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Theses/Dissertations

Modeling

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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Three-Dimensional Collagen Tubes For In Vitro Modeling, Rebecca Jones Apr 2019

Three-Dimensional Collagen Tubes For In Vitro Modeling, Rebecca Jones

Theses and Dissertations

Collagen type I represents a novel material for three-dimensional in vitro models. While two-dimensional models are typically inadequate for recreating the complex processes of the body, collagen provides a three-dimensional basis with a variety of applications, including remodeling of vascular cells under tension and vascular stenosis. Smooth muscle cells reorganize and reconstruct their environment differently under conditions of tensions, such as with sutures, or under conditions without applied external tension. Vascular stenosis, the abnormal narrowing of blood vessels, arises from defective developmental processes or atherosclerosis-related adult pathologies. Stenosis triggers a series of adaptive cellular responses that induces adverse remodeling, which ...


Development Of Novel Models To Study Deep Brain Effects Of Cortical Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Farheen Syeda Jan 2018

Development Of Novel Models To Study Deep Brain Effects Of Cortical Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Farheen Syeda

Theses and Dissertations

Neurological disorders require varying types and degrees of treatments depending on the symptoms and underlying causes of the disease. Patients suffering from medication-refractory symptoms often undergo further treatment in the form of brain stimulation, e.g. electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), deep brain stimulation (DBS), or transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). These treatments are popular and have been shown to relieve various symptoms for patients with neurological conditions. However, the underlying effects of the stimulation, and subsequently the causes of symptom-relief, are not very well understood. In particular, TMS is a non-invasive brain stimulation therapy which uses time-varying ...


Dynamic Simulation And Analysis Of Gait Modification For Treating Knee Osteoarthritis, Taylor Elyse Schlotman May 2017

Dynamic Simulation And Analysis Of Gait Modification For Treating Knee Osteoarthritis, Taylor Elyse Schlotman

Doctoral Dissertations

Roughly 47.5 million people in the US have a disability, with 8.6 million reporting arthritis as their main cause of disability, making arthritis the leading cause of physical disability. With decreased mortality rates and a large, aging baby boomer generation, there will be more adults living with chronic musculoskeletal conditions causing disabilities that limit walking. Since walking ability is directly related to an individual’s independence at home and in the community, losing this ability is a major setback for patients with arthritis. Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent form of arthritis affecting approximately 27 million adults ...


Specimen-Specific Natural, Pathological, And Implanted Knee Mechanics Using Finite Element Modeling, Azhar Akber Ali Jan 2017

Specimen-Specific Natural, Pathological, And Implanted Knee Mechanics Using Finite Element Modeling, Azhar Akber Ali

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

There is an increasing incidence of knee pain and injury among the population, and increasing demand for higher knee function in total knee replacement designs. As a result, clinicians and implant manufacturers are interested in improving patient outcomes, and evaluation of knee mechanics is essential for better diagnosis and repair of knee pathologies. Common knee pathologies include osteoarthritis (degradation of the articulating surfaces), patellofemoral pain, and cruciate ligament injury and/or rupture. The complex behavior of knee motion presents unique challenges in the diagnosis of knee pathology and restoration of healthy knee function. Quantifying knee mechanics is essential for developing ...


Statistical Shape Modeling To Quantify Variation In The Proximal Humeral Anatomy, Paul B. Sade Sr. Jan 2017

Statistical Shape Modeling To Quantify Variation In The Proximal Humeral Anatomy, Paul B. Sade Sr.

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The fit of the humeral prosthesis to the intramedullary canal and the replication of the anatomic humeral head center are important factors in Total Shoulder Arthroplasty (TSA). The objective of this thesis was to develop a Statistical Shape Model (SSM) of the cortical and cancellous bone regions of the proximal humerus, and to assess potential shape differences with gender and ethnicity, with a goal of informing implant design. An SSM was used and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to data that represented both the cancellous and cortical humeral bone of 63 healthy subjects and cadavers. Anatomical measurements and PC ...


