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Theses/Dissertations

2012

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Articles 1 - 30 of 293

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Fabrication And Evaluation Of A Collagen-Based Fiber-Gel Three-Dimensional Construct For Peripheral Nerve Repair, Mevan Lakmal Siriwardane Dec 2012

Fabrication And Evaluation Of A Collagen-Based Fiber-Gel Three-Dimensional Construct For Peripheral Nerve Repair, Mevan Lakmal Siriwardane

Dissertations

Nerve regeneration following a peripheral nerve injury often relies on growth cone- mediated guidance and the presence of Schwann cells to support the regenerating axons and remyelinate portions of denervated nerve pathways. The emphasis of this work is to develop a synthetic nervous tissue construct that contains similar basal lamina or extracellular matrix to peripheral nerve in order to achieve a level of effectiveness in nerve repair and future peripheral nerve regeneration applications. To this end, three- dimensional nervous tissue constructs consisting of type I collagen are fabricated into a composite biomaterial scaffold to promote contact-guided growth of neuronal and ...


Quantification Of Neural Substrates Of Vergence System Via Fmri, Yelda Alkan Dec 2012

Quantification Of Neural Substrates Of Vergence System Via Fmri, Yelda Alkan

Dissertations

Vergence eye movement is one of the oculomotor systems which allow depth perception via disconjugate movement of the eyes. Neuroimaging methods such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measure neural activity changes activity in the brain while subjects perform experimental tasks. A rich body of primate investigations on vergence is already established in the neurophysiology literature; on the other hand, there are a limited number of fMRI studies on neural mechanisms behind the vergence system.

The results demonstrated that vergence system shares neural sources and also shows differentiation within the boundaries of frontal eye fields (FEF) and midbrain of the ...


Quantification Of Human Motion On Roller Coaster Rides, Chirag Burman Dec 2012

Quantification Of Human Motion On Roller Coaster Rides, Chirag Burman

Theses

Case reports have been published of people experiencing symptoms of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and/or ailments of the vascular tissue around the head. These reports pointed towards G-forces, a scalar measure without a specified direction, which represent the measure of the acceleration of an object divided by acceleration caused by gravity (9.81 m/s2), as a cause of said injuries. Research has been conducted on quantifying the G-forces experienced while on roller coasters, as well as the change in heart rate. However these studies have not been able to show a link between roller-coasters and symptoms.

This ...


Fuzzy Logic For Task Space Telemanipulation Of A Five Fingered Robotic Hand, Raaghavann Srinivasan Dec 2012

Fuzzy Logic For Task Space Telemanipulation Of A Five Fingered Robotic Hand, Raaghavann Srinivasan

Theses

This work presents a fuzzy logic based HandyMan (Hand gesture commands for grasping and manipulation) system to recognize the operator's hand gestures during task space telemanipulation. A combination of joint positions may be shared between at least two manipulation gestures. To avoid misinterpretation of gestures by the gesture recognition system, six new manipulation gestures were introduced. The gestures are produced by the user wearing a CyberGlove™.

This system replaces the previous HandyMan gesture recognition method. The output of the fuzzy system drives the state machines to implement the gestures with the robot hand.

The experimental results show that the ...


Diffuse Axonal Injury Effect On Myelinating Cells And Axons, Jennifer Alison Zalk Dec 2012

Diffuse Axonal Injury Effect On Myelinating Cells And Axons, Jennifer Alison Zalk

Theses

There is no supporting evidence whether myelin degeneration in diffuse axonal injury (DAI) of the white matter is due to death of myelinating oligodendrocytes or secondary axotomy. Cortical neurons are not able to remain healthy in culture to have their axons myelinated. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons have been shown to be myelinated by cortical oligodendrocytes in culture. An in vitro stretch injury model was used to analyze the DRG axon pathology during and after injury. DRG myelinating Schwann cells are analyzed to demonstrate what is expected from injury to oligodendrocytes. DRG axons demonstrated a high tolerance to stretch ...


