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Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Characterization Of Oxone Mediated Tempo-Oxidized Nano Cellulose Mixed-Matrix Membranes During Ultrafiltration And Hemodialysis, Kristyn Robling May 2020

Characterization Of Oxone Mediated Tempo-Oxidized Nano Cellulose Mixed-Matrix Membranes During Ultrafiltration And Hemodialysis, Kristyn Robling

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The ninth leading cause of death in the United States is kidney disease, and hemodialysis is the process most commonly prescribed for treatment. It utilizes a selectively permeable membrane filter to remove toxins such as urea from the blood and retain necessary protein levels. However, traditional filters, such as cellulose triacetate, used during dialysis can be inefficient in terms of separation performance and reduction of fouling. Recent exploration of nanoparticles has resulted in the creation of Oxone Mediated TEMPO-Oxidized Nano Cellulose which has properties that are believed to increase hydrophilicity, increase tensile capacity, decrease membrane resistance and lower fouling, making ...


Generation Of A Ccl2 Knockout Using Crispr/Cas9 And Lipid Mediated Transfection In Ct-26 Murine Colon Carcinoma Cells, Emma Sullivan Aug 2019

Generation Of A Ccl2 Knockout Using Crispr/Cas9 And Lipid Mediated Transfection In Ct-26 Murine Colon Carcinoma Cells, Emma Sullivan

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

CCL2 is an inflammatory mediator that is released by tumor cells to activate and direct immune cell species, especially macrophages, to inflammatory sites within the body. The goal of this project was to successfully generate knockout the CCL2 ligand gene using a CRISPR/Cas9 complex delivered via lipid mediated transfection. The sgRNA and Cas9 mRNA were introduced into the cells via lipid-mediated transfection. The cells were incubated for 4 days, before being analyzed using PCR and gel electrophoresis. We expected to see one band on the first gel and two bands on the second gel. Two bands appeared on the ...


Investigating Virus Clearance Via Ph Inactivation During Biomanufacturing, Wenbo Xu May 2019

Investigating Virus Clearance Via Ph Inactivation During Biomanufacturing, Wenbo Xu

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

In the processing of biopharmaceuticals, viral clearance and viral safety are important for the development of monoclonal antibodies. Murine xenotropic leukemia virus (XMuLV) is one of the retroviruses, recommended by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a model virus for viral clearance via inactivation from therapeutics derived from Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO). A robust and effective method was investigated to clear or inactivate endogenous viruses by low pH inactivation. The effects of different conductivity and inactivated time on XMuLV clearance was determined. Acetate buffer was prepared with different conductivity, and 2% XMuLV was spiked into acetate buffer. XMuLV virus ...


Investigation Of Acute Radiation-Induced Changes In Oxygenation In A Murine Breast Tumor Model, Alaa Abdelgawad May 2019

Investigation Of Acute Radiation-Induced Changes In Oxygenation In A Murine Breast Tumor Model, Alaa Abdelgawad

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Around 50-60% of all cancer patients undergo radiation therapy. Although some patients show complete response with no recurrence, a significant proportion of the population still develop radiation resistance. It is important to identify tumor resistance at early stages of therapy in order to adjust treatment protocol and avoid extra exposure to radiation. Current methods to assess treatment response are only limited to anatomical measurements of tumor volume after therapy. Novel approaches that shed the light on any functional information during the course of radiotherapy could significantly improve our ability to identify patients who do not respond to radiation therapy. Diffuse ...


A Bioinstrumentation Active Learning Educational Module: The Design Of A Working Temperature Sensor Using A Ntc Thermistor, Baylor Bush May 2019

A Bioinstrumentation Active Learning Educational Module: The Design Of A Working Temperature Sensor Using A Ntc Thermistor, Baylor Bush

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The Department of Biomedical Engineering at the University of Arkansas has continued to develop over the years, with more students enrolling in the program each year. Within the first biomedical engineering course, Introduction to Biomedical Engineering, various topics are introduced to students, and the topic of bioinstrumentation has been one of the most complex and difficult topics for students to comprehend through just a few lectures. In order to aid students in grasping these intricate concepts, an active learning module was developed in which students can work in groups to build a simple thermistor circuit as a temperature sensor. The ...


