen and PCL scaffolds promoted human adipose-derived stem/stromal cell (ASC) spreading, proliferation, and fibronectin deposition in vitro. Secondly, this study investigated the efficacy of exogenous galectin-3 delivery as a therapeutic ...


Predicting And Preventing Traumatic Brain Injury: A Novel Computational Approach, Kewei Bian Aug 2019

Predicting And Preventing Traumatic Brain Injury: A Novel Computational Approach, Kewei Bian

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a severe health problem for society. Meanwhile, predicting and preventing TBI remains challenging in the field. Peak rotational velocity was demonstrated to be correlated to brain strain responses, and hence could potentially serve as a good predictor for brain injury. Brain strain was influenced by impact direction, deceleration and impact loading curve shapes. Wearing helmets is an effective way to protect the brain from TBI, but there lacks a study on evaluating helmet performance based on both energy absorption and brain strain response, which this study addressed. Interestingly, helmet shell absorbed around half of the ...


Remote Navigation And Contact-Force Control Of Radiofrequency Ablation Catheters, Daniel Gelman Jun 2019

Remote Navigation And Contact-Force Control Of Radiofrequency Ablation Catheters, Daniel Gelman

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common and clinically significant heart rhythm disorder, is characterized by rapid and irregular electrical activity in the upper chambers resulting in abnormal contractions. Radiofrequency (RF) cardiac catheter ablation is a minimally invasive curative treatment that aims to electrically correct signal pathways inside the atria to restore normal sinus rhythm. Successful catheter ablation requires the complete and permanent elimination of arrhythmogenic signals by delivering transmural RF ablation lesions contiguously near and around key cardiac structures. These procedures are complex and technically challenging and, even when performed by the most skilled physician, nearly half of patients undergo ...


Evaluation Of Individual Finger Forces During Activities Of Daily Living In Healthy Individuals And Those With Hand Arthritis, Michael Riddle May 2019

Evaluation Of Individual Finger Forces During Activities Of Daily Living In Healthy Individuals And Those With Hand Arthritis, Michael Riddle

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Hand-Osteoarthritis (H-OA) leads to pain, loss of grip strength, and decreased hand function. Current treatment for H-OA involves joint protection programs (JPP) which seek to reduce joint loading during activity. The use of wearable technology to measure hand forces during activity has the potential to determine the effectiveness of JPP. The objective of this thesis was to develop and validate a method of directly measuring finger forces during the performance of activities of daily living, and then use that system to measure the envelope of hand forces during activity in healthy individuals and in patients with H-OA. A commercially-available capacitive ...


Fabrication And Characterization Of Collagen-Polypyrrole Constructs Using Direct-Ink Write Additive Manufacturing, Rooshan Arshad May 2019

Fabrication And Characterization Of Collagen-Polypyrrole Constructs Using Direct-Ink Write Additive Manufacturing, Rooshan Arshad

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Current efforts in the tissue engineering field are being directed towards the creation of platforms which will facilitate in instructing cells towards biologically relevant outcomes such as stem cell differentiation and disease pathophysiology. Traditional fabrication methods serve as a limiting factor for the production of such platforms as they lack feature and geometric complexity. Additive Manufacturing (AM) offers advantage over said methods by affording designers creative freedom and great control over printed constructs. Such constructs can then be used to create appropriate models for study- ing a plethora of tissues and structures. An AM methodology for Direct-Ink Write (DIW) printing ...


Development Of A Force-Based Ream Vector Measurement System For Glenoid Reaming Simulation, David Axford Apr 2019

Development Of A Force-Based Ream Vector Measurement System For Glenoid Reaming Simulation, David Axford

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Glenoid reaming is a technically challenging step during total shoulder arthroplasty surgery that may be improved through frequent practice and exposure to simulation training. At our institution, a vibration haptic glenoid reaming simulator is being developed that simulates the vibrations felt during glenoid reaming. This thesis presents the development of a force-based reamer vector measurement system that allows the simulator to measure the user’s net applied force and reamer angle of approach. This capability allows for the simulation of eccentric reaming maneuvers commonly used to adjust the glenoid orientation. The system error was characterized and evaluated using a robot ...