Automatic Assessment Of Cardiac Left Ventricular Function Via Magnetic Resonance Images, Mariam Afshin Dec 2012

Automatic Assessment Of Cardiac Left Ventricular Function Via Magnetic Resonance Images, Mariam Afshin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Automating global and segmental (regional) assessments of cardiac Left Ventricle (LV) function in Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) has recently sparked an impressive research effort, which has resulted a number of techniques delivering promising performances. However, despite such an effort, the problem is still acknowledged to be challenging, with substantial room for improvements in regard to accuracy. Furthermore, most of the existing techniques are labour intensive, requiring delineations of the endo- and/or epi-cardial boundaries in all frames of a cardiac sequence.

On the one hand, global assessments of LV function focus on estimation of the Ejection Fraction (EF), which quantifies ...


Properties And Applications Of Sensory Outcome Measures In Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, Derek Km Cheung Dec 2012

Properties And Applications Of Sensory Outcome Measures In Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, Derek Km Cheung

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis aimed to determine the psychometric properties and applications of sensory threshold tools and outcome measures in patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS). The first chapter is a psychometric study that defines clinically important difference (CID), construct validity and responsiveness of touch and vibration threshold tools and in the Symptoms Severity Scale (SSS). The study found the CID for the PSSD and for the SSS was 0.15g/mm2 and 0.50 respectively. The study also found that the Vibrometer was more representative of hand function and responsive compared PSSD. The second objective of this thesis was to ...


A Depolymerization Based Model Of Neuron Growth Cone Shape And Motility, Neerajha Nagarajan Dec 2012

A Depolymerization Based Model Of Neuron Growth Cone Shape And Motility, Neerajha Nagarajan

Master's Theses

Cell migration is a ubiquitous process underlying critical biological mechanisms like wound healing, cancer metastasis and even neuron growth cone motility. It is a critical process for the living organisms as it ensures proper functioning of the system, for example, crawling fibroblasts endure closure of wounds during wound healing. Here we focus our interest on neuron growth cones, a sensory and motile organelle present at the tip of extending neurites, like the axons, in neurons. These are responsible for neuron pathfinding onto specific targets and synapses, in responses to various guidance cues. Interestingly, the motility of the growth cones is ...


Plantar Measurements To Determine Success Of Surgical Correction Of Stage Iib Adult Acquired Flatfoot Deformity, Erika Matheis Dec 2012

Plantar Measurements To Determine Success Of Surgical Correction Of Stage Iib Adult Acquired Flatfoot Deformity, Erika Matheis

Theses and Dissertations

Adult Acquired Flatfoot Deformity (AAFD) is a progressive disease characterized by mechanical degeneration of the soft tissue structure in the arch of the foot that leads to changes in joint alignment. Surgical intervention commonly via tendon transfer and bony osteotomy is used to restore arch architecture, however there is a lack of quantitative assessments that measure the success of the surgical correction in vivo. Using plantar pressures via Tekscan® HR Mat and surveys (SF-36, FAOS), pre-operative and post-operative measures for six participants were defined, analyzed and compared. A paired t-test showed significant lateral shift for percent body weight during walking ...


Impact Of Bioparticle Recirculation In A Circulating Fluidized Bed Biofilm Reactor On Simultaneous Organic And Nitrogen Removal, Ming Li Dec 2012

Impact Of Bioparticle Recirculation In A Circulating Fluidized Bed Biofilm Reactor On Simultaneous Organic And Nitrogen Removal, Ming Li

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The Circulating Fluidized Bed Biofilm Reactor (CFBBR), a bioparticle technology designed for biological nutrient removal, has been implemented to achieve considerable biodegradation efficiency and low sludge production, compared with activated sludge system and typical biofilm technology. The inherent advantages of bioparticle technology are enhanced substantially by the CFBBR, for example, decoupling of hydraulic retention time (HRT) from solids retention time (SRT), large specific surface area, ideal conditions for biofilm ecosystem.

In this work, bioparticle recirculation, as a novel control method for bioparticle system, was demonstrated in CFBBRs. To verify the impact of bioparticle recirculation on the reactor performance, bio-kinetics and ...