Sensitivity Analysis Of Geometry Changes In The Simulation Of Basilar Aneurysms, Paul Eserkaln Dec 2016

Sensitivity Analysis Of Geometry Changes In The Simulation Of Basilar Aneurysms, Paul Eserkaln

Theses and Dissertations

Computer simulation is a useful tool in the research and treatment of basilar aneurysms. Current technology allows researchers to create 3D models from cerebral vasculature in-vivo, allowing for the investigation of surgical options with minimal risk to the patient. The method used to construct these models overlooks smaller lateral arterial branches which are difficult to discern due to resolution limits of the imaging process. These lateral branches have minimal impact on the overall blood flow through the basilar artery, but they play a significant role in the health of the patient, so it is important to ensure sufficient blood will ...


Automated Image Analysis And Spatial Computational Modeling Of Nf-Kb In Cerebrovascular Endothelial Cells, Kasey Catalfomo Jan 2016

Automated Image Analysis And Spatial Computational Modeling Of Nf-Kb In Cerebrovascular Endothelial Cells, Kasey Catalfomo

Theses and Dissertations

Cerebrovascular endothelial cells play a key part in the inflammatory response of the blood-brain barrier in pathological conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease. Specifically, the NF-κB signaling pathway plays a central role. Better understanding of the factors in inflammatory disease progression can lead to more effective treatments for such devastating illnesses like Alzheimer’s, asthma, arthritis, cancer, diabetes and many more inflammatory diseases. The proposed approach analyzes spatial NF-κB distribution contained in multispectral stacked micrograph images of cerebrovascular endothelial cells indexed based on dose of the activating protein and the length of activation. Image analysis code identifies the location of ...


Multiscale Musculoskeletal Modeling Of The Lower Limb To Perform Personalized Simulations Of Movement, Alessandro Navacchia Jan 2016

Multiscale Musculoskeletal Modeling Of The Lower Limb To Perform Personalized Simulations Of Movement, Alessandro Navacchia

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Computational modeling has been used for many decades to inform design and decision-making in several fields of engineering, such as aerospace, automotive, petroleum, and others. However, it still struggles to have a similar impact in fields of medicine, such as orthopaedics. Three of the challenges that have limited the use of computational modeling in the clinical practice and in product development are model validation, personalization, and realism. Validation is a challenge because several internal parameters of the human body, such as muscle forces, are not safely measurable in vivo and, consequently, a thorough comparison between model outputs and experimental measurements ...


Identification And Retraining Of Sensorimotor Deficits To Reduce Intention Tremor In Multiple Sclerosis, Megan Heenan Apr 2015

Identification And Retraining Of Sensorimotor Deficits To Reduce Intention Tremor In Multiple Sclerosis, Megan Heenan

Dissertations (2009 -)

Multiple sclerosis (MS) affects approximately 1 in 1000 Americans and is a significant cause of disability in the United States. One significant contributor to disability in MS is intention tremor, which manifests as an oscillation about the endpoint of a goal-directed movement. A major challenge of treating intention tremor is that the underlying causes of tremor in MS are unknown. In this study, we describe a systems-level computational model and an experimental technique that parameterizes subject-specific deficits in sensory feedback control during goal-directed movements. We used this approach to characterize sensorimotor control and examine how sensory and motor processes are ...


Adaptation And Validation Of An Analytical Localized Muscle Fatigue Model For Workplace Tasks, John Maurice Looft Dec 2014

Adaptation And Validation Of An Analytical Localized Muscle Fatigue Model For Workplace Tasks, John Maurice Looft

Theses and Dissertations

Muscle fatigue is universally experienced in daily life, from recreational physical activity to the workplace. However, our ability to estimate fatigue is limited. Several attempts have been made to mathematically model the effects of fatigue, such as how long a muscle contraction may be sustained, known as `endurance time.' However, these simple models of endurance time are limited to static contractions when the body is not moving, but muscles are contracted. This research aims to advance a previously proposed analytical model of muscle fatigue to represent complex tasks such as with rest intervals and dynamic contractions. Multiple methodologies were employed ...