Tissue Equivalent Gellan Gum Gel Materials For Clinical Mri And Radiation Dosimetry, Pawel Brzozowski Apr 2019

Tissue Equivalent Gellan Gum Gel Materials For Clinical Mri And Radiation Dosimetry, Pawel Brzozowski

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Hydrogels contain high amount of water allowing their use as surrogates to human tissues with specific properties that can be tuned by additives. Gellan gum is a gel-forming material of interest and is a replacement for other common gelling agent with limited use as a tissue phantom. Therefore, this thesis examines the application of gellan gum gels as a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) phantom with a design of experiments model to obtain tunable properties. The analysis was extended to include mechanical and electrical properties with a separate design of experiment. Gels doped with synthesized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs ...


Design Of Tissue-Specific Cellular Microenvironments For Adipose-Derived Stromal Cell Culture And Delivery, Arthi Shridhar Apr 2019

Design Of Tissue-Specific Cellular Microenvironments For Adipose-Derived Stromal Cell Culture And Delivery, Arthi Shridhar

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The development of in vitro cell culture models that investigate tissue-specific effects of the extracellular matrix (ECM) on stem/progenitor cell lineage-commitment can contribute towards the design of improved cell delivery strategies. This thesis developed processing methods that conserved ECM bioactivity to generate well-characterized 2- and 3-D culture platforms that facilitated the evaluation of ECM composition on the adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs). Initial work compared α-amylase and pepsin digestion as methods to fabricate ECM coatings. The effects of enzyme processing and ECM composition were explored using human decellularized adipose tissue (DAT) and bovine tendon ...


Development Of In Situ Forming Hydrogels For Intra-Articular Drug Delivery, Andy Prince Feb 2019

Development Of In Situ Forming Hydrogels For Intra-Articular Drug Delivery, Andy Prince

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Hydrogels are 3-dimensional crosslinked polymer networks that can absorb significant amounts of water. The physical properties associated with hydrogels affords them resemblance to biological tissues making them good candidates for biomedical applications. Many pharmaceuticals, specifically non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), have poor aqueous solubility, which limits their bioavailability and efficacy. People suffering from chronic osteoarthritis (OA) are required to frequently take large doses to mitigate pain, which can lead to serious side effects. Hydrogels are good strategies to deliver NSAIDs via articular injection because they can form solid gels in situ. This thesis describes the synthesis, formulation, mechanical testing, in vitro ...


Tibiotalar Arthrodesis: Development Of A Novel Jig And Alignment Guide, Adam Mathew Ropchan Nov 2018

Tibiotalar Arthrodesis: Development Of A Novel Jig And Alignment Guide, Adam Mathew Ropchan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Tibiotalar arthrodesis is a surgical procedure, used for the treatment of end-stage ankle arthrosis and instability. There are dozens of described procedures in the literature, all with varying rates of success. Two of the most common reasons for reoperation in tibiotalar arthrodesis are nonunion and infection; few studies have established any associations between patient/surgical factors and reoperation for nonunion and infection.

The first part of this thesis focuses on determining the rate of reoperation to the ipsilateral lower limb and if any patient/surgical factors are associated with reoperation for nonunion and infection. The second part of this thesis ...


Investigation And Validation Of Imaging Techniques For Mitral Valve Disease Diagnosis And Intervention, Claire Vannelli Nov 2018

Investigation And Validation Of Imaging Techniques For Mitral Valve Disease Diagnosis And Intervention, Claire Vannelli

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Mitral Valve Disease (MVD) describes a variety of pathologies that result in regurgitation of blood during the systolic phase of the cardiac cycle. Decisions in valvular disease management rely heavily on non-invasive imaging. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is widely recognized as the key evaluation technique where backflow of high velocity blood can be visualized under Doppler. In most cases, TEE imaging is adequate for identifying mitral valve pathology, though the modality is often limited from signal dropout, artifacts and a restricted field of view. Quantitative analysis is an integral part of the overall assessment of valve morphology and gives objective evidence ...