Extraction And Analysis Of Vector Flow Imaging Data In A Pediatric Population, Bailey Stinnett May 2018

Extraction And Analysis Of Vector Flow Imaging Data In A Pediatric Population, Bailey Stinnett

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Vector flow imaging (VFI) is a new ultrasound technology that provides real time, angle-independent visualization of flow velocities in the heart and great vessels. Thus far, VFI has been used for superficial applications due to the limited penetration depth of available transducer probes; however, this depth in smaller pediatric patients enables adequate aortic views. In this project, VFI was used to study pediatric aortic stenosis (PAS)—a congenital heart defect that results in the narrowing of the aorta and/or aortic valve. The decision to refer PAS patients for surgical or catheter-based intervention is initially based on Doppler ultrasound. VFI ...


Effects Of Gsk101 Exposure On Astrocyte Mechanical Properties, Collagen Production, And Viability, Ethan Echols May 2018

Effects Of Gsk101 Exposure On Astrocyte Mechanical Properties, Collagen Production, And Viability, Ethan Echols

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is a cation channel protein which is thought to facilitate extracellular matrix (ECM) modification and glial scar formation following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Activation of TRPV4 has been shown to correlate with an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration. TRPV4 is subject to both chemical and mechanical activation. This study involved chemical activation of TRPV4 in cultured mouse astrocytes using GSK101, the primary agonist of TRPV4, and subsequent evaluation of mechanical and chemical changes to the ECM. Prior to GSK101 exposure, the cells were seeded into Matrigel Matrix, a gelatinous protein mixture intended to ...


Pressure Acquisition System For In Vitro Mitral Valve Analysis, Laura Peck May 2018

Pressure Acquisition System For In Vitro Mitral Valve Analysis, Laura Peck

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

In vitro testing of the mitral valve chordae tendineae is utilized to aid in the understanding of the stresses that occur in vivo and improve upon surgical solutions that exist for mitral valve repair. This project aimed to design the water control system for a left heart simulation chamber, as well as the pressure acquisition inside the chamber. A solenoid valve was utilized to control the water supply to the tank and was powered utilizing National Instruments software. National Instruments hardware and software was also used with the pressure transducer in order to obtain pressure readings from the chamber. The ...


In-Vitro Simulation Of Acute Ischemic Stroke, Paolo Garcia May 2018

In-Vitro Simulation Of Acute Ischemic Stroke, Paolo Garcia

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a condition that involves the occlusion of a blood vessel within the brain, effectively preventing the passage of oxygen and nutrients. AIS is highly prevalent in the United States, where nearly 795,000 strokes happen per year and 87% of those are ischemic. From a medical standpoint, the obstructing clot can be removed with the use of a stroke retrieval device. However, a need arises for testing the aforementioned devices on a patient’s specific vascular geometries in order to increase the likelihood of a successful procedure. Outlined is a process for developing a physical ...


Antibacterial Properties Of A Cationic Imidazolium-Containing Poly(Ionic Liquid), Kaitlyn P. Brickey May 2018

Antibacterial Properties Of A Cationic Imidazolium-Containing Poly(Ionic Liquid), Kaitlyn P. Brickey

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Poly(ionic liquids), or PILs, have been shown to have a number of biological applications as ligands, drug delivery vehicles, and nonviral DNA delivery mechanisms. Additionally, PILs have been proven to be efficient antibacterials. Imidazolium-containing PILs have promising results in antibacterial studies, but relating to their chain and charge density, only the effects of mono- & bis-imidazolium PILs have been sufficiently described in literature. The work detailed in this thesis aimed to further existing research on the effect of chain density by controlling the UV-initiator immobilization time. The effects of chain density were investigated by grafting poly(vinylimidazolium chloride) onto SiO ...