Computer Modeling And Simulation Of Implantable Medical Device Heating Due To Mri Gradient Coil Fields, Bryan David Stem Apr 2014

Computer Modeling And Simulation Of Implantable Medical Device Heating Due To Mri Gradient Coil Fields, Bryan David Stem

Open Access Theses

For patients with implantable medical devices, the ability to safely undergo MRI scanning is critical to ensuring the highest standard of care. The gradient coils of an MRI generate kilohertz frequency, time varying magnetic fields. These magnetic fields induce a voltage on the external case of metallic, implantable medical devices through electromagnetic induction. Since the magnetic field generated by a gradient coil is time varying, the induced voltage results in the flow of eddy currents which can cause heating effects. These heating effects have been successfully modeled using ANSYS Maxwell and ANSYS Mechanical software packages.

The multi-physics simulation and solution ...


The Design And Validation Of A Computational Rigid Body Model For Study Of The Radial Head, Cassandra Woodcock Dec 2013

The Design And Validation Of A Computational Rigid Body Model For Study Of The Radial Head, Cassandra Woodcock

Theses and Dissertations

Rigid body modeling has historically been used to study various features of the elbow joint including both physical and computational models. Computational modeling provides an inexpensive, easily customizable, and effective method by which to predict and investigate the response of a physiological system to in vivo stresses and applied perturbations. Utilizing computer topography scans of a cadaveric elbow, a virtual representation of the joint was created using the commercially available MIMICS(TM) and SolidWorks(TM) software packages. Accurate 3D articular surfaces, ligamentous constraints, and joint contact parameters dictated motion. The model was validated against two cadaveric studies performed by Chanlalit ...


Characterization Of Two-Dimensional Oculomotor Control During Goal-Directed Eye Movements In Humans, Vincent Dang Oct 2013

Characterization Of Two-Dimensional Oculomotor Control During Goal-Directed Eye Movements In Humans, Vincent Dang

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Oculomotor control is a subset of sensorimotor control that allows humans to make extremely accurate eye movements for ADL. Impairments to oculomotor control can increase the impact of sensorimotor control deficits, especially in neurodegenerative diseases such as MS. Here, a two-dimensional computational control system of saccades and smooth-pursuit eye movements was compiled from literature to systematically characterize oculomotor control in eight visually-healthy humans as a precursor to studying the relationship between oculomotor and sensorimotor control in patient populations. Subjects visually tracked a single dot on a 41 x 30.5 cm monitor in a dark room while eye positions were ...


Multiscale Modeling Of Toxoplasma Gondii, Adam Michael Sullivan Aug 2013

Multiscale Modeling Of Toxoplasma Gondii, Adam Michael Sullivan

Doctoral Dissertations

Toxoplasma gondii is a potentially deadly parasite that uses a very unique way of manipulating the cell and immune systems. To investigate the mechanics of how the parasite spreads within hosts, several interwoven topics related to the study of within-host dynamics of Toxoplasma gondii are presented here. Understanding the complicated methods of how the parasite grows, dies, invades, replicates, and evades the host immune response is the critical aim of this independent research. Understanding the processes of acute and chronic infection are studied independently, followed by modeling the two processes in the same model. Finally, the dynamic models are simulated ...


The Design And Validation Of A Computational Model Of The Human Wrist Joint, Afsarul Mir May 2013

The Design And Validation Of A Computational Model Of The Human Wrist Joint, Afsarul Mir

Theses and Dissertations

Advancements in computational capabilities have allowed researchers to turn towards modeling as an efficient tool to replicate and predict outcomes of complex systems. Computational models of the musculoskeletal system have gone through various iterations with early versions employing dramatic simplifications. In this work, a three-dimensional computational model of the wrist joint was developed. It accurately recreated the skeletal structures of the hand and wrist and represented the constraints imposed by soft tissue structures like ligaments, tendons, and other surrounding tissues. It was developed to function as a tool to investigate the biomechanical contributions of structures and the kinematic response of ...