Development Of Granulation Tissue Mimetic Scaffolds For Skin Healing, Adam Hopfgartner Oct 2018

Development Of Granulation Tissue Mimetic Scaffolds For Skin Healing, Adam Hopfgartner

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Impaired skin healing is a significant and growing clinical concern, particularly in relation to diabetes, venous insufficiency and immobility. Previously, we developed electrospun scaffolds for the delivery of periostin (POSTN) and connective tissue growth factor 2 (CCN2), matricellular proteins involved in the proliferative phase of healing. This study aimed to design and validate a novel electrosprayed coaxial microsphere for the encapsulation of fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9), as a component of the POSTN/CCN2 scaffold, to promote angiogenic stability during wound healing. For the first time, we observed a pro-proliferative effect of FGF9 on human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) in vitro ...


A Biomechanical And Physiological Signal Monitoring System For Four Degrees Of Upper Limb Movement, Allison R. Goldman Sep 2018

A Biomechanical And Physiological Signal Monitoring System For Four Degrees Of Upper Limb Movement, Allison R. Goldman

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

A lack of adherence to prescribed physical therapy regimens in improper healing results in poor outcomes for those affected by musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) of the upper limb. Societal and psychological barriers to proper adherence can be addressed through the system presented in this work consisting of the following components: an ambulatory biosignal acquisition sleeve, an electromyography (EMG) based motion repetition detection algorithm, and the design of a compatible capacitive EMG acquisition module.

The biosignal acquisition sleeve was untethered, unobtrusive to motion, contained only modular components, and collected biomechanical and physiological sensor data to form full motion profiles of the following ...


Electrospun Collagen Fibers For Tissue Regeneration Applications, Ying Li Sep 2018

Electrospun Collagen Fibers For Tissue Regeneration Applications, Ying Li

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Tissue engineering aims to regenerate damaged and deceased tissue by combining cells with scaffold made from an appropriate biomaterial and providing a conducive environment to guide cell growth and the formation or regeneration of new tissue or organ. While collagen, an important material of the extracellular matrix (ECM), is a natural choice as a scaffold biomaterial, the conducive environment can only be created by having the ability to control the geometry, organization, structural and mechanical properties of the scaffold. Moreover, degradability and degradation rate control of the scaffold has to be taken into consideration too. In this work, we aim ...


Development Of Image-Based Surgical Planning Software For Bone-Conduction Implants, Carlos D. Salgado Aug 2018

Development Of Image-Based Surgical Planning Software For Bone-Conduction Implants, Carlos D. Salgado

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The BONEBRIDGE bone-conduction device is used to treat conductive and mixed hearing losses. The size of its floating mass transducer (FMT) can preclude implantation in certain anatomies, necessitating comprehensive surgical planning. Current techniques are time consuming and difficult to transfer to the operating room. The objective of this thesis was to develop software for calculating skull thickness to the dura mater to find locations for the FMT and to the first air cells which guarantee sufficient bone for the implant screws to grasp. Temporal bone computed tomography (CT) images were segmented and processed and custom Matlab code was written to ...


Dynamic Calibration Of Emg Signals For Control Of A Wearable Elbow Brace, Taylor Stanbury Aug 2018

Dynamic Calibration Of Emg Signals For Control Of A Wearable Elbow Brace, Taylor Stanbury

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Musculoskeletal injuries can severely inhibit performance of activities of daily living. In order to regain function, rehabilitation is often required. Assistive devices for use in rehabilitation are an avenue explored to increase arm mobility by guiding therapeutic exercises or assisting with motion. Electromyography (EMG), which are the muscle activity signals, may be able to provide an intuitive interface between the patient and the device if appropriate classification models allow smart systems to relate these signals to the desired device motion.