3d Printed Force Transducers For In-Vitro Mitral Valve Chordae Tendineae Force Measurements, Hayley Chandler May 2018

3d Printed Force Transducers For In-Vitro Mitral Valve Chordae Tendineae Force Measurements, Hayley Chandler

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Mitral valve surgery is incredibly prevalent in the United States with more than 40,000 mitral valve surgical procedures annually. Improving the imaging techniques used to diagnose these cases requires validation of 3D models through experimental data such as mechanical properties of the tissue. An essential part of this process for the mitral valve is measuring the force experienced by chordae tendineae. This has been achieved with brass force transducers but using a 3D printed design can have many benefits. In this study, 3D printed miniature c-shaped force transducers comparable to previous metal models were designed and created using Solidworks ...


Comparison Of Varying Tissue Freezing Methods On Murine Colonic Tissue, James Hughes May 2018

Comparison Of Varying Tissue Freezing Methods On Murine Colonic Tissue, James Hughes

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Histology often requires a tissue specimen to be embedded so that it may be sectioned, stained, and mounted on a microscope slide for viewing. One common method of tissue embedding for rapid histology is freezing, since freezing allows tissue to be stored without the need for fixing. Frozen tissue is often embedded in a medium such as Optimal Cutting Temperature (OCT) compound so that it can be sectioned using a cryostat. However, factors such as ice-crystal formation during the freezing process can cause damage to the tissue. As such, the protocol used to freeze the tissue can affect the quality ...


The Effect Of Elastin Degradation On The Biomechanical Properties Of Porcine Aortic Tissue, Caleb Nissen May 2018

The Effect Of Elastin Degradation On The Biomechanical Properties Of Porcine Aortic Tissue, Caleb Nissen

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is currently the 13th leading cause of death in the United States [1]. AAA is characterized, in part, by an increase in presence of proteolytic enzymes which degrade the structural proteins collagen and elastin [6]. The goal of this study was to examine the effect that elastin degradation has on the biomechanical properties of aortic tissue. For this experiment, porcine aortic tissue was cut in the circumferential and longitudinal directions. These specimens were exposed to an elastase solution for varying time-intervals and then underwent uniaxial tensile testing. Elastase-treated tissue tested in the ...


Effects Of Uniaxial Cyclic Strain On Endothelial Progenitor Cells, Maria Alejandra Zeballos Castro Dec 2017

Effects Of Uniaxial Cyclic Strain On Endothelial Progenitor Cells, Maria Alejandra Zeballos Castro

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Despite the high prevalence of calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD), the underlying mechanisms of pathogenesis have not been found yet. Therefore, it is extremely important to study CAVD and understand how it develops. For this matter, we decided to study the potential of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) for use in tissue-engineered models of heart valves. EPCs were chosen as the cell source of interest for this study due to their high neovascularization potential and use in regenerative medicine and cardiovascular tissue engineering.

In this project, we aimed to engineer the microenvironment of cells that are involved in the formation of ...


Metabolic Response To Stress Differentiates Heterogeneous Cancer Cells With Varying Metastatic Potential, Kinan Alhallak May 2017

Metabolic Response To Stress Differentiates Heterogeneous Cancer Cells With Varying Metastatic Potential, Kinan Alhallak

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Intratumoral heterogeneity is ubiquitously present within primary tumors and contributes to intractable behaviors such as metastasis and mutability spatiotemporally. Mounting evidence has shown that heterogeneous cell populations can adversely affect cell metabolism and metastatic potential. The cell’s only fluorescent molecules within the electron transport chain, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), can allow the quantitation of cell metabolism. We demonstrate the use of the optical redox ratio (FAD/(NADH+FAD)) to determine the metabolic behaviors of a heterogeneous panel of cells with varying metastatic programs at normal conditions and following acute hypoxia. At normal conditions, we ...