Optimal Inertial Sensor Placement And Motion Detection For Epileptic Seizure Patient Monitoring, Babak Kamalizonouzi Dec 2012

Optimal Inertial Sensor Placement And Motion Detection For Epileptic Seizure Patient Monitoring, Babak Kamalizonouzi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Use of inertial sensory systems to monitor and detect seizure episodes in patients suffering from epilepsy is investigated via numerical simulations and experiments. Numerical simulations employ a mathematical model that is able to predict human body dynamic responses during a typical epileptic seizure. An optimized inertial sensor placement procedure is developed to address achievement of highest possible sensing resolution in determining angular accelerations with minimal errors. In addition, a joint torque estimation procedure is formulated to assist in the future development of a possible detection scheme. Experimental motion data obtained from an epileptic seizure patient as well as a healthy ...


Investigating The Therapeutic Potential Of Salivary Proteins For Oral Diseases, Dusa Vukosavljevic Dec 2012

Investigating The Therapeutic Potential Of Salivary Proteins For Oral Diseases, Dusa Vukosavljevic

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

ABSTRACT

Saliva is responsible for the formation of the acquired enamel pellicle (AEP), a protein

integument formed as a result of selective adsorption of salivary proteins to the enamel

surface. The AEP demonstrates an important role for modulating dental erosion as a

result of its physical properties, along with its salivary and exogenous protein

composition (Chapter 2). In addition, individual proteins that comprise the AEP have

important physiological functions. Histatin 5 (H5) has potent antifungal effect against C.

albicans, the yeast responsible for the initiation of oral candidiasis. We designed an in

vitro model and found, for the first time ...


Nanomechanics Of Electrospun Nanofibres For Tissue Engineering Of The Tympanic Membrane, Sara Makaremi Dec 2012

Nanomechanics Of Electrospun Nanofibres For Tissue Engineering Of The Tympanic Membrane, Sara Makaremi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The Tympanic Membrane (TM), also known as the eardrum, includes layers of organized collagen nanofibres which play an essential role in sound transmission. Perforations that are caused by infection or accident must be repaired in order to restore hearing. Tympanoplasty is performed using grafts that are prepared from bladder, cartilage, temporal fascia and cadaveric skin. However, since mechanical properties of these grafts do not match those of the original TM, normal hearing is not fully restored. The goal of this study is to develop nanofibrous scaffolds for tissue engineering of the TM in order to circumvent the complications addressed with ...


Dc And Microwave Analysis Of Gallium Arsenide Field-Effect Transistor-Based Nucleic Acid Biosensors, John K. Kimani Dec 2012

Dc And Microwave Analysis Of Gallium Arsenide Field-Effect Transistor-Based Nucleic Acid Biosensors, John K. Kimani

Theses and Dissertations

Sensitive high-frequency microwave devices hold great promise for biosensor design. These devices include GaAs field effect transistors (FETs), which can serve as transducers for biochemical reactions, providing a platform for label-free biosensing. In this study, a two-dimensional numerical model of a GaAs FET-based nucleic acid biosensor is proposed and simulated. The electronic band structure, space charge density, and current-voltage relationships of the biosensor device are calculated. The intrinsic small signal parameters for the device are derived from simulated DC characteristics and used to predict AC behavior at high frequencies.

The biosensor model is based on GaAs field-effect device physics, semiconductor ...


Voltage Effects On Cells Cultured On Metallic Biomedical Implants, Seyed Morteza Haerihosseini Dec 2012

Voltage Effects On Cells Cultured On Metallic Biomedical Implants, Seyed Morteza Haerihosseini

Biomedical and Chemical Engineering - Dissertations

Electrochemical voltage shifts in metallic biomedical implants occur in-vivo due to a number of processes including mechanically assisted corrosion. Surface potential of biomedical implants and excursions from resting open circuit potential (OCP), which is the voltage they attain while in contact with an electrolyte, can significantly change the interfacial properties of the metallic surfaces and alter the behavior of the surrounding cells, compromising the biocompatibility of metallic implants. Voltages can also be controlled to modulate cell function and fate. To date, the details of the physico-chemical phenomena and the role of different biomaterial parameters involved in the interaction between cells ...