Unfortunately, there is a gap in the accuracy of pattern recognition models classifying motion in constrained laboratory environments, and large ...


Evaluating Devices For The Measurement Of Auditory-Evoked Fetal Movement, Patrick Gatutsi Aug 2018

Evaluating Devices For The Measurement Of Auditory-Evoked Fetal Movement, Patrick Gatutsi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Determining normal and abnormal fetal function in utero in order to better predict which fetuses are at risk for adverse outcome is critical. However, the medical imaging tools that could assist with diagnosis are very expensive and rarely available in the developing world. In this study, we developed a prototype audio-motio-tachograph (AMTG), which measures fetal movements through the recording of abdominal wall deformations and tested it in Rwanda. First, we showed that AMTG detected fetal signals and that fetuses respond to complex acoustic stimuli. In order to improve the sensitivity of the device, we then measured whole abdominal wall deformations ...


Engineering Graphene Oxide-Based Nanostructures For Dna Sensors, Aditya Balaji Jul 2018

Engineering Graphene Oxide-Based Nanostructures For Dna Sensors, Aditya Balaji

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Various nanostructures have been explored in DNA biosensors to convert the hybridization of DNA sequences to easily measurable processes, including optical, mechanical, magnetic, or electrochemical process. In this thesis, graphene oxide, a two-dimensional nanostructure, is applied in quenching the fluorescence of a core-shell nanoparticles modified with targeted DNA sequences. The core-shell nanoparticles, iron oxide (Fe3O4) core, and fluorescent silica (SiO2) shell, were produced through a wet chemical process which can directly link to a targeted DNA sequence (DNA-t), and the graphene oxide nanosheets were produced by the oxidation of graphite. In the meantime, a complementary- DNA ...


Preparation And Characterization Of Electrospun Rgo-Poly(Ester Amide) Tissue Engineering Scaffolds, Hilary Stone Jun 2018

Preparation And Characterization Of Electrospun Rgo-Poly(Ester Amide) Tissue Engineering Scaffolds, Hilary Stone

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Tissue engineering scaffolds should support tissue maturation through exposure to biologically relevant stimuli and through successful cell infiltration. External electrical stimulation is particularly relevant for cardiac and neural applications, and requires conductive scaffolds to propagate electrical signals; cell infiltration is only possible with scaffolds that have sufficient porosity. The aim of this study was to impart conductivity and increased porosity of electrospun poly(ester amide) (PEA) scaffolds. Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was incorporated into blend PEA and coaxial PEA-chitosan fibrous scaffolds, which increased scaffold conductivity and supported cardiac differentiation. The novel combination of ultrasonication and leaching of a sacrificial polymer ...


The Development Of A Temporomandibular Force Simulator To Study Craniofacial Strain In-Vitro, Kenneth Kc Ip Jun 2018

The Development Of A Temporomandibular Force Simulator To Study Craniofacial Strain In-Vitro, Kenneth Kc Ip

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

An in-vitro musculoskeletal loading simulator was developed to replicate the internal forces of mastication, and then employed in a comparison of clinically relevant facial fracture repairs. Muscle forces are simulated by pneumatic pistons via 3D printed mounts that are reverse-engineered from CT scan to match muscle attachment sites, which are adhered to bone in order to simulate native stress distributions. Bite force and bone strain pattern of the craniofacial structure under load were measured using a force sensor and strain gauges respectively. In a series of five fresh-frozen cadaveric heads, it was found that strain patterns of the craniofacial structure ...