Finite Element Study Of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Customization Of Models And Montages, Dennis Q. Truong Jan 2013

Finite Element Study Of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Customization Of Models And Montages, Dennis Q. Truong

Dissertations and Theses

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive neuromodulation technique that applies low amplitude current via electrodes placed on the scalp. Rather than directly eliciting a neuronal response, tDCS is believed to modulate excitability – encouraging or suppressing activity in regions of the brain depending on the polarity of stimulation. The particular application of tDCS is often determined by the electrode configuration and intensity of stimulation. MRI-derived finite element models have been developed to analyze the effect of these parameters allowing novel electrode configurations to be tested in subject specific models. By creating a subject specific model of an obese subject ...


Development And Characterization Of A Finite Element Model Of Lung Motion, Ryan Amelon Jul 2012

Development And Characterization Of A Finite Element Model Of Lung Motion, Ryan Amelon

Theses and Dissertations

BACKGROUND: Finite element models of lung motion can aid in understanding mechanically driven lung deformation. Current finite element models consider each lung half as a continuum, lacking the ability to capture the displacement discontinuity at fissures caused by lobe sliding.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this work was to develop and evaluate finite element models for simulating lung motion that incorporate the role of sliding at the lobe boundaries.

METHODS: Finite element models were developed from 4DCT of tidal breathing from five cancer subjects. To allow sliding, the lobes were modeled as independent bodies within a pleural cavity shell. Pleural cavity ...


Modeling Cardiac Muscle Mechanics, Lorenzo Sewanan Apr 2012

Modeling Cardiac Muscle Mechanics, Lorenzo Sewanan

Senior Theses and Projects

The heart is a complex electro-mechanical system which is intrinsically and intimately linked to physiology and pathology. Cardiac muscle tissue underlies the dynamics of the heart; understanding cardiac muscle tissue allows insight into the working of the heart at a fundamental level. Indeed, models allow a theoretical understanding of systems which necessarily exceeds that of experiment. Here, we describe a novel mathematical model of cardiac muscle mechanics based on functional relations.


Fundamental Characterization Of Photodegradable Hydrogels: Spatiotemporal Control Of The Cellular Microenvironment, Mark William Tibbitt Jan 2012

Fundamental Characterization Of Photodegradable Hydrogels: Spatiotemporal Control Of The Cellular Microenvironment, Mark William Tibbitt

Chemical & Biological Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Synthetic hydrogels are an attractive class of materials for the design of well-defined cell culture platforms to better understand how cells receive and integrate signals present in the extracellular environment. Within this class, responsive hydrogels have emerged to investigate questions as to how cells sense and respond to dynamic changes in the mechanical and biochemical nature of the cell niche. To complement this growing body of research, this thesis aimed to develop photoresponsive, synthetic hydrogels that enable experimenters to explore how spatiotemporally varying cues from the extracellular matric influence biological function in real time. Specifically, cytocompatible, chain and step polymerized ...


Comparative Study On Posture And Its Influences On Horizontal Ground Reaction Forces Generated By Muscles: Implications For Crouch Gait, Hoa Xuan Hoang Dec 2011

Comparative Study On Posture And Its Influences On Horizontal Ground Reaction Forces Generated By Muscles: Implications For Crouch Gait, Hoa Xuan Hoang

Masters Theses

Crouch gait decreases walking efficiency due to the increased knee and hip flexion during the stance phase of gait. Crouch gait is generally considered to be disadvantageous for patients with cerebral palsy; however, a crouched posture may afford biomechanical advantages that lead some patients to adopt a crouch gait.

To investigate one possible advantage of crouch gait, a musculoskeletal model created in OpenSim was placed in 15 different postures from upright to severe crouch during initial, middle, and final stance of the gait cycle. A series of optimizations were performed for each posture to maximize ground reaction forces for the ...