Characterization Of Polyacrylonitrile Carbon Fibers, Christian Burke Iversen Dec 2012

Characterization Of Polyacrylonitrile Carbon Fibers, Christian Burke Iversen

Biomedical and Chemical Engineering – Theses

Carbon fiber composites are a widely used, advanced material with exceedingly high strength to weight properties. In this thesis, a literature overview of carbon fiber manufacturing was provided, as well as a thorough analysis of in- house electrospun polyacrylonitrile fiber stabilization and surface modification of the resulting carbon fibers. In the first section, an overview of precursor fiber fabrication is provided, followed by an analysis of stabilization using surface and bulk composition, dimensional analysis, and functional group analysis via FTIR. The second section uses the current stabilization procedure to develop carbon nanofibers. Fibers first underwent a nitric acid oxidation time ...


Accelerating Mri Data Acquisition Using Parallel Imaging And Compressed Sensing, Haifeng Wang Dec 2012

Accelerating Mri Data Acquisition Using Parallel Imaging And Compressed Sensing, Haifeng Wang

Theses and Dissertations

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanners are one of important medical instruments, which can achieve more information of soft issues in human body than other medical instruments, such as Ultrasound, Computed Tomography (CT), Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), Positron Emission Tomography (PET), etc. But MRI's scanning is slow for patience of doctors and patients. In this dissertation, the author proposes some methods of parallel imaging and compressed sensing to accelerate MRI data acquisition. Firstly, a method is proposed to improve the conventional GRAPPA using cross-sampled auto-calibration data. This method use cross-sampled auto-calibration data instead of the conventional parallel-sampled auto-calibration ...


Quaternionic Attitude Estimation With Inertial Measuring Unit For Robotic And Human Body Motion Tracking Using Sequential Monte Carlo Methods With Hyper-Dimensional Spherical Distributions, Gary To Dec 2012

Quaternionic Attitude Estimation With Inertial Measuring Unit For Robotic And Human Body Motion Tracking Using Sequential Monte Carlo Methods With Hyper-Dimensional Spherical Distributions, Gary To

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation examined the inertial tracking technology for robotics and human tracking applications. This is a multi-discipline research that builds on the embedded system engineering, Bayesian estimation theory, software engineering, directional statistics, and biomedical engineering.

A discussion of the orientation tracking representations and fundamentals of attitude estimation are presented briefly to outline the some of the issues in each approach. In addition, a discussion regarding to inertial tracking sensors gives an insight to the basic science and limitations in each of the sensing components.

An initial experiment was conducted with existing inertial tracker to study the feasibility of using this ...


Design Of A Pretreatment And Enzymatic Saccharification Scheme Of Understory From Managed Pine Forest For A Biochemical-Refinery Platform: The Example Of The Sweetgum Tree, Angele Djioleu Dec 2012

Design Of A Pretreatment And Enzymatic Saccharification Scheme Of Understory From Managed Pine Forest For A Biochemical-Refinery Platform: The Example Of The Sweetgum Tree, Angele Djioleu

Theses and Dissertations

The possibility of using sweetgum from southern pine dominated forests as a biobased refinery feedstock was investigated. First, a baseline hydrolysis scheme for sweetgum wood and bark was designed. Sweetgum wood and bark were pretreated with 0.98% (v/v) sulfuric acid at 140°C for 30, 40, 50, 60 or 70 min and at 160°C for 30, 40, 50 or 60 min. The water insoluble solid (WIS) fraction was hydrolyzed with a cellulase enzyme cocktail. Results showed that maximum xylose and glucose yields from the wood were 82 and 86%, respectively. Similarly, the respective maximum yields of xylose ...


A Watershed Scale Evaluation Of Selected Second Generation Biofeedstocks On Water Quality, Gurdeep Singh Dec 2012

A Watershed Scale Evaluation Of Selected Second Generation Biofeedstocks On Water Quality, Gurdeep Singh

Theses and Dissertations

This study compares a novel simulation approach to the conventional Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) modeler's approach for targeting biofuel crop production on marginal lands. In conventional SWAT modeling approach, non-spatial definition of hydrological response units (HRUs) results in the simulation of biofuel crops on both marginal and non-marginal land. This study provides an alternative approach in which a marginal-land raster was integrated into the land use and land cover (LULC) raster in such a way that the land uses were divided into marginal and non-marginal components. This modified LULC was used for model setup which resulted in ...