Process Analytics From Passive Acoustic Emissions Monitoring During Fluidized Bed Pellet Coating In Pharmaceutical Manufacturing, Allan Carter Jun 2018

Process Analytics From Passive Acoustic Emissions Monitoring During Fluidized Bed Pellet Coating In Pharmaceutical Manufacturing, Allan Carter

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Piezoelectric microphones were attached to a top spray fluidized bed to provide valuable process signatures. Relationships were developed between sound waves and conditions within the fluidized bed to relay critical quality and performance information. Deep learning analytics were used to extract valuable information from experimental data. Advancements in passive acoustic emissions monitoring will play a key role in optimizing pharmaceutical manufacturing pathways to ensure drug quality and performance.


An In-Silico Assessment Of Stemless Shoulder Arthroplasty: From Ct To Predicted Bone Response, Jacob M. Reeves Jun 2018

An In-Silico Assessment Of Stemless Shoulder Arthroplasty: From Ct To Predicted Bone Response, Jacob M. Reeves

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Despite the emergence of stemless humeral implants that utilize short fixation features to gain purchase solely in the metaphysis, the literature contains little information regardingthe morphology and mechanical properties of the humerus’ proximal trabecular-canal, and how stemless implants impact bone response. The present work employs in-silicotools, including CT-based and Finite Element (FE) methods, to define parameters that may influence stemless implant design.

The density and morphology of the proximal humerus were assessed using CT-derived point clouds of the trabecular-canal. Bone density was found to diminish 15-20mm beneath the humeral head resection and was greater peripherally. The depth, path and bounding ...


The Effect Of Implant Girth And Implant Collar On The Degree Of Bone To Implant Contact And Bone Stresses In The Proximal Humerus, Stephanie Synnott Jun 2018

The Effect Of Implant Girth And Implant Collar On The Degree Of Bone To Implant Contact And Bone Stresses In The Proximal Humerus, Stephanie Synnott

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Stem design is a crucial element for the success of shoulder prostheses. Various components of stem design have been investigated; however, little research has been conducted on the effects of (1) implant girth and (2) an implant collar on load transfer. A generic implant model was designed and employed in a (FE) model to determine 3 outcome measures: changes in the degree of bone to implant contact (BIC), changes in cortical and trabecular bone stresses from the intact state, and changes in cortical and trabecular strain energy densities (SED). The variables examined were (1) implant girth (small, medium [generic base ...


A Numerical Investigation Of Human Cough Jet Development And Droplet Dispersion, Ran Bi Apr 2018

A Numerical Investigation Of Human Cough Jet Development And Droplet Dispersion, Ran Bi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

As part of the Western Cold and Flu aerosol (WeCoF) studies, the present study provides Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling of human cough flow. The cough flow is characterized in two different aspects, the flow field and the droplets. In the study of the flow field of coughing, various dynamic characteristics, including the velocity variation, streamwise penetration and power spectral density, are examined. CFD simulations using two different approaches, the unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) and the large eddy simulation (LES), are performed for comparison purposes. The numerical results are validated by the experimental data obtained from the measurements by ...


Examining Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty Baseplate Fixation In Patients With E2-Type Glenoid Erosion, Matthew D. Mahaffy Feb 2018

Examining Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty Baseplate Fixation In Patients With E2-Type Glenoid Erosion, Matthew D. Mahaffy

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Superior glenoid erosion of the shoulder joint is a result of humeral subluxation caused by rotator cuff tears, and can be addressed using implants, specifically reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. This thesis examined the regional variations of bone present in superiorly eroded glenoids, established a baseline for regular RTSA baseplate fixation in patients with this defect, and compared the effect of geometric baseplate differences on implant fixation. The superiorly eroded glenoids demonstrated similar regional bone density variations as normal glenoids, and the superior and inferior regions of the glenoid demonstrated the densest and least dense cancellous bone, respectively. These regions also ...