In Vivo Multi-Parametric Imaging Of Metastatic And Non-Metastatic Breast Cancer, Raisa B. Rasul May 2017

In Vivo Multi-Parametric Imaging Of Metastatic And Non-Metastatic Breast Cancer, Raisa B. Rasul

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

A current issue in cancer therapy is the characterization of metastatic tumors, which can increase ease of treatment and patient trials. We present an in vivo study of metastatic (4T1) and non-metastatic (4T1-TWIST KO) breast tumor sister cell lines to understand their metabolic behavior, determine differences in two modes of imaging (reflection & transmission), and observe effect of breathing higher oxygen percentage on vascular hemoglobin oxygen saturation. After injection of 10,000 cells into mice dorsal window chambers, the glucose intake and hemoglobin oxygen saturation was measured using a fluorescent glucose analog (2-NBDG) and hyperspectral trans-illumination imaging from 520-620 nm at ...


Optimizing A Standard Fasting Time For 2-Nbdg Uptake Studies In Murine Breast Cancers, Andrew C. Briley May 2017

Optimizing A Standard Fasting Time For 2-Nbdg Uptake Studies In Murine Breast Cancers, Andrew C. Briley

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Recently, there has been a larger use of 2-NBDG, a fluorescent glucose analog, to study glucose uptake in different cell types. These cell types have ranged anywhere from bacteria to human cancer cells. However, there has yet to be a standard procedure and practice for using 2-NBDG. In this study, our goal is to create a standard fasting time for the cells before introducing 2-NBDG to them. This study uses 4T07 cells, a murine breast cancer cell line, to help optimize this fasting time. These cells were fasted at different time points in order to find the ideal fasting time ...


Optical Imaging Of Metabolic Adaptability As A Biomarker For Metastatic Potential In Breast Cancer Cells, Mason G. Harper May 2017

Optical Imaging Of Metabolic Adaptability As A Biomarker For Metastatic Potential In Breast Cancer Cells, Mason G. Harper

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Breast cancer metastasis is the main cause for mortality in breast cancer patients. However, knowledge of metastatic recurrence is limited, and there is a need to understand metastatic recurrence in order to treat breast cancer patients more effectively. Highly invasive metastatic breast cancer has shown to exhibit metabolic adaptability, transitioning from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation in the presence of microenvironmental stress. NADH and FAD are naturally occurring cofactor products during glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation, respectively, and they are of particular importance during these metabolic processes due to their endogenous fluorescence. Measuring the ratio of fluorescence intensities of these cofactors through ...


Detection Of Leukocytes Stained With Acridine Orange Using Unique Spectral Features Acquired From An Image-Based Spectrometer, Courtney J. Hunter May 2017

Detection Of Leukocytes Stained With Acridine Orange Using Unique Spectral Features Acquired From An Image-Based Spectrometer, Courtney J. Hunter

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

A leukocyte differential count can be used to diagnosis a myriad blood disorders, such as infections, allergies, and efficacy of disease treatments. In recent years, attention has been focused on developing point-of-care (POC) systems to provide this test in global health settings. Acridine orange (AO) is an amphipathic, vital dye that intercalates leukocyte nucleic acids and acidic vesicles. It has been utilized by POC systems to identify the three main leukocyte subtypes: granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocytes. Subtypes of leukocytes can be characterized using a fluorescence microscope, where the AO has a 450 nm excitation wavelength and has two peak emission ...


Crizotinib And Ceritinib Induce Apoptosis And Necrosis In Primary Rat Hepatocytes With Distinct Capacity, Alec T. Salminen May 2016

Crizotinib And Ceritinib Induce Apoptosis And Necrosis In Primary Rat Hepatocytes With Distinct Capacity, Alec T. Salminen

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Drug development makes up a major portion of biomedical engineering research interests. The FDA oversees the introduction, experimentation, and implementation of all drugs before market approval is granted. Even after market approval is granted, the FDA continues to monitor the safety of all drugs. Crizotinib and ceritinib are two anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitors recently approved by the FDA. Both drugs are indicated for treatment of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) with abnormal ALK gene, and they are approved with a companion diagnostic test that determines ALK abnormality. Clinical trial data suggest that crizotinib and ceritinib can cause liver injury ...