Computer Modeling And Signal Analysis Of Cardiovascular Physiology, Henian Xia Dec 2012

Computer Modeling And Signal Analysis Of Cardiovascular Physiology, Henian Xia

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation aims to study cardiovascular physiology from the cellular level to the whole heart level to the body level using numerical approaches.

A mathematical model was developed to describe electromechanical interaction in the heart. The model integrates cardio-electrophysiology and cardiac mechanics through excitation-induced contraction and deformation-induced currents. A finite element based parallel simulation scheme was developed to investigate coupled electrical and mechanical functions. The developed model and numerical scheme were utilized to study cardiovascular dynamics at cellular, tissue and organ levels. The influence of ion channel blockade on cardiac alternans was investigated. It was found that the channel blocker ...


The Effects Of Low Dose Ionizing Radiation Exposure On The Metabolic And Mechanical Properties Of Articular Cartilage, Carl Lindburg Dec 2012

The Effects Of Low Dose Ionizing Radiation Exposure On The Metabolic And Mechanical Properties Of Articular Cartilage, Carl Lindburg

All Theses

Radiation therapy is necessary treatment for many cancer patients due to its non-surgical, yet aggressive and efficacious properties. In fact, over 50% of patients with cancer will undergo some form of radiotherapy during the course of their treatment. While the biological response to ionizing radiation has been examined over the years and many adverse effects have been identified, the effects of radiation on mature cartilage and musculoskeletal tissues are not well understood. Bone, once thought to be a tissue relatively resistant to radiation, has recently been shown to have osteoporosis-like bone atrophy after exposure to low doses (2 Gy) of ...


Development And Quantitative Assessment Of A Beam Hardening Correction Model For Preclinical Micro-Ct, Sucheta Mohapatra Dec 2012

Development And Quantitative Assessment Of A Beam Hardening Correction Model For Preclinical Micro-Ct, Sucheta Mohapatra

Theses and Dissertations

The phenomenon of x-ray beam hardening (BH) has significant impact on preclinical micro-CT imaging systems. The causal factors are the polyenergetic nature of x-ray beam used for imaging and the energy dependence of linear attenuation coefficient of the imaged material. With increase in length of propagation of beam in the imaged object, lower energy photons in the projected beam become preferentially absorbed. The beam "hardens" (as average energy increases) and progressively becomes more penetrating, causing underestimation of the attenuation coefficient. When this phenomenon is not accounted for during CT reconstruction, it results in images with nonuniform CT number values across ...


Hemodynamics And Natural History Outcome In Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms, Rohini Retarekar Dec 2012

Hemodynamics And Natural History Outcome In Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms, Rohini Retarekar

Theses and Dissertations

There is increasing interest in assessing the role of hemodynamics in aneurysm growth and rupture mechanism. Identification of the indicators of rupture risk can prove very valuable in the clinical management of patients. If rupture risk of aneurysms can be predicted, immediate preemptive treatments can be done for the high risk patients whereas others can avoid the risky intervention. Retrospective studies have been performed in the past to filter out indices that differentiate ruptured aneurysms from unruptured aneurysms. However, these differences may not necessarily translate to differences between aneurysms that present unruptured but fork towards growth/rupture and unruptured aneurysms ...


Modeling Of The Radial Compressive Properties Of An Aortic Stent Graft, Chaid Daniel Schwarz Dec 2012

Modeling Of The Radial Compressive Properties Of An Aortic Stent Graft, Chaid Daniel Schwarz

Theses and Dissertations

Abdominal aortic aneurysms are a focal dilation of the aorta which can be potentially life threatening if left untreated. Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is a noninvasive treatment that can reduce the mortality rate when compared to the standard open repair. Yet, EVAR is associated with other complications that can arise such as migration, endoleaks, or device related failures. These complications drive the need for reinterventions which have been shown to occur more frequently with EVAR than with open repair. The long term fixation and sealing characteristics of these devices is likely related to the nature of its apposition to the ...