Quantitative Evaluation Of Redox Processes In Intact Rat Lungs And Endothelial Cells And The Effect Of Hyperoxia, Zhuohui Gan Oct 2011

Quantitative Evaluation Of Redox Processes In Intact Rat Lungs And Endothelial Cells And The Effect Of Hyperoxia, Zhuohui Gan

Dissertations (2009 -)

A common initial treatment of hypoxemia in patients with lung failure secondary to acute lung injury (e.g., adult respiratory distress syndrome) is oxygen (O2) therapy (hyperoxia). However, prolonged O2 therapy causes lung O2 toxicity, which can further impair lung functions. The rat model of lung O2 toxicity replicates key features of human lung O2 toxicity. In addition, rats develop tolerance or susceptibility to 100% O2 by pre-exposing them to 85% O2 (hyper-85) or 60% O2 (hyper-60) for 7 days, respectively. Therefore, the long-term objectives of this study are to elucidate mechanisms ...


Modeling And Quantitative Analysis Of White Matter Fiber Tracts In Diffusion Tensor Imaging, Xuwei Liang Jan 2011

Modeling And Quantitative Analysis Of White Matter Fiber Tracts In Diffusion Tensor Imaging, Xuwei Liang

University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique to record incoherent motion of water molecules and has been used to detect micro structural white matter alterations in clinical studies to explore certain brain disorders. A variety of DTI based techniques for detecting brain disorders and facilitating clinical group analysis have been developed in the past few years. However, there are two crucial issues that have great impacts on the performance of those algorithms. One is that brain neural pathways appear in complicated 3D structures which are inappropriate and inaccurate to be approximated by simple 2D structures ...


Monitoring, Diagnosis, And Control For Advanced Anesthesia Management, Zhibin Tan Jan 2011

Monitoring, Diagnosis, And Control For Advanced Anesthesia Management, Zhibin Tan

Wayne State University Dissertations

Modern anesthesia management is a comprehensive and the most critical issue in medical care. During the past dacades, a large amount of research works have been focused on the problems of monitoring anesthesia depth, modeling the dynamics of anesthesia patient for the purpose of control, prediction, and diagnosis.

Monitoring the anesthesia depth is not only for keeping the patient in adquate anesthesia level but also for preventing the patient from overdosing. Several EEG based indexes have been developed such as the BIS, and Entropy etc. for measuring depth. However, reports mentioned that those indexes in some cases fail in detecting ...


The Development And Validation Of A Finite Element Model Of A Canine Rib For Use With A Bone Remodeling Algorithm., Scott J. Sylliaasen Dec 2010

The Development And Validation Of A Finite Element Model Of A Canine Rib For Use With A Bone Remodeling Algorithm., Scott J. Sylliaasen

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Studies are currently being performed to determine the effects of bisphosphonate treatments on the structure and density of bone tissue. One of the pathways for gaining a better understanding of the effects of this and other treatments involves creating a computer simulation. Theory suggests that bone tissue structure and density are directly related to the manner in which the tissue is loaded. Remodeling is the process in which bone tissue is resorbed in areas of low stress distributions, and generated in areas of high stress distributions. Previous studies have utilized numerical methods and finite element methods to predict bone structure ...


In Situ Photopolymerized Hydrogels For Enhancing Protein Delivery, Chien-Chi Lin Aug 2007

In Situ Photopolymerized Hydrogels For Enhancing Protein Delivery, Chien-Chi Lin

All Dissertations

In recent years, there has been immense interest in the utilization of photopolymerized hydrogels as carriers for controlled protein delivery and cell scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. Although poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogels formed from mild photopolymerization methods have been suggested as biocompatible matrices that allow for safely encapsulating biomolecules including proteins, peptides, DNA, and cells, the adverse effects of photopolymerization reactions on the encapsulated proteins have largely been overlooked. In addition, conventional hydrophilic hydrogels fail to effectively control protein delivery rates due to their high permeability. These two problems are critical since the delivery of protein therapeutics from ...