Development And Analysis Of A Statics And Kinematics Demonstration As A Learning Tool In The Biomechanics Classroom, Bethany D. Knight May 2016

Development And Analysis Of A Statics And Kinematics Demonstration As A Learning Tool In The Biomechanics Classroom, Bethany D. Knight

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

This study was done with the objective of determining if students in the biomedical engineering department at the University of Arkansas would gain better understanding of basic biomechanics principles through the implementation of in-class demonstrations. Biomechanics was chosen because it is the first class taken in sequence after the “Introduction to Biomedical Engineering” class. A pre-demonstration survey was administered to gauge how comfortable the students were with the topics on the syllabus. Two demonstrations were done in class and related homework was assigned. The post-semester survey was administered and collected to determine how effective the students felt the presentations to ...


Investigating The Mechanical Behaviors Of Organic/Inorganic Composite Bone Scaffolds, Parker Davidson May 2016

Investigating The Mechanical Behaviors Of Organic/Inorganic Composite Bone Scaffolds, Parker Davidson

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The regeneration of bone over a large area cannot occur without a structure for the bone cells to bind and divide. The use of an organic/inorganic composite bone scaffold appears to be a promising alternative to the current clinical standard of bone grafting. Bone grafting is very limited, in that the size and shape of the area are hard to replicate and the use of donor tissue can trigger an immunologic response resulting in rejection of the bone tissue. This study experimented with composite bone scaffolds which can be made to fit the shape of the area in which ...


Effect Of Impact Angle On Astrocyte Gene Expression, Nicholas A. Chavis May 2016

Effect Of Impact Angle On Astrocyte Gene Expression, Nicholas A. Chavis

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Over one million people each year experience some form of traumatic brain injury. Every individual’s injury is different as impacts can affect different parts of the brain in various ways. This study was conducted to test the impact angles effect on astrocytes by measuring gene expression of TNF- alpha, an inflammation marker, and GFAP, a gene released in response to reactive astrocytes, following impacts from 0, 45, and 90 degrees. Results were recorded from Polymerase Chain Reaction via the delta delta Ct method and compared to the control group for to show under-regulation or up- regulation of the genes ...


Localized Immunotherapy Delivery Using Injectable In Situ Forming Chitosan Hydrogel, Seth Washispack May 2016

Localized Immunotherapy Delivery Using Injectable In Situ Forming Chitosan Hydrogel, Seth Washispack

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Cytokine-based cancer immunotherapies stimulate a host’s immune system to fight cancer. In particular, interleukin-12 (IL-12), a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine, has demonstrated the ability to eliminate tumors in a number of preclinical models. Toxicities associated with the systemic delivery of IL-12 have precluded its use in the clinic. We are developing a novel chitosan-based hydrogel to maintain high local concentrations of cytokines, such as IL-12, in the tumor while minimizing its systemic dissemination. This hydrogel was found to form spontaneously within ten seconds of mixing two proprietary components. To increase the usefulness of the hydrogel, an efficient mixing and delivery ...


Determining The Effect Of Delivery Rate On Glucose Uptake By Cancer Cells, Luke Felton May 2016

Determining The Effect Of Delivery Rate On Glucose Uptake By Cancer Cells, Luke Felton

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Radiation therapy is one of the most commonly performed cancer treatment therapies today. Radiation therapy can cause can changes to tumor vasculature and affect blood flow rates. It is important to determine how changes in blood flow rates affect tumor glycolytic uptake to better understand tumor response to radiation therapy (1). The goal of this study was to use a fluorescent analog of glucose, 2-NBDG, to study the effect of varying flow rates on glucose uptake. A microfluidic device was constructed to flow 2-NBDG through. A murine metastatic breast cancer cell line was then cultured inside this microfluidic channel, and ...