Ultrasound-Augmented Laparoscopy, Uditha Lakmal Jayarathne Feb 2018

Ultrasound-Augmented Laparoscopy, Uditha Lakmal Jayarathne

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Laparoscopic surgery is perhaps the most common minimally invasive procedure for many diseases in the abdomen. Since the laparoscopic camera provides only the surface view of the internal organs, in many procedures, surgeons use laparoscopic ultrasound (LUS) to visualize deep-seated surgical targets. Conventionally, the 2D LUS image is visualized in a display spatially separate from that displays the laparoscopic video. Therefore, reasoning about the geometry of hidden targets requires mentally solving the spatial alignment, and resolving the modality differences, which is cognitively very challenging. Moreover, the mental representation of hidden targets in space acquired through such cognitive medication may be ...


Augmented Reality Ultrasound Guidance In Anesthesiology, Golafsoun Ameri Feb 2018

Augmented Reality Ultrasound Guidance In Anesthesiology, Golafsoun Ameri

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Real-time ultrasound has become a mainstay in many image-guided interventions and increasingly popular in several percutaneous procedures in anesthesiology. One of the main constraints of ultrasound-guided needle interventions is identifying and distinguishing the needle tip from needle shaft in the image. Augmented reality (AR) environments have been employed to address challenges surrounding surgical tool visualization, navigation, and positioning in many image-guided interventions. The motivation behind this work was to explore the feasibility and utility of such visualization techniques in anesthesiology to address some of the specific limitations of ultrasound-guided needle interventions. This thesis brings together the goals, guidelines, and best ...


Covalently Crosslinked Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Biomaterials For Bone Tissue Engineering Applications, Dibakar Mondal Feb 2018

Covalently Crosslinked Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Biomaterials For Bone Tissue Engineering Applications, Dibakar Mondal

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Scaffolds are key components for bone tissue engineering and regeneration. They guide new bone formation by mimicking bone extracellular matrix for cell recruitment and proliferation. Ideally, scaffolds for bone tissue engineering need to be osteoconductive, osteoinductive, porous, degradable and mechanically competent. As a single material can not provide all these requirements, composites of several biomaterials are viable solutions to combine various properties. However, conventional composites fail to fulfil these requirements due to their distinct phases at the microscopic level. Organic/inorganic (O/I) class II hybrid biomaterials, where the organic and inorganic phases are chemically crosslinked on a molecular scale ...


The Kinematic And Biomechanical Effects Of Bracing On The Rehabilitation Of The Lcl Injured Elbow, Sara M. Banayan Feb 2018

The Kinematic And Biomechanical Effects Of Bracing On The Rehabilitation Of The Lcl Injured Elbow, Sara M. Banayan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Lateral collateral ligament (LCL) injuries are often treated non-operatively or with surgical repair. If instability persists, hinged elbow orthoses (HEOs) are often recommended. However, these orthoses are designed as a straight hinge, which does not account for the native carrying angle of the elbow. A custom HEO was designed to adjust the orthosis valgus angulation to measure in vitro elbow kinematics and biomechanics. An in vitro study investigated the effect of HEO valgus angulation during simulated active and passive flexion, in the vertical dependent and varus positions, with the forearm pronated and supinated. In the vertical dependent position, the orthosis ...


Multi-Channel Mr Phase Image Processing For Non-Contrast Tissue Characterization, Zahra Hosseini Feb 2018

Multi-Channel Mr Phase Image Processing For Non-Contrast Tissue Characterization, Zahra Hosseini

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables tissue characterization using the intrinsic tissue properties. By manipulating a number of imaging parameters different image contrasts can be achieved. Multi-echo gradient recalled echo (ME-GRE) enables acquisition of two distinct images, magnitude and phase, in a relatively short time. Phase image, specifically, contains a wealth of information for generation of quantitative maps, with the local tissue susceptibility differences as a source of contrast. GRE imaging is sensitive to field-inhomogeneities. This challenge presents more strongly in multi-channel acquisition, where the coil sensitivity variations impose complications in extracting information from the underlying anatomy. This calls for a ...