Development And Demonstration Of An Automated Method For Deriving Novel Morphometric Indices Of Cerebral Aneurysms, Benjamin Micah Berkowitz Dec 2012

Development And Demonstration Of An Automated Method For Deriving Novel Morphometric Indices Of Cerebral Aneurysms, Benjamin Micah Berkowitz

Theses and Dissertations

Cerebral aneurysm rupture is a major cause of death and permanent disability. Rupture rate, however, is low; therefore, a physician must weigh the risk of rupture against treatment risk. In order to help physicians determine the rupture risk of any particular case, studies have previously explored morphology as an indicator for mechanical and hemodynamic characteristics of rupture-prone aneurysms. Morphological characteristics of the aneurysms in these studies are often quantified with morphometric indices, or normalized measures of specific geometric traits. This study introduces several novel morphometric indices. These include tissue stretch ratio, which characterizes the amount of deformation which aneurysm tissue ...


Non-Invasive Stem Cell Tracking Using Novel Nanomaterials : In Vitro And Ex Vivo Studies, Sean Kenneth Sweeney Dec 2012

Non-Invasive Stem Cell Tracking Using Novel Nanomaterials : In Vitro And Ex Vivo Studies, Sean Kenneth Sweeney

Theses and Dissertations

As research and clinical use of stem cell therapies progresses, it is becoming more evident that being able to visualize the stem cell transplant in vivo is of great benefit to the researcher or clinician. As a result, researchers are working to address this need. Our lab is collaborating to develop novel, multimodal nanomaterials, one with a core of mesoporous silica, and the other with a core of gadolinium oxide. Varying modifications have been made as needs arose. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were isolated from bone marrow aspirates and confirmed to be positive for STRO-1, a common MSC marker ...


Bioswellable Amphiphilic Copolymers, David Ingram Dec 2012

Bioswellable Amphiphilic Copolymers, David Ingram

All Theses

The suture is one of the most commonly used medical devices, consisting of a fiber, a surgical needle and the packaging in which it is stored. The fiber itself remains after implantation for a defined time and is responsible for the approximation of the wound during the healing process. The needle merely serves to aid in insertion, and preferably has a diameter larger than the diameter of the fiber .
The 1970's marked the birth of a new family of fibrous materials for the approximation of wounds: synthetic absorbable sutures. This family has the ability to provide wound support during ...


Handitrike - Recumbent Tricycle, Sean Higginson, Kevin Howie, Vinay Patel Dec 2012

Handitrike - Recumbent Tricycle, Sean Higginson, Kevin Howie, Vinay Patel

Mechanical Engineering

This report covers the design and construction of the recumbent racing tricycle for Mr. Robert T. Kelly, a disabled veteran. Unfortunately Rob’s right leg is five inches shorter than his left one and therefore is unable to properly operate standard cranks. Our team HandiTrike is composed of Sean Higginson, Kevin Howie, and Vinay Patel and our project requires us to come up with a design that is feasible to complete within the given three quarters, as well as allow Rob to gain full use of his tricycle. Currently Rob ‘s trike uses the standard crank set up found on ...


Develop Novel Frap Techniques For Determining Anisotropic Solute Diffusion In Cartilaginous Tissues, Changcheng Shi Dec 2012

Develop Novel Frap Techniques For Determining Anisotropic Solute Diffusion In Cartilaginous Tissues, Changcheng Shi

All Dissertations

Cartilaginous tissue is a connective tissue composed of specialized cells (e.g., chondrocytes and fibroblasts) that produce a large amount of extracellular matrix (ECM), which is comprised mostly of collagen fibers, abundant ground substance rich in proteoglycan, and elastic fibers. It is characterized by its avascular structures within the tissue, implying that nutrition for normal tissue cells, for maintaining a healthy ECM, is mainly supplied through diffusion from nearby vascularized tissues and synovial fluid. Poor nutritional supply to the cartilaginous tissue is believed to be an important factor leading to tissue degeneration. Moreover, due to the complex collagen fiber structures ...