Micellular Electrokinetic Chromatography For Studying Amyloid Beta Oligomer Membrane Affinity, Andrew Bryson May 2016

Micellular Electrokinetic Chromatography For Studying Amyloid Beta Oligomer Membrane Affinity, Andrew Bryson

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Amyloid Beta (Aβ) was the major focus of this study. It is a peptide that is present in the brain with a high tendency to self-aggregate. When this protein aggregates, it forms oligomers and protofibrils which in turn are deposited as senile plaques in the brain. The reason for the concern with these plaques is their association with the neurological disorder Alzheimer’s disease. It has been found that the most dangerous oligomers are formed in a portion of the plasma membrane known as lipid rafts. The purpose of this study was to understand how micelles affect the aggregation properties ...


Immunomodulation Of Breast Cancer Cells For Whole Tumor Vaccination, Kristina G. Maxwell May 2016

Immunomodulation Of Breast Cancer Cells For Whole Tumor Vaccination, Kristina G. Maxwell

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Hematogenous metastasis causes 90% of breast cancer-related deaths.Current therapies include chemotherapy and irradiation following surgery. These therapies are very harmful to the human body and do not elicit an anti-tumor immune response. To create a novel therapeutic, an autologous vaccine increasing the immunogenicity of non immunogenic breast cancer cell lines has been proposed.

To create this vaccine, 4T1 mouse mammary breast cancer cells have been selected as the desired cell line to treat. They are non immunogenic and highly invasive. In order to increase their immunogenicity, first projected, was the addition of cytokines to 4T1 cells to increase the ...


Isolation Of Metallic Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes For Electrically Conductive Tissue Engineering Scaffolds, Jakob Hockman May 2016

Isolation Of Metallic Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes For Electrically Conductive Tissue Engineering Scaffolds, Jakob Hockman

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes (m-SWNTs) were separated from pristine SWNTs using affinity chromatography for use in electrically conductive tissue engineering scaffolds. Approximately one third of SWNTs have metallic properties. Separations were achieved using a protocol modified from Liu & coworkers (2011) in order to improve the method for cell culture environments. Samples enriched in m-SWNTs were isolated and characterized. However, challenges still remain for the complete separation of m-SWNTs from their semiconducting counterpart (s-SWNTs) using this protocol. Approaches to improve separation and reduce the difficulties associated with processing the nanotubes were suggested. One of the ultimate destinations of these nanotubes would ...


Customization Of Titanate Nanofiber Bioscaffolds, Jared Hopkins May 2016

Customization Of Titanate Nanofiber Bioscaffolds, Jared Hopkins

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

In the field of orthopedic devices implant loosening is a major issue resulting in the majority of device failures. These failures result in the need for costly secondary procedures. To reduce device loosening an improved method of tissue anchoring is required. A previously studied titanate nanofiber bioscaffold has been shown to be safely implantable and to contribute to the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells to osteocytes. Through the customization of both physical and chemical characteristics this titanate nanofiber bioscaffold was fabricated as a potential means to enhance tissue anchoring for use with orthopedic devices. This customization was enabled by acoustic ...


Multiphoton Imaging Of Labeled Breast Cancer Cells To Quantify Intra And Extracellular Receptors, Sydney C. Wiggins May 2016

Multiphoton Imaging Of Labeled Breast Cancer Cells To Quantify Intra And Extracellular Receptors, Sydney C. Wiggins

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Every year 200,000 women in the United States are diagnosed with breast cancer. Of the cases diagnosed, 10% -15% are classified as triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) due to the absence of estrogen, progesterone, and HER-2/Neu receptors. This breast cancer sub-type is markedly more aggressive and twice as likely to develop in premenopausal women. TNBC is resistant to endocrine therapies and current targeted agents, making clinical need for the development of validated therapeutics for TNBC a pressing matter. To initiate drug development, the internalization of directly immunolabeled epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) in SK-BR-3 human breast adenocarcinoma cells ...